CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
- Apr 2, 2006
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The names of Soviet aircraft - fighters creators of the Great Patriotic War are well known. It is a pity that in their glorious galaxy usually do not include Oleg Antonov, who during the war was the Deputy AS Yakovlev and made a significant contribution to improving the Yak fighters ╚ ╩. Since then, a special relationship to the type of fighter aircraft, a deep understanding of the dialectic of development have become an important feature of creative portrait designer Antonov.
Perhaps that is why, in the spring of 1947 when the basic design and construction work on the An-2 came to an end, and all ten engineers bureau soon could remain idle, Antonov decided to focus on creating a fighter. At its own initiative, a draft of light interceptor, distinguished by moderate conservatism and absorbed the rich experience of the designer of the war. According to the overall layout of the machine repeated the German interceptor Heinkel He 162 Salamander. It seems Antonov impressed rationality and elegance, which was made by the aircraft.
Thirty years later, Oleg K. as he recalled the work: ╚ Then the good of jet engines did not exist. Was captured Jumo engine ╩ ╩ (German Jumo 004 in mass production in the USSR under the designation RD-10), which developed relatively little traction (840 kg). Therefore, to reduce its losses, we have made the project with top engine ╩. The features of the fighter was developed high firepower and uncharacteristic for Soviet-designed user experience pilot (in particular, the type of doors Airacobras ╚ ╩). Of course, this development did not look so avant-garde, like, say, the MiG-15, however, as the German equivalent, ideally suitable for their purpose - air defense of ground troops with basing itself in the front line. In these circumstances, straight wing provides the best takeoff and landing performance, the fuselage prevented sucked into the air intake of the soil particles, small items with the runway surface and the location of the engine nacelle minimized the length of the air passages and, accordingly, the loss of traction.
Probably the initiative of the young OKB-153 did not go unnoticed in Moscow, and has already appeared 04.16.1947, the following order NCAP:
╚ chief designer of OKB-153 comrade. Antonova,
director of the plant ╧ 153 comrade. Lisitsyn
... design and build:
near night scout (aka spotter) with a motor-62IR;
agricultural aircraft with engine AL-21;
pilot flying wing fighter ╚ ╩ with two turbojet engines RD-10 ... ╩
The requirement to design a new fighter-type flying wing can be explained by a kind of fashion of the time for unusual aerodynamic configurations of future combat aircraft.
Being under the influence of notable German fighter-bombers flying wing Horten companies and Gotha (though not had time to go to the army), and tailless Messershmitt Me-163 Komet (in 1944-1945. Applied against ╚ ╩ fortresses allies), the Americans with participation internment of German specialists in the late 40's launched an extensive program of creating aircraft for various purposes in non-traditional schemes. So, for example, was carried out at the same time designing several original fighters: tailless swept-wing Vought F7U Cutlass (off 29.09.1948g.), Tailless delta wing Convair XF-92 (18.09.1948g.) And approaching the scheme to the flying wing Douglas F4D Skyray (23.01.1951g.). In England, had already created an experimental tailless jet De H e Viland DH-108 (15.05.1946g.). If, in addition to remember that the most advanced bombers of that period - the American Nortrop YB-49 (takeoff 21.10.1947g.) And English Avro 698 Vulkan (30.08.1952g.) - Represented a nearly pure ╚ ╩ flying wings, the Kremlin's desire to keep up from potential enemy becomes quite clear.
The task of creating such a fighter in the Soviet Union seemed extremely difficult. Key developments in the German flying wings as leading experts, were in the American zone of occupation. However Antonovites boldly took up the case. The work was done during the 1947-1948 biennium. Preliminary overall look and layout of the aircraft, received cipher ╚ M ╩ (╚ Masha ╩), apparently designed personally by Oleg. Leading designers on assigned A.A.Batumova and VA Dominikovskogo leading on construction - I.I.Egorycheva.
Preview image of the plane M ╚ ╩ not only affects the grace of external forms, but especially surprising for its proximity to the modern concepts of air combat fighter. For him, as for example, and for the Su-27 is characterized by an integrated assembly that provides the minimum drag for maximum interior volume. As the F-16XL, YF-22 and YF-23, draft ╚ ╩ M has a low load on the area of the planned projection, which guarantees high agility in air combat, significant operational ceiling and excellent takeoff and landing characteristics. Finally, mandatory for any modern fighter engine in two project ╚ ╩ Masha located close enough to the axis of symmetry, so that in case of failure of one of them does not cause a significant unfolding of moments, but at the same time sufficiently distant from each other to avoid total loss of traction (as was the case in the MiG-25 and F-111) and provide the necessary combat survivability. According to the arrangement, nose fuselage completely allowed in the future placement of a sufficiently powerful radar that would turn the car into an all-weather interceptor. Given the above advantages, it can be assumed that in the case of adopting the fighter M ╚ ╩ expect a long and interesting life flight.
However, in such a project existed not long. From Moscow, received an order to shift to a new powerful engine with a centrifugal compressor RD-45 with traction 2270 daN (Soviet licensed version of the English Rolls-Royce RB.41 Nene, later renamed the VC-1 with traction 2700 daN). Under it already created their interceptors OKB AI Mikoyan, SA Lavochkin, PO Dry
Engine as large size can be placed only in the fuselage due to which the latter slightly increased. The overall aerodynamic configuration of the M variant of the product ╚ ╩ correct to assume tailless. At the same time the aerodynamic surface swept by the wingtips under the first option has been replaced by conventional elevons, and the scope and wing area increased accordingly. The reason most likely served as a low flutter speed of the surfaces of high aspect ratio. Due to the increased air flow through the engine side air intakes were completions. The variant with frontal air intake. The rest of the project remained unchanged.
Aerodynamic model Masha ╚ ╩ purged at TsAGI. The major objective of these tests was to check the stability and handling of unusual aircraft. With the implementation of the planned program from Moscow to Novosibirsk were encrypted telegram: ╚ Masha walks normally ╩. In addition, the bureau winter 1948 Y. Zakharov and NS Trunchenkovym was built glider flying model aircraft ╚ ╩ M in 1:10 scale, is launching into the air by a rail. He flew quite well. However, in such a way to check the dynamic characteristics of the product M ╚ ╩ in all flight modes characteristic of a fighter, it was impossible. Therefore Antonovites started building a glider-flying fighter layout in full size, the designation E-153.
The main construction material glider E-153 was a tree. This unit is characterized by an interesting feature: it is not only repeated the external contour of the prototype, but it was like a constructive way, ie functions as a conventional wooden models, which are tested at a bulk composition plane alignment systems and equipment. E-153 had the discharged after take-off for the towing truck chassis, instrumentation required for gliding flight, and formed integrally with the fuselage landing skid. Test pilot was appointed ML Gallay.
However, just before the start of operations in July 1948 there was one of the so characteristic of a planned economy turns: by order of the NCAP all work on the fighter ╚ ╩ M stopped. Probably, the presence of the MiG-15, Yak-23 and La-15 considered sufficient for the defense of the country. In addition, at this time of the final test of An-2, which was necessary to urgently implement a large-scale production. The small number of staff of the company had to deal with complex issues of organization of construction and further development of the first-born, brought in a short time fame and prestige bureau.
Again to the subject of fighter Antonov returned after almost 5 years, one of the most difficult periods for the firm, where the lack of work coincided with the lack of funding. At the end of 1952, almost all the variants of An-2 has already been created, and the company has just relocated from Novosibirsk to Kiev took on any job, up to rework other people's machines (for example, increasing the practical ceiling Li-2).
The basis of the project of the fighter-interceptor engine AL-7F has a wing diamond shaped TSAGI specially designed for supersonic aircraft (see Fig. On page 1). Perhaps it is the use of such a wing, close to the heart of the main leaders of the aviation research center of the country, has allowed in January 1953 to receive a positive opinion of TsAGI and recommendation to the further development of the project.
Under this theme, EDO with TsAGI has worked to shape the definition of long-term interceptor, in particular, the search for the optimal parameters of a diamond-shaped wings, no less than three versions of which was studied in the wind tunnel of the Institute.
Once again, the influence of rock music on an ambitious project: the construction of a pilot plan in 1953 to include this car did not have time, and in 1954 the OKB was already fully loaded design AN-8. Over the next 40 years and passenger transport aircraft and their modifications - more than 100 types - were the main theme in the activities of the firm. Experience in creation of fighters was forgotten for a while ...