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Japanese Gliders and Assault Gliders

blackkite

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Hi!
Incompleted Mizuno type Isuzu glider.(美津濃式 五十鈴グライダー)
Isuzu is a military glider planned by the Imperial Japanese Navy.

In February 1942, Kugisho ordered Mitsuno Glider Manufacturing to design a parallel double seat unlimited aerobatic glider. Kimura Kanichi designed this glider and completed the basic design in June 1942. This glider was named Isuzu. However, the plan was canceled in August of the same year because Kimura engineer was called to the Army.
IMG_20191215_0001.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Hi!
The Ministry of Communications, Aviation Bureau experimental Hikari-shiki type 6.1 glider.(Side by side two seats training glider.)
Maker : Fukuda Light Aircraft Co.Ltd.(福田軽飛行機株式会社), Completed in 1938.
This glider was towed by a tow plane and flew 400 km between Osaka and Kofu.
hikari-shiki 6.1 glider.jpg hikari-6-1-1.jpg
hikari-6-1-2.jpg
 

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blackkite

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Hi!
Hikari-shiki type 6.2 glider.(The IJA name Ki-23). Developped from Hikari-shiki type 6.1 glider.

Ki 23 was a military glider prototyped by the Imperial Japanese Army.
Ki 23 was a parallel double-seat glider (soarer) in which the Japanese Imperial Army's Aviation Technology Research Institute placed a prototype order for Fukuda Light Aircraft. Fukuda Light Aircraft produced the internal name "Hikari Type 6.2" designed by Keisuke Ha, Kanichi Kimura, and Mitaka Fujiwara, and the prototype was completed on December 1, 1939. Ki 23 was delivered to the Japan Imperial Army Aviation Technology Research Institute, but was not adopted by the Imperial Japanese Army.
The aircraft of the ki 23 is feathered on a wooden flame, having a semi-embedded single wheel and nasal fistula and tail as a landing device. The towing aircraft used The R-38 prototype training aircraft of Ishikawajima aircraft.
Although Ki 23 was rejected, the light type 6.2 type of private specification was used for glide training at the Dainippon Flight Association. The price of the private type is 6,000 yen per machine. In 1942, the Navy also purchased the light 6.2 type of two aircraft manufactured by Mizuno Glider Manufacturing Co., Ltd. as a candidate for a training glider for the crew of a 16-shi special transport aircraft, and was examined at Kasumigaura Airfield, but it rejected as a cause of lack of speed and vibration of the main wing.

Specifications
Length: 7.6 m
Wingspan: 17.0 m
Wing area: 21.0 m2
Empty Weight: 276 kg
Gross Weight: 426 kg
Best glide speed: 70.3 km/h
Crew: 2


e-so26-2-14-19.jpg
hikari6-2-2.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Hi!
Maeda-shiki type-5 Tamaya-go(玉屋号) soarer.
Completed in 1935. This glider was a development type of Kyutei type-5.
This was the firsr glider in Kyushu which towed by the aircraft, but no flight record.
Tamaya is the name of the department store in Fukuoka Kyushu. Tamaya was the sponcer(スポンサー) of this glider.
maetasiki5gata.jpg
 

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blackkite

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Kyutei type-7 round fuselage plan. Only designed.
e-so3-2-14-4.jpg
 

Tadeusz Januszewski

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I am looking for any information about the Japanese military gliders Fukuda Ku-5 and Ku-12 (Hikari 6.3).
 

blackkite

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Hi!
The Ku-5 is a glider (military glider) prototyped by the Imperial Japanese Army.
During World War II, Maeda Koken Kogyo Co., Ltd. developed the Ku-5 as a gliding aircraft used by the Army for practice training. The aircraft had a shape similar to that of a light aircraft at the time, except that it did not have an engine, and it was a tandem tri-seat low-wing monoplane. The landing gear was a fixed type. Development was stopped only after the prototype was manufactured.

The Ku-12 is a glider (military glider) prototyped by the Imperial Japanese Army. Developed by Fukuda Light Airplane.
In January 1943 (Showa 18), the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force Headquarters established "Army Air Weapons Research and Prototype Policy" (new research policy), and developed a training glider by March 1944. However, the goal was to complete the examination. Ku-12 was developed by Fukuda as an intermediate-level glider for automobile towing, and although the prototype was manufactured, it was not adopted, and a small number of aircraft were called "light type 6.3" and used by the private sector.
The fuselage was Japan's first double-seater intermediate-level glider, and the fuselage had only a frame, and the nacelle was attached to the first half.
The seat layout was a tandem type with the rear seat inside the fuselage. The main wing was a half-cantilever taper wing.
• Total length: 7.0 m
• Overall width: 14.0 m
• Weight: 180 kg
• Total weight: 320 kg(too heavy?)
• Glide speed: 55-65 km / h
• Crew: 2 people

I'm trying to find pictures and drawings of these gliders. It's hard. Give me time.
 
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Tadeusz Januszewski

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Hi!
The Ku-5 is a glider (military glider) prototyped by the Imperial Japanese Army.
During World War II, Maeda Koken Kogyo Co., Ltd. developed the Ku-5 as a gliding aircraft used by the Army for practice training. The aircraft had a shape similar to that of a light aircraft at the time, except that it did not have an engine, and it was a tandem tri-seat low-wing monoplane. The landing gear was a fixed type. Development was stopped only after the prototype was manufactured.

The Ku-12 is a glider (military glider) prototyped by the Imperial Japanese Army. Developed by Fukuda Light Airplane.
In January 1943 (Showa 18), the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force Headquarters established "Army Air Weapons Research and Prototype Policy" (new research policy), and developed a training glider by March 1944. However, the goal was to complete the examination. Ku-12 was developed by Fukuda as an intermediate-level glider for automobile towing, and although the prototype was manufactured, it was not adopted, and a small number of aircraft were called "light type 6.3" and used by the private sector.
The fuselage was Japan's first double-seater intermediate-level glider, and the fuselage had only a frame, and the nacelle was attached to the first half.
The seat layout was a tandem type with the rear seat inside the fuselage. The main wing was a half-cantilever taper wing.
• Total length: 7.0 m
• Overall width: 14.0 m
• Weight: 180 kg
• Total weight: 320 kg(too heavy?)
• Glide speed: 55-65 km / h
• Crew: 2 people

I'm trying to find pictures and drawings of these gliders. It's hard. Give me time.
Dear Blackkite,
Thank you very much for help me. Information very interested.
 

blackkite

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Today I ordered this book which might be help you.
"Koku fan February 1993."
This book includes 「Minoru Akimoto, "Japanese Military Gliders, Part 2"」.
 

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blackkite

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Today I received this book. Unfortunately there are no new information about Ku-5 and Ku-12.
 

Justo Miranda

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Mizuno Shinryu

The plans of the Allies for the invasion of Japan were based on a first amphibious assault of fourteen combat divisions of soldiers and marines that, under the name of ‘Operation Olympic’, would land on the beaches at the south of Kyushu Island. The attack was to happen on November 1, 1945 and a second invasion wave ‘Operation Coronet’, would be launched against the Tokyo area, over the Honshu Island, on March 1, 1946.
The Japanese High Command understood that human losses was the Achilles’ heel of democracies and decided that, after the failure of the kamikaze tactics to stop the invasion of Okinawa, the number of casualties infringed to the enemy in Kyushu was high enough. They could still negotiate a peace by exhaustion and avoid the cost of a final battle at Honshu. Therefore, they forgot the idea of sinking aircraft carriers and battleships and turned their attention to the humble Landing Craft Vehicles.
During the most critical moments of the amphibious assault, dozens of slow and unstable boats, cramped with troops, vehicles, explosives and fuel, desperately tried to reach the beach under the enemy fire. Some were reached by the artillery but most of them survived. The Japanese thought that this pattern could be altered and devise all kind of defensive strategies to convert Kyushu in a swamp of blood. They took advantage of the three-to-two local numeric superiority of the Japanese army and mobilized the civil population to perform banzai charges.
At the sea, the 40 surviving submarines of the IJN waited their opportunity. Many Shinyo suicide motorboats, loaded with 250 kg of explosive, got ready in caves and coastal refugees. It would have been more than enough to destroy the LCA. Fukuryu divers would wait in submarine shelters built at 15 m of depth to attack the belly of the LCV with antitank hollow charges fixed to the end of long poles.
They were also building 20 suicide take off strips in Southern Kyushu, with underground hangars for the Baikas and Tsurugis, as well as 35 camouflaged airfields for the conventional Tokko airplanes and nine seaplane bases. There were 2,500 kamikaze aircrafts in Korea, Honshu and Shikoki ready for ten days of non-stop attacks that would exhaust the defensive resources of the invading fleet and the loss of a third of their ships. But the decisive battle would be fought on the 2,000 yards of sea between the beach and the great supply vessels.
Having most of the interceptors at disposal busy defending the fleet, it was expected that just a few fighter-bombers of the Marines would operate at the landing area, attacking the coastal defences. In that scenario, a suicide attack by light bombers could cause much damage. Many training airplanes from the Flying Schools were modified to counteract that effect. They were Tachikawa Ki.9 and Yokosuka K5Y1 types with a bomb of 100 kg under the fuselage or with a single 200 litres drums full of gasoline and phosphorous, embedded in the rear seat.



Shinryu I

Based on the concept that a small and fast glider loaded with explosives could also have its opportunity against an LCV full of marines, a team of engineers of the Kokukyoku Test Centre built a glider propelled by three rockets. It would have been able to take off by its own means, carrying a bomb of 100 kg, and attack a target at a distance of 4 km. It was to be mass manufactured by Mizuno/Fukaya using wood, fabric and an iron plate cladding for the rear area of the fuselage, were the rockets were housed.​
The rocket in central position was the most powerful and with higher range and would be used for take-off. The other two would be used to maintain altitude until impact. The bomb was carried in the fuselage, behind the pilot, and had one impact fuse and another that was electrically activated by an extended probe in the nose glider.
Only one prototype was manufactured. The ‘Operation Olympic’ never happened thanks to the use of the nuclear bombs that put an end to the war saving a considerable amount of lives to both sides.

Technical data Shinryu I

Airframe wood, fabric and iron plate, Wingspan 7 m , Length 7.63 m, Height 1.90 m, Wing area 11 sqm , Maximum weight 735 Kg, Maximum speed 300 kph, Ceiling 400 m, Range 4 km, Engines two solid fuel rockets Toku-Ro.1 Type 1 with 300 kg peak thrust during 30 sec and 1 Toku-Ro.1 Type 2 with 600 kg peak thrust during 30 sec, Payload one 100 kg Type 3 No.150 Mk.5 bomb.

Mizuno Shinryu II

Grabbing the opportunity of having the new rocket engines developed by the IJN to propel the Ohka, the engineers of Mizuno decided to develop their own rocket glider.
It had an unusual ‘Canard’ configuration to facilitate the short take off and it was built of wood, plywood and iron plate, with four Type 2 rocket engines at the rear of the fuselage. Three different versions would have been manufactured: kamikaze, antitank and interceptor. The suicide version had no undercarriage, using the same rails and rocket cart system than the Ohka 43-Otsu for take-off. It would have been able to carry a bomb of 250 kg in the fuselage, behind the pilot.
Like the suicide bombers D4Y4 Suisei and the Type 5 Shinyo motorboats, the Shinryu II would have possibly been equipped with two or four barrage I.S.R. rockets of 12 cm that would have made more difficult for the enemy gunners to reach the target during the terminal dive.
The anti-tank version took off by its own means over a primitive landing gear of skids, helped by a Type 1 ventral rocket that was detachable. It is assumed that it had the four rocket engines in the fuselage to maintain its flight altitude during the attack. It used eight anti-armour hollow charge ROTSU rockets of 8 cm, housed in iron tubes welded to the undercarriage, with a minus 7 degree pitch so that they could be shot without losing any altitude or speed. The airplane had spoilers and it was expected to survive to be able to land and refuel for the next attack.
Although this version has been described as anti-tank, as it used that type of armament, it seems more realistic to assume that it would have been used to attack the LCA. The interior of the island would have had thousands of suicide commands waiting for the Sherman tanks with magnetic demolition charges of 10 kg of the ‘lung mine’ type.
The interceptor was equipped with oxygen, pressurised cockpit and reflex gunsight. It was towed by a conventional piston fighter that took it off above 8,000 m releasing it over the stream of bombers. It was armed with eight Ro.3 rockets that exploded by means of a time fuse at a predetermined distance, releasing shrapnel and incendiary pellets in a conic pattern.
Like its German counterpart W.Gr 21, the Ro.3 was not very accurate and lost altitude very fast. For that reason, the launching tubes were fixed at a plus 7 degree pitch, calculated so that the parabolic path of the rocket would be compatible with the performance of the reflector gunsight.
All versions of the Shinryu II had machine guns with ammo tracer to help the correction of the attack trajectories. These would also be of use to the interceptor to defend from the escort fighters, evade them thanks to its manoeuvrability and return to base on a gliding flight. The four rocket engines, started sequentially, would serve it to regain altitude after an attack over the formation of B-29s or to distance away from the escort fighters.

Technical data

Airframe: wood, fabric and iron plate; Wingspan: 10 m; Length 7.80 m in the interceptor version; Height: 2.70 m; Wing area: 19 sq.m; Maximum speed: 500 kph in the kamikaze version; Ceiling: over 8,000 m in the interceptor version; Range: 15 km in the kamikaze version; Engines: four Toku-Ro.1 Type 2 with 600 kg peak thrust during 30 sec. In the anti-tank and kamikaze version another Toku-Ro.1 Type 1 was used with 300 kg peak thrust during 10 sec, in ventral position, to provide additional boost during take off. Armament: four Type 89 7.7 mm guns that were reduced to two in the kamikaze version. Eight Ro.San Dan (Ro.3) 10 cm S.C.R. AA rockets in the interceptor version, eight ROTSU 8 cm S.C.R. hollow charge rockets in the ant ship/antitank version, two or four RAK 12 cm I.S.R. barrage rockets and one 248,7 kg Type 99 Number 25 Model 1 bomb in the kamikaze version.
 

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Justo Miranda

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Kakukyoku Rammer

The Kakukyoku Rammer was a radio-guided antiaircraft, vertically launched, ramming missile designed by Yujiro Murakami in March 1945, following a requirement of the IJN. It was exclusively propelled by solid fuel rockets and should reach 9,000 m of altitude in 100 seconds.
The absence of explosive warhead required a degree of accurateness impossible to achieve with the primitive guidance systems of the time. Therefore, the missile was reconverted into a piloted rammer, a project shared between the IJN and the IJA to be handed over to the Kawasaki Company.
The vertical take-off was discarded as the g-forces would have been excessive to keep the pilot conscious. The rammer would be towered by a high-altitude interceptor up to 10,000 m and released near the bomber stream. The pilot would then fire the four rockets until reaching Mach 0.91 in six seconds and fly in a collision path towards the B.29 without any possibility of surviving.

Technical data

Airframe steel and wood. Cockpit pressurised, with oxygen system and telephonic link with the towing plane. It had no control panel, just the controls of a glider plus a handle to detach the trolley after take-off and another to get detached from the towing plane
Engines four solid fuel rockets Toku-Ro.1 Type 1 with 300 kg thrust each for 10 seconds. Wingspan 4.44 m, Length 3.45 m, Height 1.80 m, Wing area 5 sq.m, Maximum weight 800 Kg, Maximum speed Mach 0.91, Ceiling 10,000 m, Climb rate 312 m/s.
 

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Justo Miranda

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Yokosuka MXY8 Akigusa


The Akigusa was a tailless training glider developed by the First Naval Air Technical Arsenal (Kugisho) for the future pilots of the Shusui. The MXY8 was an unpowered version of the J8M1entirely built of wood/plywood with a loaded weight of just 1,037 kg.
During the first flight tests, performed in December 1944, the prototype was towed to altitude by a Kyushu K10W1 trainer proving satisfactory handling characteristics.
Two other prototypes were built by Kugisho, one of which was delivered to the Army Aerotechnical Research Institute (Rikugun) for evaluation and served as the basis for the development of its own training glider Yokoi Kokuki Ku.13, with the same dimensions as the MXY8. The other served as a model for the construction at the Maeda Aircraft Institute, a series of sixty Akigusa units for the IJN. This version was provided with water ballast tanks, which simulated the weight of rocket propellants, to achieve a more realistic training and were operated by the 312th Kokutai.
To avoid the rapid loss of altitude and increase flight time, it was designed a version of the Akigusa powered by a 105 hp Hirth/Hitachi Ha-11 Hatsukaze II pusher engine, a driving two-bladed wooden propeller. But its construction was rejected in favor of the more advanced MXY9 Shuka.

MXY8 technical data

Wingspan: 9.5 m, length: 6.06 m, height: 2.7 m, wing area: 17.37 sq.m, max weight: 1,037 kg.

The MXY9 Shuka was the Akigusa airframe powered by a Tsu-11 Campini type thermojet developed for Kugisho. The Tsu-11 consisted of a conventional reciprocating engine, a single stage compressor wheel and a combustion chamber (containing an annular fuel- injection system and two igniter plugs) that burned the air-fuel mixing creating a thrust of 250 kg.
The reciprocating engine was a 105 hp four-cylinder in-line, air-cooled, Hitachi Ha-11 (Japanese version of the German Hirth HM 504-A2). The thermojet had a length of 220 cm, a diameter of 64 cm and a weight of 200 kg. At full throttle the Ha-11 reached 3,000 r.p.m. and the compressor 9.000 r.p.m. The Tsu-11 was flight tested under the bomb bay of a Ginga by the end of 1944.
On November 1944 the construction of a prototype began but the full-scale production was canceled after the destruction of the Maeda-Ohe plant by a bombardment in 18 December 1944. The Tsu-11s were used in the construction of the Ohka Model 22 suicide bombers in the Ichigisho plant.
 

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Justo Miranda

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Chigasaki MXY6​



To meet the IJN requirements of 1943, (18-shi-Otsu non-official specification) calling for a land-based, high-performance interceptor able to counter the new Allied fighters, Nakajima proposed the twin engine J5N1 Tenrai and Kawasaki the J6K1 Jinpu. Early in 1943 Lieutenant Commander Masaoki Tsuruno, of the First Naval Air Technical Arsenal, proposed the construction of a 18-shi-Otsu ‘canard’ fighter based on the information obtained on the XP-55.
The Kaigun Koku Hombu ordered the firm Chigasaki Seizo K.K. the construction of three wooden experimental gliders MXY6, with ‘canard’ lifting surfaces, to prove the feasibility of the concept. Glider tests, towed by one Nakajima B5N bomber, began at Yokosuka in the fall of 1943, demonstrating good flight characteristics. One of the prototypes was finally fitted with a 22 hp Nihon Semi Ha-90/11 four-cylinder-boxer, air-cooled engine, driving a two-bladed wooden airscrew from a Kugisho MXY4 anti-aircraft target.
In 1945 the MXY6 was proposed to the IJN as a prototype suicide plane, but the project was not carried out because of the priority given to the construction of the Showa Toka bomber.

MXY6 3rd prototype technical data

Wingspan: 9.14 m, length: 7.3 m, height: 2.95 m, wing area: 17 sqm, max weight: 500 kg, max speed: 320 kph.
 

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blackkite

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Thanks a lot Justo-san. Super speculation as usual.:)
 

blackkite

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Hi! Chikara glider.
Source : Baron Miyahara and his World of Aircraft, Civil Aircraft 1920-1945, ISBN4-901794-03-5
 

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windswords

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Blackkite (or anyone else),

Is that a landing light in the nose of the Ku-11 in the picture above?
 

blackkite

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Good point!! I can't answer your question.
 
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