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Royal Navy Lion Class Battleship series 1938-1945

Tzoli

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The Royal Navy's second 16" armed battleships history was a long and bumpy road of large number of designs and the inability on the Admiralty's side to actually start and continue it's work on them or choose a design to produce.
First I present the 1938 designs:
Design 14A-38


This is the first actual sketch design which led to the Lion class Battleships. Created in late 1937 the earlier proposals were mostly only studies and I could not find data about them except 5 variants considered after KGV: 3x4 14", 3x3 15" and 4x2, 2x3 or 3x3 16" but serious calculations and drawings appeared only from the 2nd half of 1937 and early 1938.
The first designs are strictly modified KGV's to abide the 2nd LNT so on around 35.000tons standard displacement which partly a result to finish the last 3 King George V class battleships to a modified design (3 quad 14" was preferred for them) but eventually evolved into the long postponed and cancelled Lion class battleships.
This particular design is a quad armed 14" gun version of the King George V class, but to remain within the standards of the previous class's tonnage the sacrifice of all aircraft arrangements as well as a pair of 5,25" turrets was necessary to provide enough tonnage for a 3rd quad 14" turret with slightly reduced armour thicknesses on the hull.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 213,4m(pp), 225,56m(wl), 227,1m (oa) x 31,4m x 9,3m (same as KGV)
Displacement: 35.450tons (Standard), 41.300tons (full load)
Engines: 120.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 53km/h (28knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 348mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x4 14"/45 (356mm/45) BL Mk VII Cannons,
6x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
4x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
4x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
3x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinders
4x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Design 16A-38


Roughly at the same time the 3 quad 14" armed design was sketched up and worked, a similar design too was proposed but with new triple 16" gun turrets (the 16" armed KGV preliminaries of 1935 would had used the same guns as Nelson's 16") squeezed in the same hull and on a very similar tonnage. To remain in the 35.000tons limit of the 2nd LNT, for standard displacement less ammo was calculated which saved precious tons (there was enough space for a full set of ammo) and similarly to the 14A-37 variant, aircraft facilities and one pair of 5,25 DP-AA gun turrets had to be sacrificed.

The designs had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 213,4m(pp), 225,56m(wl), 227,1m (oa) x 31,4m x 9,3m (same as KGV)
Displacement: 35.540tons (Standard), 41.400tons (full load)
Engines: 110.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 52km/h (28knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 348mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk II Cannons,
6x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
4x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
4x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
3x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinders
4x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts


Design 16B-38



While the designs 14A-37 and 16A-38 was born in late 1937 and late 1937 early 1938 respectively, Design 16B-38 was an early 1938 design, a slight modification of the A version having stated KGV style turbines (with sources differ about increased speed by a knot or not) and 100tons heavier implying a larger engine output. Visually no different then the A-37 version, but I've re arranged the AA armament to make it look somewhat different.

The designs had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 213,4m(pp), 225,56m(wl), 227,1m (oa) x 31,4m x 9,3m (same as KGV)
Displacement: 35.640tons (Standard), 41.500tons (full load)
Engines: 120.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 53km/h (28,5-28,75knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 348mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk II Cannons,
6x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
4x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
4x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
3x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinders
4x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Design 16C-38


After the 3 designs of the post KGV battleships produced DNC (Director of Naval Constructions) asked to whatever to possible to mount catapults and 2 aircraft on these designs.
Calculations shown that all the aft 5,25" DP-AA guns had to be sacrificed and standard ammo coverage reduced to save enough tonnage to mount the necessary equipment for aircraft handling. What is also unique in the design that the hangers to be located in the after superstructure rather in the middle one (Actually the King George V class battleships had 3 superstructures: The forward one containing the bridge, separated by a short passage from the middle one originally held the hangers and first funnel, and the aft one containing the 2nd funnel and boat storage spaces). The design was not satisfactory enough as it was quite crowded and many of the boats were prone to blast damage from the aft 3rd 16" gun turret when firing! Also the reduced number of Dual Purpose turrets meant reduced long range AA as well as anti destroyer fighting capabilities, especially in night battle. Controller thought if an extra 160tons could be saved somehow (Most likely by altering the protective deck scheme by lowering the armour deck) a pair of 5,25 turrets could be restored, this alternative version would mount all such turrets forward with 2nd superfiring over the other two, but this not only group all secondary guns close to each other and thus danger them to being disable by a single hit but because they had to be moved more forward that the blast of the 2nd triple 16" gun turret would seriously damage the 1st 5,25" mounting!

The designs had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 213,4m(pp), 225,56m(wl), 227,1m (oa) x 31,4m x 9,3m (same as KGV)
Displacement: 35.500tons (Standard), 41.350tons (full load)
Engines: 110.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 52km/h (28knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 348mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk II Cannons,
4x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
4x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns.
2x Floatplanes (I've chosen Supermarine Sea Otter)

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
4x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
3x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinders
5x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Design 16D-38


After the previous series was done the Admirality discussed them, the lowered deck armour level as well as the diamond arrangement of he pom-pom AA guns was discarded, also the eventual lifting of the 35.000ton treaty limited invoked by the retire of the Japanese, caused the escalator cause to be fully applied. Resulting in larger warship designs and soon led to the final Lion class battleship design. At first the RN wanted to stay at 40.000tons to keep cost down but soon realised that a balanced 16" armed battleship was better achieved on 45.000tons standard displacement.
This D variant was faster 30knot version of the previous series with all the aircraft, catapult and DP-AA guns retained which together with the increased speed meant a much larger warship as well.
Later a further enlarged version with 4 turrets are proposed designated 16E-38 featuring an even larger hull but a well balanced ship.

The designs had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 250m(wl) x 32,31m x 10,16m
Displacement: 42.500tons (Standard), 48.400tons (full load)
Engines: 150.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 57km/h (30knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 348mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk II Cannons,
8x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
4x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns.
2-4x Floatplanes (I've chosen Supermarine Sea Otter)

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
4x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
3x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinders
5x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Design 16E-38


While the previous version was a faster ship taking into account the extra displacement allowed by the escalator clause of the 2nd London Naval Treaty after Japan left it, the E variant was introduced a 4th triple turret increasing the firepower of the design by 25%! Armour remained the same with the same hull form introduced in the D version which helped maintain speed despite the increased displacement. even so the the extra tonnage brought by the 4th turret as well the longer armour belt meant a slower warship altogether, still the admiralty preferred this design for obvious reasons!
In the end it is essentially a British Montana and altogether the 2nd such design of the Royal Navy to mount 12x 16" cannons (the first one was a modified N3 design with 4x3 16" rather 3x3 18" similar in layout to the M2 design both from the 1920's)

The designs had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 259,08m(wl) x 33,53m x 10,72m
Displacement: 48.500tons (Standard), 55.000tons (full load)
Engines: 120.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 48-50km/h (26-27knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 348mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
4x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk II Cannons,
8x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
4x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns.
2-4x Floatplanes (I've chosen Supermarine Sea Otter)

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
4x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
3x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinders
4x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Design 14B-38


The 14B variant was the logical step of the 14" armed battleship of the Royal Navy after the lifting of the 35.000tons displacement limit of the 2nd London Naval Treaty.
Based on the same hull as the 16D-38 design, this was (to my knowledge) the last 14" armed battleship study of the Royal navy and basically, if you will, can think of as a super King George V class, with improved armament and splinter protection together with a better speed more suited for the Royal Navy, basically as how the KGV should had been built from the first place!
I've chosen more of a Lion stlye superstructure look as well as 40mm Pom-Pom arrangement because this design was created around the same time the final Lion class layout approved.

The designs had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 250m(wl) x 32,31m x 10,16m
Displacement: 42.750tons (Standard), 48.500tons (full load)
Engines: 150.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 56-57km/h (30knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 348mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x4 14"/45 (356mm/45) BL Mk VII Cannons,
8x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
6x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns.
2-4x Floatplanes (I've chosen Supermarine Sea Otter)

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
4x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
4x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinders
4x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Design 16G-38

The G version is the last among the 30knotter of Lion pre variants with the same engine as the previous 14B-38 and 16D-38, but what is unique in this design that aircraft facilities was sacrificed for a rather questionable weapon for a battleship:
two quadruple 21" torpedo launchers!
Luckily the final 1938 Lion design discarded this option, on the other hand the idea returned in 1944/45 with the last Lion variants of the RN.

Sources (The two books which actually contains dimensions data as I have no chance of getting to the Brass foundry at Kew in the United Kingdom...) differ about the dimension of this design so I choose the same hull as the 14B-38 and 16D-38

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: sources differ: either 240,79 (pp) 250m(wl) or 259,18m (wl) x 32,31m x 9,45m
Displacement: 43.000tons (Standard), 49.000tons (full load)
Engines: 150.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 57km/h (30knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 348mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk II Cannons,
8x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
6x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns,
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns,
2x4 21" (533mm) Torpedo Tubes.

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
6x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
3x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinders
4x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Design 16F-38


Together with the G variant, the F version too was considered as the final contender for the Lion class battleships to be laid down. While G was faster the sacrifice of the aircraft facilities and the inclusion of the torpedo tubes, was not considered good enough for the increased displacement and hence cost of the design.
The F version was a smaller and slower variant with only 6 twin 5,25" DP-AA guns but fully restored aircraft facilities. DNC finally choose this design but wanted to include the full DP-AA suite and thus a soon a modified version was created with increased powerplant, slightly larger hull and full DP-AA suite including an uniform belt armour.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 222,5 (pp) 234,7m(wl) x 32m x 9,98m
Displacement: 39.500tons (Standard), 45.200tons (full load)
Engines: 120.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 52km/h (28knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 348mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk II Cannons,
6x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
6x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns,
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns,
2-4x Floatplanes (I've chosen Supermarine Sea Otter)

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
6x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
2x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinder
5x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Design 16F-38 Modified


Soon after the F and G versions offered to the DNC, they decided that the F version was overall better and choose to further develop it.
Controller asked what would it cost to reinstall the full DP-AA suite, increase the standard ammo storage from 60 to 80 for the main guns, and the increase of the amidships belt armour to a uniform 374mm, and increase Barbette armour to 15" from 13"
The barbette armour increase and the extra ammo costed 500tons, the further 2 DP-AA guns another 500tons. with a slight increase in length allowed the same speed to be retained.
Though detailed design work meant that the increase is less then expected but the extra belt armour added more and thus engine power had to be increased slightly to 130.000shp, resulting in a slight increase in speed as well.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 225,55 (pp) 237,74m(wl), 239,3m (oa) x 32m x 10,16m
Displacement: 40.500tons (Standard)
Engines: 130.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 55-56km/h (30knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 374mm over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk II Cannons,
8x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
6x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns,
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns,
2-4x Floatplanes (I've chosen Supermarine Sea Otter)

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
6x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
2x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinder
5x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Final Design 1938/39


This is the final design of the Lion class Battleships, a modified version of the previous one with rearranging the aft main gun and secondary gun directors and rangefinders with slight changes to the 40mm Pom-Pom placement as well. Otherwise this was how the Lions would had been finished if construction commenced during WW2.

The designs had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 225,55 (pp) 237,74m(wl), 239,3m (oa) x 32m x 10,16m
Displacement: 40.750tons (Standard), 46.000tons (full load)
Engines: 130.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 55-56km/h (30knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 374mm over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk II Cannons,
8x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
6x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns,
possible 2-4-8x4 12,7mm MG Mk III AA Guns,
2-4x Floatplanes (I've chosen Supermarine Sea Otter)

Sensor suite:
1x Type 79 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
6x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
2x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinder
5x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts
 

Tzoli

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Following with the the 1940-42 designs which incorporate some of the war lessons and experience gained with the deployment of the King George V class Battleships.

Design 16H-40


This is the first major re-design of the Lion class Battleships ordered in 1938 and laid down in 1938/39:
Early war modifications while rather limited, still led to the first major alteration on the Lion class Battleships design.
In August 1940 DNC pointed out that war additions had increased the displacement of the ships by an estimated 800 tons rising it to 47.000 tons resulting in a 6 inch increase of deep draught to 34 feet. This was the maximum limiting facto for the Suez Canal and further increases surely to happen and the Board quickly decided that 34 feet draught was unacceptable. This led to a proposal of an increased beam by 3 feet, reducing the armour thickness abreast the machinery spaces and barbettes, which together with the previous increases and widened hull allowed the reduction of draught. This was accepted by 19th of September with the Board approving the following changes:
- Beam increased from 105 to 108 feet (32 to 32,92 meters)
- Belt armour reduction abreast machinery by1 inch from 14,71inch to 13,73inch (from 375 to 349mm)
- Maximum barbette armour reduction by1 inch from 14,71inch to 13,73inch (from 375 to 349mm)
- 1,5 inch (38mm) splinted belt protection added at the ends of the citadel between the lower and middle decks.
- 1 inch (25,4mm) transverse splinter bulkheads added fore and aft between the lower and middle decks
- Increased sheer to forecastle and 15° rake to stem (basically Vanguard-ish look) following experience in King George V with wetness forward and removing the restriction of firing the main guns forward at 0° elevation
- Additional splinter protection for the 5,25" mountings and Director Control Towers (Hence I've chosen the Vanguard style secondary turrets)
- Protected Conning position added aft.
Another changes included the replacement of two out of 8 turbo-generators with 400kW diesel generators to avoid a complete loss of electrical power. Light 300tons increase in fuel oil storage. All these changes slightly reduced the maximum speed by a knot.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 225,55 (pp) 237,74m(wl), 241,71m (oa) x 32.92 x 10,16m
Displacement: 42.200tons (Standard), 48.500tons (full load)
Engines: 130.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 26.000km at 18-19km/h (14000nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 349mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk III Cannons,
8x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
6x8 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns,
possible 2-4-8x2 20mm Oerlikon AA Guns,
2-4x Floatplanes (I've chosen Supermarine Sea Otter)

Sensor suite:
1x Type 273 Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
1x Type 279 Air-search Radar on the aft mast
2x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
6x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
2x Type 284 Fire-control Radar on the main armament director/rangefinder
5x Type 285 Fire-control Radar sets one for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
2x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the masts

Design 16I-42


Not long after the first modification plan drew up, in late 1941 early 1942 another set of changes were made to the Lion class Battleships (now reduced to 2 units) incorporating the newest war experiences as well as further data on the King George V class battleships utilisation and also some known weaknesses of the design.
Adjustments were made to increase range, sustained maximum speed, splinter and underwater protection and of course AA armament. Further changes include the redesigned nose aka increased freeboard similar to the 16H-40 design and of the HMS Vanguard currently under design phase at that time. These changes resulted in considerably different looking warship while still using the same hull of the base 1938 design series, but a more Vanguard'ish superstructure and upper deck works, with it's more numerous AA guns and better firing positions for such mounts. Also the removal of all the aircraft facilities freed up precious space for crew quarters and especially for the ships boat storage, resulting much better concentration of the AA guns.

Hence I've choose a slightly modified Vanguard superstructure with minor alterations reminiscent of the Lion class battleships as well as the use of it's different looking 5,25 twin DP-AA gun turrets. By the time these ships had been finished the standard AA layout most likely be the single, twin and sextuple 40mm/56 Bofors AA guns but Vanguard too was designed with octuple and quad 40mm/39 Pom-Poms in mind.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 225,55 (pp) 237,74m(wl), 241,71m (oa) x 32.92 x 10,16m
Displacement: 42.550tons (Standard), 48.415tons (full load)
Engines: 130.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 52km/h (28knots)
Range: 30.600km at 18-19km/h (16.500nm at 10knots)
Armour: 124mm, Deck over machinery and 149mm over magazines, 349mm Belt over machinery and 374mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk III Cannons,
8x2 5,25"/50 (133mm/50) QF Mk I DP-AA Guns,
8x8,1x4 (or 9x8) 40mm/39 Pom-Pom AA Guns,
multiple 20mm Oerlikon AA Guns

Sensor suite:
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
8x Type 275 Fire-control Radar two for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277 Surface-air search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 279 Air-search Radar on the masts tops
1x Type 281 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
9x Type 282 Fire-control Radar sets one for each Pom-Pom director
1x Type 290 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the top of the mainmast
 

Tzoli

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With the 3rd part I present the 1944 series of Lion designs:

1944 Version 1


At the later stages of the war, the Admiralty returned to the idea of maintaining a post war fleet containing 12 modern battleships with significant numbers, but the Royal Navy only had the 4 modern KGV's the Vanguard then under construction the 4 modernised Queen Elizabeths out of which the Warspite as badly damaged and the 2 Nelsons which were still counted because of their high firepower. This was 9 ships with 1 under construction meaning the RN required 2 more ships and only the Lion design was still available to be built, but that was originally an 1938 design with some modifications adopted as the war progressed, but it was essentially still a pre-war design and clearly obsolete thus a fresh new design was required.

This requirement emerged in February 1944 version of the Lion class battleships:
Improved armour scheme to better protect against splinters and bombs, especially large bombs,
Better underwater protection system envisioned as a liquid-liquid-air system,
Belt armour was changed to save some weight so 15" over Magazines and 14" over Machinery
New 16" Mark IV cannon designed for the Mk III turret improving firing rate
The new standard AA weaponry chosen as the 4,5" QF Mk V designed for the Daring class destroyers, in 12 twin turrets
The chosen medium and light AA was 10x sextuple 40mm Bofors and 20x twin and single 20mm Oerlikon guns
Increased maximum range and increased range with higher, 20 to 25knots sustained cruising speeds
Increased speed in six months out of the dock "deep and dirty" and in Tropical conditions.
Allocation of two quintuple 21in torpedo tubes (reasons not clear, might be due to the very long range the Japanese ware able to achieve with their "Long Lance" torpedoes, and also the advent of Passive Acoustic Homing systems)

Based on the last requirement for increased speed in Tropical conditions, four hull variants were proposed:
5.500nm with 28knots max speed, 26,75knots six months out of dock
6.000nm with 28knots max speed, 26,75knots six months out of dock
6.000nm with 31,5knots max speed, 28knots six months out of dock
6.000nm with 33,5knots max speed, 30knots six months out of dock
These requirements resulted in very large designs, and only the first hull was in the reality of acceptance for the Admirality which required a maximum of 45-50.000tons dispalcement and hull size of 840ft (overall) x 118ft, set by British docks.
These first drafts had increased deck armour to 7inch to provide better protection against bombs, but belt armour was reduced to 10inches to try to minimalize weight increase. The proposals were materialised by by 1944 October, but at this time DNC thought
it is unlikely that the ships could be laid down before June 1946.

These first drafts later were used as a basis for the 1945 designs with constant modifications and alterations to try to create an affordable ship to build post war.

This drawing shows the first of these hulls.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 253m(wl) x 36.57 x 10,97m
Displacement: 50.400tons (Standard), 60.700tons (full load)
Engines: 130.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 52km/h (28knots)
Range: 10.200km at 37km/h (5.500nm at 20knots)
Armour: 178mm, Deck over machinery and magazines, 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6,40mm/56 OQF Mk IX AA Guns,
20x2, 20x1 20mm Oerlikon AA Guns,
2x5 533mm Torpedo Tubes

Sensor suite:
10x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
8x Type 275 Fire-control Radar two for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 279 Air-search Radar on the masts tops
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the top of the mainmast
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast

Data table:


1944 Version 2


This drawing shows the 2nd hull variant of the 1944 design, essentially a lengthened Version 1 with 500nm more range but the larger hull required larger engines because of the extra displacement it bought.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 263,65m(wl) x 36.57 x 10,97m
Displacement: 52.800tons (Standard), 64.500tons (full load)
Engines: 160.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines
Speed: 52km/h (28knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 178mm, Deck over machinery and magazines, 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6,40mm/56 OQF Mk IX AA Guns,
20x2, 20x1 20mm Oerlikon AA Guns,
2x5 533mm Torpedo Tubes

Sensor suite:
10x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
8x Type 275 Fire-control Radar two for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 279 Air-search Radar on the masts tops
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the top of the mainmast
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast

Data table:


1944 Version 3


This drawing shows the 3rd hull variant of the 1944 design, here the designers leapt into the giant size to achieve the desired 31,5knots maximum speed. Much longer and larger hull together with a considerable increase in engine power while everything remained the same.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 272,8m(wl) x 37.8 x 10,51m
Displacement: 52.800tons (Standard), 64.500tons (full load)
Engines: 235.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 58km/h (31,5knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 178mm, Deck over machinery and magazines, 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6,40mm/56 OQF Mk IX AA Guns,
20x2, 20x1 20mm Oerlikon AA Guns,
2x5 533mm Torpedo Tubes

Sensor suite:
10x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
8x Type 275 Fire-control Radar two for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 279 Air-search Radar on the masts tops
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the top of the mainmast
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast

Data table:


1944 Version 4


The 4th variant of the 1944 series of battleship studies and among them the largest (and probably among all the battleships the Royal Navy ever designed) one with great engine power to achieve the desired very high speed of 33,5knots.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 283,46m(wl) x 39m x 11,28m
Displacement: 62.700tons (Standard), 76.200tons (full load)
Engines: 320.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 6 shafts
Speed: 62km/h (33,5knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 178mm, Deck over machinery and magazines, 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6,40mm/56 OQF Mk IX AA Guns,
20x2, 20x1 20mm Oerlikon AA Guns,
2x5 533mm Torpedo Tubes

Sensor suite:
10x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
8x Type 275 Fire-control Radar two for each secondary armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the mainmast above the forward secondary director
2x Type 279 Air-search Radar on the masts tops
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the top of the mainmast
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast

Data table:
 
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Tzoli

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Design 1945 A


You maybe thought that 62.700tons displacement and 283,5m waterline length was a beast of battleship for the Royal Navy.
Now get amazed by the Royal Navy's inability to design a normal sized battleship at the end of the war this was a result of requirements of protection against heavy torpedoes and large bombs. While tonnage wise it's not as large as the last 1944 version, it's pure length of more then 300meters or 1.000feet made up for it. The drop of required speed of only 29knots or 54km/h meant a much smaller and cost efficient power plant installation in the hull with it's good length to beam ration allowed this speed to be achieved much more easier, but on the other hand armour scheme was returned to the thicker belt and slightly thinner deck reminiscent of earlier Lion versions.
While the original description states an additional 20 twin and 20 single Oerlikon AA guns apart the standard 10x6 40mm Bofors guns I rather put extra twin STAAG and single Bofors guns because after the war the Oerlikon guns got removed from the warships due to their lack of penetrating power of fast targets (like kamikazes) and their large manpower requirement.

The designers at DNC attributed the enormous size of the ship to better underwater side protection against 1200lb / 545kb TNT, and defence against the Uncle Tom sized rocket weapons (1060lb / 480kg and 11,5in / 298mm rocket) higher cruising speed of 20knots (rather 10knots of prewar standard), greater endurance for this increased speed, greater freeboard and a wide range of detailed additions.

The designs had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 289,56m(pp), 304,8(wl) x 36,57m x 10,67m
Displacement: 59.400tons (Standard), 69.500tons (full load)
Engines: 160.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 330mm Belt over machinery and 381mm over magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6,40mm/56 OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 10x1 Mk VII AA Guns,
2x5 533mm Torpedo Tubes

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:

Design 1945 A1


This version was the first attempt to reduce the size of the giant baseline A design.
The designers achieved this by reducing the side armour to 10" mean (Whatever that means actually) and shortening the hull by 30 meters. This allowed the displacement to shrink by 4.000tons and accordingly the powerplant's size too was slightly reduced, housing 153.000 rather 160.000shp turbines and boilers, otherwise everything remained the same. The Admiralty as expected still considered this a large and unacceptable ship hence constantly requesting a design with smaller then 50.000tons displacement.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 277,37(wl) x 36,57m x 10,67m
Displacement: 55.450tons (Standard), 65.000tons (full load)
Engines: 153.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6,40mm/56 OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 10x1 Mk VII AA Guns,
2x5 533mm Torpedo Tubes

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:

Design 1945 A2


Visually almost not different from the previous A1 design, but to further reduce displacement DNC shortened the hull by mere 3 meters and made it less beamier which resulted in a slightly smaller engine power requirement but the design was still unacceptable for the Admirality hence the following two designs A3 and A4 resulted in a reduced main armament and secondary armament loadout

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 274,32(wl) x 35,36m x 10,67m
Displacement: 54.160tons (Standard), 63.500tons (full load)
Engines: 151.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6,40mm/56 OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 10x1 Mk VII AA Guns,
2x5 533mm Torpedo Tubes

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:

Design 1945 A3


To further cut down size, displacement and thus cost, DNC proposed a reduced armed version with only two main turrets and 8 twin secodnary turrets, which allowed the displacement to go below the required 50.000tons. Like how A2 too had a reduced underwater protection system to further cut down size and displacement the same thing was applied to the A3 design as well which now looks like a slightly modified and upgunned Vanguard.
Such weight savings and size reduction allowed a much smaller 139.000shp power plant to be installed to produce the required speed

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 243,84(wl) x 36,57m x 10,21m
Displacement: 46.800tons (Standard), 54.700tons (full load)
Engines: 139.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 330mm Belt over machinery and 381mm over magazines.
Armaments:
2x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
8x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6,40mm/56 OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 4x1 Mk VII AA Guns

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
4x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 A4


While Design A3 was a reduced armed version of A1 (Armour remained the same but hull size and armament got reduced), the same way this A4 design was the reduced armed version of A2. Such reductions allowed the displacement to be further reduced as requested by DNC.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 237,74(wl) x 35,36m x 9,9m
Displacement: 43.600tons (Standard), 50.960tons (full load)
Engines: 134.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
2x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
8x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6,40mm/56 OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 4x1 Mk VII AA Guns

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
4x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:

Design 1945 B


While the A series were mostly designs for the DNC base requirements the B versions were more detailed in most aspects. Also it was described that the basline B variant was an updated 1938 Lion Design with all the war experience included and the necessary numbers adjusted for 1945 standards. None the less this was still a big proposal but was a good start for the Royal Navy to finalise it's 1945 Lion design.
The baseline B version visually does not really differs from the A variant but the changes are:
Slightly shorter hull, lower freeboard, omitting the torpedo tubes constant thickness belt armour and slightly smaller engine.
The requirements for AA armaments were as follows:
12x2 4,5"
10x6,4x2 40mm Bofors
20x2,20x1 20mm Oerlikons.
Later papers in the Admiralty board discuss the removal of the Oerlikon guns for more 40mm Boforses which I applies here as well as to make the design more different then the A version.
Also note the underwater defence against 1200lb or 544kg of explosives which makes the design such large.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 292,61(wl) x 36,57m x 10,67m
Displacement: 59.100tons (Standard), 69.140tons (full load)
Engines: 156.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 356mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
11x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 18x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
19x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 B1


The B1 version is the first sub-variant of the baseline B design. Almost in every aspect it is the same proposal but here the underwater defence was reduced to protect against only 1.000lbs or 454kg of explosives rather the 1.200 of the B design.
Accordingly the overall beam of the ship was reduced by 1,2 meters which in effect slightly lowered the displacement and the required engine power to propel it! Still the design is way to big for the Admiralty...

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 292,61(wl) x 35,36m x 10,67m
Displacement: 58.380tons (Standard), 68.280tons (full load)
Engines: 154.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 356mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
11x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 18x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns,

Sensor suite:
19x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:

Design 1945 B2


Design B2 is in most aspect the baseline B version, but weight reduction achieved by reducing belt armour thickness to mean 10" (probably 11" Magazines and 9" Machinery) and somewhat reducing the ship's length likewise engine power too was somewhat lowered.
Otherwise the same design so increased freeboard and underwater defence against 1200lb or 544kg of explosives.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 283,46(wl) x 36,57m x 10,67m
Displacement: 59.100tons (Standard), 69.140tons (full load)
Engines: 153.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, mean 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines (probably 229-279mm).
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
11x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 18x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
19x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 B3


While how the B2 version was a modified baseline B variant, the same way the B3 was a modified B1:
The same changes applied:
- Reduced belt armour thickness to 10" (probably 11" Magazines and 9" Machinery)
- Reduced ship length
- Smaller Powerplant
Otherwise the same design so increased freeboard and underwater defence against 1.000lbs or 454kg of explosives.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 283,46(wl) x 35,36m x 10,67m
Displacement: 55.540tons (Standard), 65.280tons (full load)
Engines: 152.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, mean 256mm Belt over machinery and magazines (probably 229-279mm).
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
11x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 18x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
19x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 B4


Like how the A3 version was a reduced armament of the baseline A variant, the B4 similarly the reduced armed version of the baseline B version.
But there are some changes compared to her A variant sister. Only the main armament got reduced to two triple turrets, all secondary gun turrets remained, but the high freeboard was much reduced.
As a consequence of reduced main armament the protected citadel became smaller which followed the reduction of the overall length of the ship and the required engine power to propel it.
Otherwise all other stats remains the same:
- Belt armour thickness of mean 14" (probably 15" Magazines and 13" Machinery)
- Underwater defence against 1.200lbs or 544kg of explosives.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 246,89(wl) x 36,57m x 10,67m
Displacement: 47.970tons (Standard), 56.910tons (full load)
Engines: 153.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, mean 356mm Belt over machinery and magazines (probably 330-381mm).
Armaments:
2x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
11x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 12x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
19x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 B5


The B5 variant is as previously seen the 1.000lb 454kg underwater defence version of the B4 design.
And thus because of the underwater defence system had to protect against a smaller charge or explosives the entire beam of the ship was reduced and in consequence the engine power required for it could make smaller as well.
Basically this design is the pair of B4 like the B1 and B3 to B and B2 respectively.
Again belt thickens was stated as mean 356mm which is likely meaning 330mm Machinery and 381mm Magazine protection.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 246,89(wl) x 35,36m x 10,67m
Displacement: 47.360tons (Standard), 56.230tons (full load)
Engines: 151.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 356mm Belt over machinery and magazines.
Armaments:
2x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
11x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 12x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
19x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 B6


Design B6 is basically the two turreted reduced length version of the B2 variant.
Including all the changes of that design like the mean 10" belt armour (probably 9" machinery 11" magazines) underwater defence against 1200lb or 544kg of explosives but it had the previous two designs: B4 and B5's reduced freeboard and thus the displacement could be drastically reduced. With these changes the waterline length of the ship could be reduced by an astonishing 40 meters!

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 243,84(wl) x 36,57m x 10,67m
Displacement: 46.120tons (Standard), 54.900tons (full load)
Engines: 149.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, mean 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines (probably 229-279mm).
Armaments:
2x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
11x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 10x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns,

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 B7


Design B7 is basically the two turreted reduced length version of the B3 variant, It was the same idea as behind Design B6 and B2.
Including all the changes of that design like the mean 10" belt armour (probably 9" machinery 11" magazines) underwater defence against 1000lb or 454kg of explosives but it had the previous two designs: B4 and B5's reduced freeboard and thus the displacement could be drastically reduced. With these changes the waterline length of the ship could be reduced by an astonishing 40 meters!
This was also the last of the B series of designs of the 1945 Lion proposals.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 243,84(wl) x 35,36m x 10,67m
Displacement: 45.450tons (Standard), 54.160tons (full load)
Engines: 147.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, mean 254mm Belt over machinery and magazines (probably 229-279mm).
Armaments:
2x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
11x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 10x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
19x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 C


Design C was described as a modified A where the displacement and ship length was reduced by reducing the length of the citadel itself and reducing the fuel storage if calculations was right for 6.000nm range on 20knots

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 274,32 (pp) 289,56(wl) x 36,57m x 10,67m
Displacement: 57.400tons (Standard), 67.000tons (full load)
Engines: 155.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 330mm Belt over machinery and 381mm over magazines (356mm mean thickness).
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 14x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 D


Design D incorporates the ideas of the C version and makes the citadel the shortest possible thus reducing length and displacement as a consequence.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 268,22 (pp) 281,94(wl) x 36,57m x 10,82m
Displacement: 56.450tons (Standard), 66.000tons (full load)
Engines: 154.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 330mm Belt over machinery and 381mm over magazines (356mm mean thickness).
Armaments:
3x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 14x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 X


The X series of Lion designs were a further cutback on costs and displacement by removing the underwater protection and thus defence was solely done by extensive compartmentalisation of the hull. To make the design in the range of economically possibility, armour too was drastically reduced to only 2" deck over magazines and 9" mean belt thickness (most likely 8" machinery and 10" magazines)

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 207,26 (pp) 219,45(wl) x 31,10m x 10,36m
Displacement: 35.800tons (Standard), 43.000tons (full load)
Engines: 120.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 203mm Belt over machinery and 256mm over magazines (229mm mean thickness).
Armaments:
2x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
8x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
9x6, OQF Mk IX, 6x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 8x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
15x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
4x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 X1


On X1 the designers wished to further reduce the citadel length by mounting all the turrets forward which did achieved but the superfiring turret forward required a beamier hull and extra length was required because of the machinery moved that much aft and the RN not favoured the boilers under the superstructure which would require a long trunk from the boilers to the funnel, in the end this ship became larger then the baseline X but while the all forward arrangement disliked by the members of DNC the following designs featured an all forward arrangement before the program was cancelled at the end of 1945.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 213,36 (pp) 225,55(wl) x 32,31m x 10,36m
Displacement: 39.950tons (Standard), 45.300tons (full load)
Engines: 125.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 203mm Belt over machinery and 256mm over magazines (229mm mean thickness).
Armaments:
2x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
9x6, OQF Mk IX, 7x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 14x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
16x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
1x Type 274 Fire-control Radar for the main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 X2


About the X2 design I've only found one mention of it in the official Lion papers, a few lines describing some weight saving lines and nothing else still there was a proposals by Vice Admiral Reginald Maxwell Servaes for a Lion to reduce it's displacement and hence cost.
His idea was to increase the speed to 30knots or 56km/h and using 3 twin turrets rather two triples with the hull width could be reduced, but the three barbettes actually made the ship longer, not to mention that the triple turret was under considerable development and a new twin turret would further delay the already delayed (7 years if we count the very first 1938 order) proposal.
Sadly there were no dimensions or displacement data so I tried to combine the other proposals.

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: unknown, I've used these: 240,25 (wl) x 31,2 x 10,36 m
Displacement: unknown probably around 45.000tons standard
Engines: unknown around 150.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 56km/h (30knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 381mm Belt over machinery and 330mm over magazines (356mm mean thickness).
Armaments:
3x2 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
9x6, OQF Mk IX, 7x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 10x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
16x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
2x Type 274 Fire-control Radar one for each main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:


Design 1945 X3a


One of the X3 versions originally proposed by Vice Admiral Reginald Maxwell Servaes. In this version he imagined the reduced cost by using a smaller calibre canon as the main weaponry but usage of quad turrets and the change from the current in development 16" cannon would produce a larger ship and a considerable delay. Interestingly, Not just the 16" Mark IV cannon was under development in 1945 but apparently a new 15" as well as can be seen in the linked admiralty pages describing:
"it has since been discovered that the design of new 15" gun is further advanced than was expected,..."
and showing penetration tables for it.
As for the design, belt armour was increased compared to the previous proposals but this came at the cost of considerable increased displacement approaching the 50.000ton limit of the RN set for new capital ships

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 256,03(wl) x 34,75m x 10,36m
Displacement: 47.250tons (Standard), 57.000tons (full load)
Engines: 142.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 318mm Belt over machinery and 292mm over magazines
Armaments:
2x4 15"/45 (381mm/45) BL Mk III Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 16x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
1x Type 274 Fire-control Radar for the main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast

Data table:

Data about the new 15" cannon:


Design 1945 X3b


Basically this last design is the 16" armed version of the X3a I've posted before, and could be considered the final X3 design as well as the absolute final battleship the Royal Navy ever put on a drawing board.
It's basically the X1 on a somewhat larger hull and more AA armament but otherwise the same in every other aspect.
Together with the B3 design these two ships were proposed for the DNC to choose for further develop before the program was cancelled altogether finally ending the Lion class's history started in mid-late 1937! A development program of almost 10 years and producing near 40 designs!

The design had these characteristics:
Dimensions: 256,03(wl) x 34,75m x 10,36m
Displacement: 45.000tons (Standard), 54.000tons (full load)
Engines: 136.000shp Parsons Steam Turbines, 4 shafts
Speed: 54km/h (29knots)
Range: 11.100km at 37km/h (6.000nm at 20knots)
Armour: 102mm, Deck over machinery 152mm over magazines, 318mm Belt over machinery and 292mm over magazines
Armaments:
2x3 16"/45 (406mm/45) BL Mk IV Cannons,
12x2 4,5"/45 (114mm/45) QF Mk V DP-AA Guns,
10x6, OQF Mk IX, 8x2 Mk X (STAAG) and 16x1 Mk VII 40mm/56 AA Guns

Sensor suite:
18x Type 262 Fire-control Radar one for each CRBFD and twin 40mm STAAG mounts
1x Type 274 Fire-control Radar for the main armament director/rangefinder
1x Type 277Q Surface-air search Radar on the aft mast above the LRS.1 director
1x Type 291 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast above the Type 960
1x Type 293M Surface search Radar on the mainmast above the forward LRS.1 director
8x Type 901X Fire-control Radar, two for each LRS.1 director
8x Type 903 Fire-control Radar, one for each MRS.3 director
1x Type 960 Air-warning Radar on top of the aft mast
1x Type 960M Air search Radar on top of the mainmast


Data table:

The only official drawing found so far of the proposal showing the hull form and turret layout:
The layout of the secondary guns magazines would suggest a 10 turret proposal where the 5th pair was to be located aft in a superfiring position, though that would take up space from the superstructure.
 
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Tzoli

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Final 1945 designs added

Sidenote:
Apparently a number of main weapon calibres were discussed and proposed for the Lion class Battleships since their creation in late 1937:
14"/45 BL Mark VII - same guns used on the King George V class Battleships
15"/45 BL Mk II (1935 gun design not the 1920's 15"/50 BL Mk II) - same guns proposed for the King George V class Battleships when was still in development
15"/45 BL Mk III - new 1945 design still under development when the program ended as suggested by the official papers. Might be the same construction as the 16" Mark IV cannons with the same loading mechanism and shell design
16"/45 BL Mk II - official cannon for the 1938-40 designs
16"/45 BL Mk III - probably intended for the 1942-44 designs an earlier version of the final Mark IV
16"/45 BL Mk IV - official weapon for the 1944-1945 versions with new shell and higher speed reloading mechanism (expected rate of fire was 3 RPM)
16"/50 BL Mk V (my unofficial designation) - discussions was made in 1945 to increase the calibre length of 16" mark IV cannon to 50 calibres as both the USN and the Soviet Navy adopted longer barrelled cannons of 16" calibre to increase penetration power togeher with a much longer shell.
 
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JFC Fuller

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Hi Tzoli, thanks for posting all these, absolutely fascinating.

May I ask how you cam up with your secondary armament layout? I have struggled with this on these designs for years, Friedman states that :
The forward and after machinery sets in Design B were separated by a 36ft magazines space giving better protection against underwater attack.
This 36ft magazine space is clearly visible in the X3 hull diagram you kindly posted above which suggests it was a feature common to the entire B-series. The issue I run into is how this translates into a turret layout. In the Malta and Daring designs (the other classes to use closely paired mountings for 4.5" Mk.V guns) the magazine lengths appear to be about 60ft, e.g. a 36ft long magazine space might have only been able to accommodate a single turret. Thus, I have considered the following options for a potential layout:

1) All turrets are VERY closely paired; one pair either side of the forward superstructure, another pair either side of the aft superstructure (as in the KGV and Vanguard) and the final two pairs either side amidships (next to the ships boats) - think of this as a doubled-up version of the layout chosen for the Neptune class cruisers

2) As above except only single turrets either side of the ships boats then two turrets each on the centreline super-firing over the fore and aft 16 inch turrets respectively

Based on normal British practice option 1 seems more likely but that 36ft magazine is very short. The aft 5.25 inch magazines on the King George V class seem to have been quite short too, does anybody have their length?
 
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Tzoli

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That X3 drawing only shows the layout of X3, no drawings were found for the other variants, not even sketch ones in the Admiralty papers (Except the detailed drawing of the finished 1938 design as ordered) so I would not assume that the X3 with it's all forward main turret arrangement's secondary magazine layout would apply to the B versions.

My friend who scanned the images at first thought that the AA arrangement of the 12x 4,5" twin turrets would be as depicted as I draw them in the 1944 versions later as he skimmed through the pages he then considered an arrangement as I depicted for the 1945 versions or his idea of 3 superfiring pairs where the 2nd center pair was rotated 90 degrees essentially the middle two turrets facing to port and starboard and not to forward like the 1st or to aft like the 3rd pair. He on the other hand had never found any mention for a centreline superfiring turrets or pairs like on the Soviet Stalingrads.

Also there are other info in the Admiralty papers:
I now post my friend's notes (who scanned the images) (bold is original text from the papers):

1945 Battleship Committee Report, ADM 1/17251, Page 5, Paragraph 6:

Secondary Armament

A secondary armament of 4.5-inch H.A./L.A. guns, 40mm AA guns and light close-range weapons of the order proposed in the Staff requirements for the 1945 Lion class battleship is recommended. This is based on the ability to engage up to 6 separate aircraft targets. Should however, considerations of length and weight make a reduction necessary, the number of 4.5-inch turrets should be reduced from twelve to ten.


This (not in the ships cover) tells us that the Staff Requirements for the 1945 Lion was for the secondary armament plus the lighter AA guns to be able to engage six separate aerial targets simultaneously. When I first read this my mind was focused on the secondary 4.5-inch armament only and I failed to pick up that the lighter AA guns were clearly included as part of the six target AA defence requirement. This error my part helped lead me to the conclusion that the 4.5-inch turrets were arranged in six distinct groups to allow the turret pairs the freedom to track their own targets without interference from the other turret pairings. Now, after looking at this again it seems clear that I was badly mistaken with my original conclusion. That two 4.5-inch turrets could be removed without losing the ability to engage six separate targets reinforces this.

While skimming through the cover last night I noted that the secondary armament was to be controlled by Four Mk 37 directors and Eight M.R.S. directors which is something else I didn’t pay attention to; It provides a director for each turret but not for easily dividing the turrets into six paired groupings. The fire control setup allows for the secondaries to engage four and not six targets at long range which is what the developers of the 1945 Lion were primarily concerned with due to the development of standoff aerial weapons. This brings us back to your original depiction of the 4.5’s being arranged in four triple super-firing groups. All the arguments I made for this arrangement back then still stand, so I now have come back to thinking that this was the most likely arrangement.

1944/45 Lion Battleship Cover, ADM 138/730, Folio 4:

Secondary armament for new Battleships.

It is confirmed that in the new battleship design a secondary armament of 6 x 4.5-inch twin turrets each side, with the necessary controls, can be mounted without weakening the structure of the ship.

C.S. Lillicrap.

Director Naval Construction

24th April 1944.


This confirms that the twelve 4.5-inch twin turrets will be arranged with six located along the port side of the ship and the remaining six mirroring their locations along the starboard side of the ship. None will be located on the centre line fore and aft of the superstructure as suggested in that obscure drawing you posted. However, this doesn’t tell us the precise arrangement of the turrets. Based on all previous British practice for locating turreted secondaries, it seems very safe to assume that none will be located beyond the fore and aft ends of the superstructure. Not even G3 or Nelson placed them beyond the aft end of the superstructure despite the advantages in increased firing arcs that would result from doing so.

1944/45 Lion Battleship Cover, ADM 138/730, Folio 30:

Secondary Armament.

It is considered probable that G.A.P. will be developed in time for fitting in these ships. This project is in an early stage of development and no details of the installation that will be required can be definitely stated at the present time.

It is considered however, that within a few years no ship not equipped with G.A.P. will be able to defend herself against the new forms of air attack that must be envisaged.


Since very little is yet known of the effectiveness of G.A.P., it is not recommended that the projectors should be fitted in lieu of all the 4.5-inch turrets. Moreover, the 4.5-inch turrets have a very important role in the medium and close-range AA defence of the ship and for surface fire; functions which G.A.P. cannot fulfil. It is considered that two G.A.P. projectors only should be provided for in the first instance.

It is therefore proposed that the following note should be added under line 2 of Section B of the draft:

Provision is required for fitting two G.A.P. projectors each side in lieu of two of the 4.5-inch turrets each side. If the G.A.P. is not developed by the time the ships are completed, the projectors will be fitted retrospectively.


Gun control.

Secondary Armament.

Separate control of each 4.5-inch turret against aircraft at medium and close ranges in addition to the four H.A. control systems, are therefore required.


The draft should be amended to read as follows:

4 long range Control Systems arranged in a diamond formation. 8 medium range systems. (4 when G.A.P. is fitted).

Note: Self contained control of each turret is not expected to be developed in time for these ships.




1944/45 Lion Battleship Cover, ADM 138/730, Folio 39:

Secondary Armament

24 x 4.5-inch guns in 12 twin turrets.


NOTE: Provision is required for fitting two G.A.P. projectors each side in lieu of 2 x 4.5-inch turrets each side. If G.A.P. is not developed by the time the ships are completed the projectors will be fitted later.

All the above seems to say that it was hoped that the original GAP projector would be a direct swap out for a twin 4.5-inch turret. However, the writing leaves some confusion over whether two or four turrets are to be swapped out for GAP projectors. I think that there is an error in the writing and that the balance of evidence suggests that it is two turrets replaced with two GAP projectors on BOTH sides of the ship for a total of four GAP projectors, leaving eight 4.5 turrets in four super-firing groups.

Another thought that led me originally to conclude that the 4.5’s were in six separate groups is that it seemed unlikely that GAP projectors would be located next to gun turrets due to the effect rocket exhaust would have on any nearby 4.5-inch gun turrets. However, while skimming through the cover last night I noticed that GAP missiles were initially launched by a cordite charge and the rocket motor ignited only when the missile was well away from the ship so, rocket black blast is not a consideration.
 

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Tzoli,

Thank you for your very detailed response. I agree (I had forgotten about the reference to the guns being sided), the 4.5" weapons were either grouped in two sets of three or three sets of two either side. However, I think it is likely that the amidships magazine was present on all the B-series designs, the driver seems to have been for underwater protection and it appears in the 1944/4 Neptune design so having two pairs of turrets amidships on either beam is plausible to me.

The separate control of each individual turret is also interesting and it mirrors what was wanted for the Malta class though obviously a battleship is much easier to site all those guns and directors on than a carrier. Combined with the sextuple bofors it would have been a very formidable anti-aircraft armament.
 
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For the 1944 versions I've chosen the super and super-superfiring arrangement for the secondary guns because I remember that the RN was always nervous about ahead and astern fire for their secondary guns, either for AA or anti surface role and this arrangement was the best for that kind of job without the usage of the USN style diamond arrangement (Alaska, Cleveland, Baltimore classes)
 

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Tzoli.
Excellent representations, thanks.
Up until now the only 'sketches' I have seen of the Lion class designs were in an early (when it was a quarterly publication) edition of Warship, and these were only simplified basic outline type, plus they stopped at an earlier point than those you have produced.
 

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Interesting to note that the sextuple bofors don't actually require much more deck area than the STAAG twins.
 

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Interesting to note that the sextuple bofors don't actually require much more deck area than the STAAG twins.
True, the STAAG was a monstrously large mount for two barrels but it is worth noting that the sextuple required additional space for a separate off-mount director in a location that allowed it to broadly match the field of fire of the mount it was associated with. This seems to have been a major issue is the design of the Malta class AA armament (particularly locating directors for the 4.5 inch battery) and one easier to solve on a battleship.

The need for adequate ammunition supply to all those AA guns (50% more 4.5 inch weapons than a Malta class), under-armour protection for any fire-control sub-systems, operating spaces for radars and suitable crew spaces for gun and director crews was probably a significant driver of internal volume in the design, and in turn displacement once the required weight of armour to protect it all was factored in. Obviously the heavier main-armament mountings and extensive underwater protection requirement would have also been a major factor.
 

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Yes a regular twin 40mm/56 Bofors like the Mk V mountign using the Mk XI guns were as big as the quad Pom-poms, still the STAAG twin mount was smaller then the USN's quad mount which was as large as a twin 5"/38 turret!
 

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With the Bofors quad the US traded simplicity of production - two twins on the same platform - for size. Vertically stacked pairs of guns would have been significantly more compact, but would have needed a new mounting to be developed, and loading would have been more complex to arrange. OTOH the sextuple Bofors showed it was quite feasible to do that.
 

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Friedman mentions in his British cruiser book that it was considered to develop a quad 3" and 16!!!! barrelled Bofors for post war based on the experiences of the Pacific war, especially the Kamikaze threat!
 

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Friedman mentions in his British cruiser book that it was considered to develop a quad 3" and 16!!!! barrelled Bofors for post war based on the experiences of the Pacific war, especially the Kamikaze threat!
This was the design process leading to the 3"/70 twin. There's a little more in his Naval AA book. The quad 3" and 16 barrel 40mm (he doesn't say Bofors in the Naval AA book), were the 1947 iteration of a process looking at replacing the twin 4" Mk XIX, an earlier exercise from DNO in 1945 looked at a quad 2.81" firing 150rpb/m was considered for cruisers and above, and twin 3.83", 2.98" and 2.7" firing at 120 rpb/m for destroyers or frigates. All with 1600 rounds on the mount. DNO called it New Naval MR/CR Equipment and hoped he could get a common replacement for the 4" and the Bofors. The theoretical optimum design was a quad low velocity 3" firing proximity fused ammo, with a twin simpler to implement. DNO and BuOrd met in 1948 to decide on a common approach and went for 3"/70 twins. A separate process, looked at replacing the Bofors with a Direct Action (DA) gun and given the emergence of missiles, proposed a high-velocity 34mm squeezebore.
 

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I see!
Hmm I could only think of a few mountigns to carry 16x 40mm guns and all of them would be very big. Either a twin-octuple mount with either horizontally aka Pom-pom or vertically aka Bofors mounted guns in each octuple part.
Or a quadruple quad mount with diamond arrangement on 3 levels. On the centreline the first mount, then somewhat higher at both sides another two mounts and finally again at centreline aft the 4th mount superfiring the lower two. Belt feeding could make the mount somewhat smaller as the guns could be placed closer to each other.
Another idea of a rectangle arrangfement where at both sides are a pairs of quads one superfiring and all 4 on the same mount.
Or maybe a 6-4-6 arrangement of a quad was placed above and after the two sideways placed sextuple mounts.
 

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Excellent work, Tzoli, but as you'll recall from discussions on the late Warships 3.0, the very intriguing aspect of all this was the makeup of the armour suite. Readings clearly indicate the desire for standoff armour above hte main armour deck and perhaps higher given the desire to fuze aircraft weaponry before it would hit the armour deck. This consideration certainly required lessening weights to avoid ships soaring about the 70k tonne mark and having a budget busing price tag. But - would be of note to see a potential armour schematic which would in turn affect the outward look of the ship. After all, the secondaries would require a higher degree of armouring or even abandonment given the openings in the armour decks.
 

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Sorry but among all the scanned papers, there are only drawings (if we do not include the 1938 ordered version)
one showing a hull shape in a dry dock, the other an angled view, nothing about Armour layout which was often stated as "mean" thickness
 

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Sorry but among all the scanned papers, there are only drawings (if we do not include the 1938 ordered version)
one showing a hull shape in a dry dock..
Hi Tzoli, would it be possible to post the drawing of the hull shape in dry dock? Thanks.
 

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Hmm I could only think of a few mountigns to carry 16x 40mm guns and all of them would be very big.
(Missed this when you posted). The Spanish Meroka CIWS illustrates one way to get a lot of barrels in not a lot of space, with 2x6 20m barrels in a turret that doesn't look much larger than a 76mm Compact. While Meroka is a modern system, the RN had used the Nordenfelt machine gun in the past, so horizontal arrays of barrels with individual feeds was in the institutional memory of DNO.
 

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Yes but I'm not sure you can feed guns upside down (feed from below) in 1946-48, though belt feeding could solve the problem?

As for the dry dock/floating dock image, I will post it later.
What I can tell you that its shape dos not show the characteristic transom stern of Lion and Vanguard but maybe because its showing the underwater part.
 

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The shape of the barbettes is interesting. Any idea why they were like that?
 

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Thanks Tzoli, thats the Vickers High Walker Yard on the Tyne where the original 1938 Lion was laid down.
 

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Indeed but the page was from the 1944-45 Lion papers.
No doubt about that, note the 120ft "breadth", thats absolutely from the 1944/45 design effort. Thanks again for posting.
 

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Yes but I'm not sure you can feed guns upside down (feed from below) in 1946-48, though belt feeding could solve the problem?
Lots of bomber turrets fed from below. Although the MGs fed from the side, avoiding CofG changes as you fired off a few hundred kilos of .303 or .50 meant moving the ammunition out of the turret and into the fuselage. That left the feed train too heavy for the gun to pull, so ammunition boosters were fitted to power feed the ammunition up to the guns. And as feeding from below actually takes a 90 degree turn out of the feedtrain, this would be an even simpler application. TLDR: the technology already existed
 

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Indeed but the page was from the 1944-45 Lion papers.
.

Lovely, thanks.

Is that from the ships cover at the NMM's bronze factory, or the TNA:pRO, kew ( or is the a Vickers archive now open ? )

.
 

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Ships covers from the Brass Foundry archives. My freind went there and photographed the relevant covers as well as 2 of the Vanguard covers, both showing the as designed (aka KGV/Lion Proto Vanguard style superstructure, secondaries, catapult and pom-poms) and as finished drawings
 

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The images with the yellow papers? Yes they are from there.
 

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While skimming through the cover last night I noted that the secondary armament was to be controlled by Four Mk 37 directors and Eight M.R.S. directors which is something else I didn’t pay attention to; It provides a director for each turret but not for easily dividing the turrets into six paired groupings. The fire control setup allows for the secondaries to engage four and not six targets at long range which is what the developers of the 1945 Lion were primarily concerned with due to the development of standoff aerial weapons. This brings us back to your original depiction of the 4.5’s being arranged in four triple super-firing groups. All the arguments I made for this arrangement back then still stand, so I now have come back to thinking that this was the most likely arrangement.
I have been reflecting on this and I keep coming to same conclusion, there are two key points:

Magazine layout: the drawing of the X3 hull shows the amidships magazine space between fore and aft machinery spaces, Friedman describes a similar magazine (36ft long) in Design B. This was also a design feature in the contemporaneous (1944/45) Neptune class cruisers so it seems reasonable to assume its presence on all the 1944/45 Lion designs. On the Neptune class the 4.5" Mk.VI mountings are arranged, on each beam, one forward, one amidships (one deck higher), one aft. It seems reasonable to assume that the 1944/45 Lion design would use a similar, albeit doubled, layout. If not, ammunition supply arrangements from the magazines would either be very mechanically complex or very manpower intensive. Much more likely, the 4.5 inch Mk.VI mountings sat directly above, or very close to, the 4.5" magazines.

Fire control: The diamond configuration of four LR directors makes perfect sense for six groups of two turrets that are all sided. The centreline forward and aft LR directors can, respectively, control the forward and aft pairs of turrets on either side of the ship depending which side attacking aircraft are approaching from, leaving the amidships director to control the amidships pair of turrets. The centreline directors would also control astern and forward fire as required. This would be an improved version of the Vanguard layout. In Vanguard three Mk.37 directors could be pointed to either beam but they only had two pairs of turrets to control.

Therefore, my best guess is that in the 1944/45 Lion class designs the 4.5" mountings were mounted in six groups of two, three groups on either side of the superstructure. The forward and aft pairs fed directly from their respective magazines and mounted on the main deck. The amidships pair would be fed directly from the amidships magazine but mounted one deck higher to allow super-firing over the fore and aft pairs. This would essentially be a "double Neptune" arrangement. In your images above, the effect of this would be to move the two super firing 4.5 inch Mk.VI mountings closer amidships, but at the same height, so they are approximately where the lowest boats are in your drawings.

To help explain this, I have put together the attached, very crude, diagram - hopefully this makes sense?
 

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Tzoli

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Yes that drawing really helps how you imagine the layout of the secondary armament. I will try to make a version of the plain X3 to represent this idea.
This also explains the 3 ammo storage spaces in the hull shown on the original paper. Though my issue being the forward pair of turrets would be too close to the 16" turrets and blast effects would be severe.
 

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While skimming through the cover last night I noted that the secondary armament was to be controlled by Four Mk 37 directors and Eight M.R.S. directors which is something else I didn’t pay attention to; It provides a director for each turret but not for easily dividing the turrets into six paired groupings. The fire control setup allows for the secondaries to engage four and not six targets at long range which is what the developers of the 1945 Lion were primarily concerned with due to the development of standoff aerial weapons. This brings us back to your original depiction of the 4.5’s being arranged in four triple super-firing groups. All the arguments I made for this arrangement back then still stand, so I now have come back to thinking that this was the most likely arrangement.
I have been reflecting on this and I keep coming to same conclusion, there are two key points:

Magazine layout: the drawing of the X3 hull shows the amidships magazine space between fore and aft machinery spaces, Friedman describes a similar magazine (36ft long) in Design B. This was also a design feature in the contemporaneous (1944/45) Neptune class cruisers so it seems reasonable to assume its presence on all the 1944/45 Lion designs. On the Neptune class the 4.5" Mk.VI mountings are arranged, on each beam, one forward, one amidships (one deck higher), one aft. It seems reasonable to assume that the 1944/45 Lion design would use a similar, albeit doubled, layout. If not, ammunition supply arrangements from the magazines would either be very mechanically complex or very manpower intensive. Much more likely, the 4.5 inch Mk.VI mountings sat directly above, or very close to, the 4.5" magazines.

Fire control: The diamond configuration of four LR directors makes perfect sense for six groups of two turrets that are all sided. The centreline forward and aft LR directors can, respectively, control the forward and aft pairs of turrets on either side of the ship depending which side attacking aircraft are approaching from, leaving the amidships director to control the amidships pair of turrets. The centreline directors would also control astern and forward fire as required. This would be an improved version of the Vanguard layout. In Vanguard three Mk.37 directors could be pointed to either beam but they only had two pairs of turrets to control.

Therefore, my best guess is that in the 1944/45 Lion class designs the 4.5" mountings were mounted in six groups of two, three groups on either side of the superstructure. The forward and aft pairs fed directly from their respective magazines and mounted on the main deck. The amidships pair would be fed directly from the amidships magazine but mounted one deck higher to allow super-firing over the fore and aft pairs. This would essentially be a "double Neptune" arrangement. In your images above, the effect of this would be to move the two super firing 4.5 inch Mk.VI mountings closer amidships, but at the same height, so they are approximately where the lowest boats are in your drawings.

To help explain this, I have put together the attached, very crude, diagram - hopefully this makes sense?
The KGVs, 1938 Lions and Vanguard had the 5.25in Magazines between the magazines for the main armament and Machinery spaces, forward and aft of where the 5.25in Mountings actually were.

IMG_20200721_212430561.jpg
IMG_20200721_212436242.jpg

4 and 5 are respectively, the 5.25in Magazines and Shell Rooms.

General Arrangement of the 1938 Lion Design, John Robert's Penultimate Battleships: The Lion Class 1937-1946 Part 1, Warship No.19

With the 1945 Lions, the addition of another magazine between the machinery spaces would both to cater for the increase in required ammunition, and add in extra separation between the fore and aft machinery spaces. I don't think that the turrets would be directly above the magazines, and the arrangement much closer admidships as in the previously mentioned examples, with hoists running from the magazines to the handling rooms below the 4.5in mountings. If the 4.5in mountings were arranged as outlined above by you, the forward mountings would be much more vulnerable to blast from the main armament.
 
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JFC Fuller

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Yes that drawing really helps how you imagine the layout of the secondary armament. I will try to make a version of the plain X3 to represent this idea.
This also explains the 3 ammo storage spaces in the hull shown on the original paper. Though my issue being the forward pair of turrets would be too close to the 16" turrets and blast effects would be severe.
And that is why I may be wrong. All RN battleships of the KGV/Lion/Vanguard generation used the same basic magazine layout: 5.25" imagines located between the main armament magazines and the machinery spaces. Therefore the secondary turrets could not supplied directly from the magazines, thats why the Mk.I 5.25" mount was a "short trunk" mounting, it only had to reach to the shell/cartridge handling rooms directly below the mounts. I have never found out how the shells were moved from the magazines to the handling rooms though I suspect in an ideal world this distance would be kept as short as possible. Thats why the Neptune arrangement may be more appropriate once the amidships magazine is introduced, combined with no longer having to cater for floatplane facilities amidships. The fore and aft pairs would be located as they were with the 5.25" guns previously (though probably both on the main deck) but the extra pair could go amidships to be close to the magazine and buy some protection through space.
 

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Thank you for sharing them, Tzoli !
And maybe, there's also a gem for the "aircraft only purists", as on the plans of the after sections and the profile, the ship's aircraft
is shown, which to me looks like a Fairey Albacore with floats. Still yet, I haven't found a mention of such a version.
 

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I would share more but it is difficult to find a sharing website which allows 40Gb!! of a 1000+ files large upload!
 
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