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Apollo LM-derived projects

Triton

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Apollo Telescope Mount 01, "Stellar ATM" (Space World magazine, June 1972 (vol I-6-102), "Lunar Module Derivatives for Future Space Missions," pp.58)

Apollo Telescope Mount 02 (Kenneth Gatland, "The Pocket Encyclopedia of Spaceflight in Color: Manned Spacecraft," 1967, p.230)

Apollo Telescope Mount 03 (Philip Bono & Kenneth Gatland, "The Pocket Encyclopedia of Spaceflight in Color: Frontiers of Space," 1969, p.28

Apollo Telescope Mount 04 (Bono & Gatland, "Frontiers of Space," p.30)

Apollo Telescope Mount 05 (Sky & Telescope magazine, March 1968 (vol.35, no.3), "Atmospheres Surrounding Manned Spacecraft," p.152)
 

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Triton

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MO-LM (Mobile LM) Grumman study [no ascent stage, used by crew from LM Taxi] (Charles R. Pellegrino & Joshua Stoff, "Chariots for Apollo: The Making of the Lunar Module," 1985, plates btwn. pp.176-177)

LM Shelter [lands unmanned & "waits" up to 60 days, no ascent engine to add more equipment, used by Taxi crew, habitable for 14 days] (Space World, June 1972, pp.55-56)

LM Taxi #1 [normal LM shuttling astronauts to moon to use LM Truck/Shelter, able to "wait" on moon for 14 days] (Space World, June 1972, p.52)

LM Truck #1 [ascent stage replaced by cargo carrier for rover, supplies, etc. up to 5,300 lbs., unmanned but used by Taxi crew] (Space World, June 1972, p.53)

LM Truck #2 [unmanned, ascent stage replaced by payload section for 9,000 lbs., used by Taxi crew for up to 14 days with LM Shelter] (Space World, June 1972, pp.55-56)
 

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Lauge

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Let's not forget my personal favourite, the Grumman LM CSD Covert Space Denial "space fighter" - the Evil Twin Brother of the LM:
http://www.astronautix.com/craft/apolmcsd.htm

Regards & all,

Thomas L. Nielsen
Denmark
 

Triton

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Lunar Photo Mapping LM (1963)

In 1963 Grumman proposed that the LM be modified to carry out a lunar photo-mapping mission before the first manned landing. The cameras would either have been mounted in place of the surface EVA hatch or in an extension to the ceiling of the Ascent Module. The descent module would have its legs removed and replaced with a set drop probes for study of the lunar surface.

Grumman Study of LEM for Lunar Orbital Reconnnaisance
http://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19740074816_1974074816.pdf
 

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Triton

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Grey Havoc

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Triton said:
MO-LM (Mobile LM) Grumman study [no ascent stage, used by crew from LM Taxi] (Charles R. Pellegrino & Joshua Stoff, "Chariots for Apollo: The Making of the Lunar Module," 1985, plates btwn. pp.176-177)

LM Shelter [lands unmanned & "waits" up to 60 days, no ascent engine to add more equipment, used by Taxi crew, habitable for 14 days] (Space World, June 1972, pp.55-56)

LM Taxi #1 [normal LM shuttling astronauts to moon to use LM Truck/Shelter, able to "wait" on moon for 14 days] (Space World, June 1972, p.52)

LM Truck #1 [ascent stage replaced by cargo carrier for rover, supplies, etc. up to 5,300 lbs., unmanned but used by Taxi crew] (Space World, June 1972, p.53)

LM Truck #2 [unmanned, ascent stage replaced by payload section for 9,000 lbs., used by Taxi crew for up to 14 days with LM Shelter] (Space World, June 1972, pp.55-56)


A very cost effective way of setting up bases on the moon. But, alas, they needed the money elsewhere, especially for the 'Great Society'. :mad:
 

blackstar

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I didn't realize that some of these were posted here in black and white. I have hi-res tif scans of them. Here they are reduced in size.
 

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blackstar

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And something that I co-wrote on this subject a few years ago.
 

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Michel Van

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in AAP were several LM proposal
next to ATM and LM Taxi and Truck/shelter

were also from Grumman:
LM Versatility for Low polar synchronous orbit
the Ascent stage has pressurised 332.5 cubic feet. (ascent engine removed offers additional 85 cubic feet)

LM Rescue/Tug
only small modification to the stages
the landing legs are removed and one remote manipulator device put in place
main purpose is to intercept and rendezvous satellites in Orbit
for Repairs or re boost of it in higher orbit
here is origin of the Evil Twin Brother of the LM

LM Laboratory 1965
Lab I (14 day Mission) Low orbit
Lab II (45-90 day Mission) Low, polar, synchronous and Lunar orbit
the landing radar & legs are removed
the ascent engine removed to offer additional 85 cubic feet inside
the decent stage is empty of Engine an Fuel tanks free place is filled with experiments
installation of Apollo CSM components in LM !

Lab II offer opportunity to install a docking tunnel in place of the ascent engine.
to allow docking of two Lab II
also multiple visit by CSM was also consider

Source:
Apollo: the lost and forgotten Missions
by David J. Shayler
Springer-Praxis Books
Isbn 1-85233-575-0
 

Grey Havoc

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Michel Van said:
were also from Grumman:
LM Versatility for Low polar synchronous orbit
the Ascent stage has pressurised 332.5 cubic feet. (ascent engine removed offers additional 85 cubic feet)

Was it meant to be an mostly unmanned survey/observation platform?
Or was it just meant to be a low orbit survey component of a single mission?
 

Michel Van

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Grey Havoc said:
Michel Van said:
were also from Grumman:
LM Versatility for Low polar synchronous orbit
the Ascent stage has pressurised 332.5 cubic feet. (ascent engine removed offers additional 85 cubic feet)

Was it meant to be an mostly unmanned survey/observation platform?
Or was it just meant to be a low orbit survey component of a single mission?

most LM-derived projects like Versatility was for only one manned mission
only the LM lab II had potentially unmanned platform betwixt Apollo visits
 

blackstar

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Although there are a lot of LM alternative designs that you can find, something to keep in mind is that very few of these may have been practical. There was one senior NASA official--I forget who--who thought that the LM was just too specialized to have any other uses than its assigned mission. It just could not be adapted in his view.

Of course, it would be nice to know the details. It strikes me that the LM could have been adapted for some other landing missions. But then again, maybe the margins were too small. For instance, using it as an unmanned cargo vehicle might have been impractical because there was no good way to control it on landing. And maybe it just could not be adapted to carry much more cargo without a lot of changes to the descent stage.
 

robunos

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...using it as an unmanned cargo vehicle might have been impractical because there was no good way to control it on landing...

ISTR that the LM shelter, which would be first to land, would carry a radio beacon,
that would guide the subsequent landers down...


cheers,
Robin.
 

blackstar

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robunos said:
...using it as an unmanned cargo vehicle might have been impractical because there was no good way to control it on landing...

ISTR that the LM shelter, which would be first to land, would carry a radio beacon,
that would guide the subsequent landers down...

That only gives you location. I'm thinking of how to pilot it for the final landing, where you have to avoid obstacles and correctly assess the flatness of the terrain. That might have been pretty difficult to do with a big vehicle back then.
 

Grey Havoc

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IIRC, most of the lunar landings using the LM were done on automatic. They had an interesting computer guidance system, parts of which were litterally handmade.
 

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Grey Havoc said:
IIRC, most of the lunar landings using the LM were done on automatic. They had an interesting computer guidance system, parts of which were litterally handmade.
It was capable of it, but at the end of the day the crews always wanted to bring them in the last bit themselves. Jim Lovell apparently did intend to let Aquarius land herself as long as it was safe to do so, but events rather overtook that plan. Bearing in mind that Neil Armstrong took over from the computer when it became apparent that it was aiming for a crater, it seems that a man in the loop was quite an important thing to have.
 

blackstar

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Grey Havoc said:
IIRC, most of the lunar landings using the LM were done on automatic. They had an interesting computer guidance system, parts of which were literally handmade.

I wasn't aware of this capability. I thought they had to take over below a certain altitude. I'm working with NA and will ask him about this.
 

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Lauge said:
Let's not forget my personal favourite, the Grumman LM CSD Covert Space Denial "space fighter" - the Evil Twin Brother of the LM:
http://www.astronautix.com/craft/apolmcsd.htm

Regards & all,

Thomas L. Nielsen
Denmark

Now that's seriously cool. Especially this part "The recommended option, as was the case of the SAINT years earlier, was to spray paint the target black. This would have ruined optics, disabled solar cells, and caused the target spacecraft to overheat and fail. " The ultimate anti-satellite weapon... Black Paint!!! XD
 

blackstar

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Some more.
 

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Lauge

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surfinblackbird said:
Lauge said:
Let's not forget my personal favourite, the Grumman LM CSD Covert Space Denial "space fighter" - the Evil Twin Brother of the LM:
http://www.astronautix.com/craft/apolmcsd.htm

Regards & all,

Thomas L. Nielsen
Denmark

Now that's seriously cool. Especially this part "The recommended option, as was the case of the SAINT years earlier, was to spray paint the target black. This would have ruined optics, disabled solar cells, and caused the target spacecraft to overheat and fail. " The ultimate anti-satellite weapon... Black Paint!!! XD

I get this image in my mind of a US astronaut with blue coveralls over his spacesuit, a "Joe's Paints and Dyes" baseball cap on top of his helmet, a paint tin in one hand and a brush in the other, floating next to a Soviet satellite ;D

Regards & all,

Thomas L. Nielsen
Luxembourg
 

magnus_z

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"Lunar module derivatives for future space missions":

http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/LM23_LM_Derivatives_LMD1-13.pdf
 

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