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Japanese Gliders and Assault Gliders

blackkite

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Hi! Nihon shiki Kamogata(日本式鴨型),  鴨 (Kamo) : means wild duck(canard)

In 1944, the Institute of Technology planned a prototype of a glide aircraft for the purpose of researching the performance of the canard aircraft as the first research project. The aircraft was produced by a Japanese small airplane, and at the end of 1944, the design was started by the engineer, And the aircraft was completed at the end of March 1945, and flight experiments began. As a flight experiment plan, and when increasing the wing surface load by shortening the wing width, flight experiments in the case of removing the vertical stabilizer was scheduled. The results of the experiment were also used in the development of Shinden canard fighter, which the Navy had been planning.

The aircraft is a double-seat canard aircraft with a high aspect ratio main wing, and the material is all wood. There is a rudder that also serves as an air brake at both ends of the main wing. There is a vertical stabilizer at the rear of the fuselage, but the rudder does not have.
 

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blackkite

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Hi! Maeda(前田) Ku-1.
Source : Japanese aeronautical academicscientific history(日本航空学術史).
Maeda Ku-1.jpg
 
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blackkite

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The Chikara(ちから)-type glider was a training glider (military glider) of the Imperial Japanese Navy. The aircraft was manufactured by Nippon Small Aircraft Co., Ltd. (日本小型飛行機, Nihon Kogata Hikoki).It was also called "K-12" in the company of Nippon Small Aircraft Co., Ltd.
History
The Chikara-type glide aircraft was planned by the Imperial Japanese Navy Aviation Technology Arcenal for the purpose of training the crew of the 16-shi special transport aircraft (MXY5). The prototype of the Chikara-type glide was ordered to Nippon Small Aircraft Co., Ltd. in September 1941, and the design of the aircraft was done by the company's chief engineer Miyahara. Three prototypes were completed in mid-November 1941, and they received a research review at Kasumigaura Airfield and showed good results. It should be noted that the name "Chikara" was named during development by the Nippon Small Aircraft Co., Ltd. side, it was originally a temporary name, but later became official name.
Since the MXY5 was terminated in prototype fabrication stage, the Chikara-type glide aircraft was also temporarily discontinued production, about five aircraft are produced, such as the Fuji glider companying as a training glider for the The Army Type-4 special transport glider that was to be operated in place of MXY5, It was operated in Ishioka Detachment Corps of Kasumigaura Naval Air Corps (later the third squadron). In addition, japan Small Airplane Co., Ltd. started production for the crew training of Shusui rocket interceptor, but production was discontinued when three aircraft were completed in response to the end of the Pacific War.
In addition, as a training aircraft for the crew of Ooka special attack aircraft, the attack practice aircraft "Wakazakura" equipped with a small gunpowder rocket engine was also prototyped, but production has reached the end of the war without being carried out. There is also a opinion that the Wakazakura themselves were scheduled to be used in a suicide attack.
Design
The Chikara-type glider was particularly focused on high-speed towing training, and it was an aircraft capable of unlimited aerobatics, and it adopted the cockpit of the tandem double seat, which is unusual as an unlimited aerobatic machine at the time. The aircraft structure of the Chikara-type glider was a plywood-shaped upholstered wooden frame, and in order to bring the flight characteristics closer to that of the MXY5, the wing cross-section and aspect ratio of the main wing are approximated to the MXY5, and the camber change flap for aerobatic flight is equipped with the main wing. Further, while to make the structure of the nose portion around the cockpit robust, the fuselage rear is provided on the assumption that it is destroyed at the time of emergency landing "naturally destruction point". The landing gear were semi-retracted single wheel and nose skid. Type 93 intermediate training aircraft and type 97 ship attack aircraft were used for the towing aircraft, and it was possible to tow two Chikara glider in one aircraft when using the Type 97 ship attack.
Specifications
Length: 8.8 m, Width: 11.25 m, Wing area: 18.0 m2, Empty Weight: 326 kg, Total weight: 516 kg, Best glide speed: 100 km/h, Crew: 2
 
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blackkite

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Hi! MXY-5 glider.
Source : as usual vol.2
IMG_20191127_0007.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Hi! The Army Type-4 special transport glider. (Kokusai koku kogyo(国際航空工業) Ku-8-Ⅱ)
General characteristics
  • Crew: 2
  • Capacity: 20 troops, equipped; mountain howitzer with crew / 1,790 kg (3,950 lb) payload
  • Length: 13.31 m (43 ft 8 in)
  • Wingspan: 23.2 m (76 ft 1 in)
  • Height: 2.96 m (9 ft 9 in)
  • Wing area: 50.5 m2 (544 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 1,630 kg (3,594 lb)
  • Gross weight: 3,500 kg (7,716 lb)
Performance
Never exceed speed: 240 km/h (150 mph, 130 kn)
Maximum glide ratio: 15.9:1
Maximum towing speed: 224 km/h (139 mph; 121 kn)
Source : as usual.(VOL.7),etc
IMG_20191127_0005.jpgIMG_20191127_0006.jpg
 
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blackkite

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This is the Ku-8-Ⅰ.
Kokusai_Ku-8_svg.png
 
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Apophenia

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Maveric:

For Reply #130, the company name is Nippon Kogata Hikoki KK. These are 13.20 m span Nippon Otori (Phoenix) type sailplanes -- aka Nippon Type 2. A-2001 is shown in a number of photos with this rounded tail but A-2001 was also seen with a triangular rudder as on A-2002. Perhaps a later modification?


Reply #131 is a Akashiya Seiun type 2 with 12.80 m span. As you say, built by Toyo Kinzoku Moku KK (sp?), designed by Jun Shindo.

Reply #132 is listed as Nihon-shiki tonbo-gata or 'Japanese-style Dragonfly-type.' The images all seem to be cuttings from Asahi Shimbun newspaper.

The name is interesting. For the Japanese, dragonflies symbolize agility and victory (no retreat) for the samurai.
See: http://www.vsha.jp/hua-kong-ji-tan-suo/koukyuuki/nihontonbo/

Reply #133 is indeed the Kirigamine taka 7.

Reply #134: Yes, one of several Maeda Ku-10 layouts examined. This layout seems to have been adopted after comparing gull-winged and shoulder-winged variants with longer-spanned (13.60 m) wings. The fuselage of these earlier incarnations looks more like that of the Maeda 7 'Glico'. See: http://www.vsha.jp/hua-kong-ji-tan-suo/koukyuuki/maetaku10/

Note: A similar development path was followed for the Maeda 703 - with the gull-wing aka Rokko Type 3 type, the straight wing Rokko Type 4. See:

Replies #135 and #136 certainly look like a Kyu-Te products but no luck on designations or names :(
 

blackkite

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Replies #135 is the Sato-type Kutei-11 soarer.(佐藤式九帝-11型ソアラー)
Kyu-tei(九帝) means Kyushu Imperial University (九州帝国大学, Kyushu Teikoku Daigaku) , now Kyushu University(九州大学).
Sato(佐藤) means the designer name of this soarer, Hiroshi Sato(佐藤 博).
Maker was Kyushu Imperial University Gliding Research Institute.
 

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blackkite

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blackkite

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Hi! Asahi-shiki type-1 soarer. Maiden flight : 25/5/1930. Japanese first soarer.
Maker was Tokyo Gas Electric Engineering Co.,Ltd.TGE(Gasu-den,(東京瓦斯電気工業)).
asahisiki-1gata-sanmenzu.jpgasahisiki-1gata.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Maeda type-6 Asahi kutsu-go. Perhaps Asahi-kutsu(アサヒクツ) means Asahi Shoes.

The Kyushu Imperial university type-7 glider made first flight on September 5, 1945, it was originally registered as J-BFAH, but after the revision of the law, it became A-1600.
At the same time, there is a glider called Maeda Type 6 Asahi Kutsu-go.
It was a Japan's first round fuselage glider sponsored by “Japan Tabi(Japanese socks (with the big toes separate))”, located Kurume city Kyushu, now Bridgestone.
Initially it was an open-type cockpit and the registration number was J-BAHA.
However, when it flew on September 7th in 1937 with the Kyushu Imperial university type-7 glider at mount Aso,
it had sealed windshield and registration number A-1602.
On this day, Maeda Type 6 Asahi Kutsu-go was flying for 5 hours and 56 minutes, and the Kyushu Imperial university type-7 glider was flying for 5 hours and 2 minutes.
maeda6gata1.jpgQian-Tian-Shi-6Xing-asahikutuHao-1_3.jpgQian-Tian-Shi-6Xing-asahigutuHao-4.jpg
img_4.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Hi!
Tachikawa(立川) Ki-25Ⅰand Ki-25Ⅱ.
The Ki-25 was an intermediate glider that was prototyped by the Imperial Japanese Army. The production was an Ishikawajima airplane(Tachikawa).
The Ki-25 was a single seat glider based on Göppingen Gö 3 which made in Germany. The design started in April 1936 and the first prototype was completed in October 1937. Flight test was conducted at Kirigamine Gliding Field, along with Unit 2 completed after Unit 1. Since the completed aircraft had problems such as incorrect center of gravity and excessive weight, the adoption was postponed, and the two prototypes produced were used as research equipment, but research was also canceled due to the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War. The prototype No. 2 has been remodeled from the Ki-25I at the time of completion to the Ki-25II with the main wing as a gull wing. Ki-25II showed good performance.
Specifications
Total length: 7.53 m
Full width: 17.50 m
Main wing area: 20.0 m2
Weight: 200 kg
Total weight: 275 kg
Crew: 1
Tachikawa ki-25Ⅰ.jpgTachikawa Ki-25Ⅱ.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Hi!
Tachikawa Ki-26 tandem two seats training glider.
tachikawa ki-26.jpg
 

blackkite

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Keiichi Shimamoto, an employee of Glico, presented model aircraft materials as prizes to Glico product enthusiasts for the purpose of enlightening the aircraft and promoting Glico products. Glico performed flight competition in each district with model airplanes assembled by lovers of Glico products, commended people with excellent results, and held national competitions after each district competition. As a symbol of this flight competition, Glico made a high-end glider and named it Glico. Glico participated in the 1st All-Japan Sailing Flight Competition held on May 23, 1937 in Ikomayama, co-sponsored by Mainichi Shimbun and Dai Nippon Flight Association. The Glico first used cantilever wings in Japan, and the cockpit had a celluloid cover. Glico was piloted by Pilot Matsumoto, who had a long flight experience with the Japanese Navy Air Corps. Glico crashed into the hillside because the safety cover broke 7 minutes after the start of gliding, and the project failed. Keiichi Shimamoto asked for a decision again with the aviation director of the Mainichi Shimbun, but was unable to obtain approval from Mr. Kodo, the then managing director of Glico, and decided to abandon the project. Disappointed Keiichi Shimamoto left Glico.
 
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blackkite

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Hi!
Cockpit of Glico. You can see thr trademark of Glico(グリコ).;)
The origin of the company name is “Glycogen made it easy to eat and delicious nutrient glycogen. The name of glyco is derived from glycogen. Originally caramel was generally known, so the idea of glyco caramel was also proposed. However, they made “Glico” with the desire to create a completely new nutritional confectionery.:cool:
A_close-up_of_The_Japanese_glider_name_is_Glico.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Hi!
Maeda Roko(六甲) type-1.
In the fall of 1937, the Ministry of Communications, Aviation Bureau, subsidized Ito, Fukuda Maeda, and Nihon Kogata Hikouki(Japan small aircraft) to promote the production of high-performance gliders. Fukuda Maeda submitted Hikari type 6.1 (double seat) and Rokko type-1 and type-2. Rokko Type-1 crashed in public flight at Haneda.
Rokko means mount Rokko in Kobe.
https://www.rokkosan.com/en/
maetasiki-rokkou-1gata.jpg
img_1.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Hi!
Rokko type-2.
Source : 日本グライダー史、Japanese glider history, ISBN4-87415-272-4
maetasikirokkou2gata3menzu.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Hi!
Nihon Kogata-shiki Cho-gata.(日本小型式蝶型). Cho(蝶) means butterfly.
Source : 日本グライダー史、Japanese glider history, ISBN4-87415-272-4

IMG_20191212_0002.jpg
 
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blackkite

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Hi!
Incompleted side by side two seats Maeda type-901. It was destroyed by bombling.
IMG_20191214_0001.jpg
Maeda type 901 side by side glider.jpg
 
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