• Hi Guest! Forum rules have been updated. All users please read here.

Westland VTOL convertiplane projects

overscan (PaulMM)

Administrator
Staff member
Joined
Dec 27, 2005
Messages
12,245
Reaction score
2,904
WESTLAND WG.22
The WG.22 consists basically of a wide-body fuselage design, carried by a tilting wing and a rotor system. For take-off, the wing is in the vertical position, and the aircraft takes off and climbs vertically in the manner of a twin-rotor helicopter. For transition into forward flight the wing is inclined forwards, the load being shared by the wings and the rotor system until, about one minute after take-off, the aircraft has converted fully to wing-borne forward cruising flight.
The basic version proposed has a circular-section fuselage of 12 ft 0 in (3-66 m) diameter, seating up to 100 passengers in a six-abreast layout. Alternatively, a wider-bodied fuselage of 14 ft 11 in (4-55 m) width can be employed, seating the same number of persons in a mainly seven-abreast layout but offering increased underfloor space for the carriage of freight.
The description below applies to the six-abreast version, except where otherwise indicated.

Type: Tilt-wing inter-city VTOL transport aircraft.

Wings: Cantilever high-set tilting wing, of constant chord over most of span, with tapered outer panels. Conventional single-cell two-spar torsion-box structure, built mainly of aluminium alloy with local use of titanium alloy for areas of high stress (i.e. wing root ribs). Skin panels inboard of engine nacelles formed by machining and chemical etching, those outboard of the nacelles being of conventional distributed flange construction using riveted Z-section stringers. Wings are designed to give high-incidence stall during transitional manoeuvres, high lift being achieved by tilting down the entire wing leading-edge by 30° about a hinge-line just forward of 25% chord at the base of the front spar. In the extreme nose-down position, a "pop-up" vane is released automatically, which delays separation of the boundary layer on the now highly-curved upper surface. The action of this device does not involve any forward extension of the leading-edge, thus avoiding extension of the nacelle to maintain rotor clearance. Split trailing-edge flaps, deflecting 60° downward, inboard of each nacelle, and flaperons outboard. The wing is hinged at the rear spar, and can be rotated through approx 90° (maximum 100° at low speeds) by means of two independent hydrau-lically-operated harmonic drive units, one at each hinge joint. Either unit can operate the mechanism if the other becomes inoperative. Automatic down-lock on each wing, at front spar.

Fuselage: Conventional all-metal semi-mono-coque structure, with frames at 16 in (41 cm) pitch. Main lift frame and surrounding skins, immediately below the wing hinge point, have considerable stiffness so as to diffuse into the fuselage the whole of the wing lift when the wing is not locked down. Fuselage is of circular cross-section, comprising a main pressurised shell which incorporates the flight deck and passenger cabin (with an unpres-surised cut-out for the nose-wheel well). Passenger cabin floor built of honeycomb sandwich panels, mounted on a conventional underfloor structure. Unpressurised freight holds underneath cabin.
tail Unit : Cantilever T-tail, comprising a conventional fin and rudder, hydraulically-actuated movable tailplane and normal elevators.

Rotor System: Each pair of engines drives a single six-blade main rotor. Blades are of NACA 64A series section, and are slightly tapered. Each blade is rigid in the lag plane, is controllable in pitch, and is free to flap in the lift sense about a hinge offset 6-5% from the rotor centre-line. Structure of each blade comprises a carbon fibre reinforced plastic spar, with stainless steel erosion shield on front portion, and leading- and trailing-edge boxes of glass-fibre. Honeycomb filler in trailing-edge box. Electrical de-icing of leading-edges. Titanium rotor hubs each attached to a gearbox through a flange and ring of bolts at its base. Flap hinge axes at 18 in (46 cm) radius, each hinge unit terminating in a bolted flange to which the respective blade unit is attached.

Rotor Drive: Power is supplied to each rotor by two engines mounted in a single nacelle and driving transmission shafts to a rotor/ engine reduction gearbox at the front of each nacelle adjacent to the rotor hub. In the event of an engine failure, power is transmitted through a cross-shaft installed in the wing and connected to the respective gearboxes in each nacelle to equalise power between the rotors. This shaft is also used to transmit limited differential rotor power for control purposes. Accessory power take-offs at rear of each main rotor gearbox for wing services, and from an accessory gearbox in wing centre-section, near rear spar, for fuselage services. The latter gearbox is driven by a shaft connected to the rotor cross-shaft by bevel gears. Engine/rotor rpm ratio of approx 50 : 1. landing Gear: Retractable tricycle type, with twin wheel nose unit and four wheel main units. All units retract forward into fuselage
and have same-size wheels and tyres, size 25 X 7-75, pressure 122 lb/sq in (8-6 kg/cm2). Fully-castoring nose unit.

Power Plant: Four Rolls-Royce RB.411-01 or Lycoming LTC4V-4 turboshaft engines, each developing approx 9,450 shp maximum (6,580 shp normal rating) and mounted in side-by-side pairs in single nacelle under each outer wing, each pair driving one of the six-blade main rotors. Nominal fuel capacity 2,000 Imp gallons (9,092 litres), contained in four integral tanks in wings.

Accommodation : Crew of two on flight deck, immediately aft of which is a 25.5 sq ft (2.37 m2) area for additional instrumentation (stbd) and access to crew members' emergency exit (port). Aft of flight deck bulkhead is main cabin, with accommodation in two compartments for up to 100 passengers (30 forward, 70 aft) in six- or seven-abreast seating, with pantry units between compartments. Seats in both compartments are at 32 in (81 cm) pitch. Two passenger toilets aft of rear compartment. Passenger entry doors on port side at front, with toilet opposite on stbd side, and opposite central galley area. Emergency exits at front on stbd side and on both sides of aft compartment. Two underfloor freight holds, the larger forward hold being of constant section and having three loading doors (two stbd, one port). Rear hold has single hatch on stbd side.
Systems : Main fuselage shell pressurised to withstand max differential of 5 lb/sq in (0.35 kg/cm2) at 20,000 ft (6,100 m). Hydraulic system for actuation of wing-tilting mechanism, flying controls and landing gear. Rectified constant-frequency AC electrical system incorporates two 40kVA 115/200V three-phase 400 Hz alternators in wing centre-section driven from centre accessories gearbox.
Third identical unit in tail driven by APU. DC system supplied via transformer-rectifiers. Two 25Ah lead-acid batteries for APU starting and emergency standby. System includes inverter to provide 115V 400Hz for essential services. Garrett GTCP 165/4 APU for cabin air-conditioning on the ground. Cooling of supply air by bootstrap air-cycle systems, each comprising two heat exchangers, a cold air unit, water separators and control valves. 28V DC ground supply can be connected in the battery compartment to start the APU.

Dimensions, external:
Rotor diameter (each) 48 ft 6 in (14.78 m)
Rotor blade chord at root 3 ft 12in (1.21 m)
Rotor blade chord at tip 3 ft 2in (0.96 m)
Wing span 101 ft 11 in (30.82 m)
Wing aspect ratio 7.4
Fuselage length 92 ft 0 in (28.04 m)
Fuselage width (6-abreast layout)
12 ft 0 in (3.66 m)
Fuselage width (7-abreast layout)
14 ft 11 in (4.55 m)
Wheel track 16 ft 8 in (5.08 m)
Wheelbase 40 ft 8 in (12.40 m)
Crew emergency exit (fwd, port):
Height 2 ft 2 in (0.66 m)
Width 1 ft 7 in (0.48 m)
Dimensions, internal:
Underfloor freight hold (fwd):
6-abreast version 500 cu ft (14.16 m3)
7-abreast version 950 cu ft (26.90 m3)
Underfloor freight hold (aft):
6-abreast version 260 cu ft (7.36 m3)
7-abreast version 230 cu ft (6.51 m3)
Areas :
Wings, gross 1,387 sq ft 85 (1.28m2) [this is a typo]
Vertical tail surfaces (total) 294 sq ft (27.31 m2)
Flying Review International, July 1970
 

Attachments

overscan (PaulMM)

Administrator
Staff member
Joined
Dec 27, 2005
Messages
12,245
Reaction score
2,904
WG.22

WG.17D 138 seat compound helicopter with 4 T64-GE-16 turboshafts and two Bristol Siddeley M45H turbofans.

6-8 seat tiltrotor, unknown project number

1973 study for a naval helicopter with supersonic rotors and 3 x Avco Lycoming LTC.4V1 turboshafts. Weight 33.500lb; 49ft 3in diameter rotors.

Source:
Derek James, Westland Aircraft since 1915, Putnam
 

Attachments

overscan (PaulMM)

Administrator
Staff member
Joined
Dec 27, 2005
Messages
12,245
Reaction score
2,904
Westland 6-8 seat tiltrotor posted above identified as WE-01.

Source:
Flying Review International August 1968
 

Attachments

Jemiba

CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
Staff member
Top Contributor
Senior Member
Joined
Mar 11, 2006
Messages
8,194
Reaction score
846
Westland put a lot power and money into the tilt-rotor research.
It's a pity, that it never really came to frution.
Here are the "standard" WE-01 and an enlarged 20-seat version:
 

Attachments

hole in the ground

CLEARANCE: Secret
Joined
Aug 6, 2008
Messages
239
Reaction score
2
I think you have some Fairey ones in there too. A model of a Gyrodyne and a slimline Rotodyne looking model
 

fredgell

CLEARANCE: Confidential
Joined
Jun 10, 2007
Messages
75
Reaction score
1
Now that is interesting - somebody at Westland working on Rotodyne developments in 70s by the look of it.

Size looks similar to larger tilt wing proposal.
I dont think I've ever seen any reference to such work - anybody got anything more?

Regards

Fred
 

Jemiba

CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
Staff member
Top Contributor
Senior Member
Joined
Mar 11, 2006
Messages
8,194
Reaction score
846
Ah, the good old FlugRevue, from times, when it still was a "real" aviation mag ! ;)
Those pictures and some photos of models served me as basis, when I tried to
portray some of the tiltwing/tilt rotor designs:
 

Attachments

Basil

CLEARANCE: Secret
Joined
Aug 10, 2009
Messages
239
Reaction score
42
Overscan, you mentioned the very interesting Westland "1973 study for a naval helicopter with supersonic (counter-rotating) rotors". I have never heard of rotor blades intended for supersonic use (apart from the NASA supersonic propeller research in the early fifties - XF-84H, etc.). Why were they examining supersonic rotor speeds (efficiency decrease and many other problems)? Are there any performance calculations available regarding this project?
 

overscan (PaulMM)

Administrator
Staff member
Joined
Dec 27, 2005
Messages
12,245
Reaction score
2,904
Basil said:
Overscan, you mentioned the very interesting Westland "1973 study for a naval helicopter with supersonic (counter-rotating) rotors". I have never heard of rotor blades intended for supersonic use (apart from the NASA supersonic propeller research in the early fifties - XF-84H, etc.). Why were they examining supersonic rotor speeds (efficiency decrease and many other problems)? Are there any performance calculations available regarding this project?
This is from an article by 3 forum members, BRITISH V/STOL ROTORCRAFT CONCEPTS IN THE 20TH CENTURY

While the tilt-rotor, tilt-wing, and the compound were recognized by Westland as potential ways to increase the speed and range of rotorcraft, during the 1970s the company also undertook a considerable amount of project work on another solution. This was the use of supersonic rotors, intended to obviate many of the aerodynamic problems of conventional rotors, which seek to avoid supersonic airflow on the rotors. The advantages of such an approach were not just in its possibilities of improved performance but also in the engineering applied to this concept: with a three-fold increase in rotor speed, blade loading increases tenfold, reducing rotor size as well as vibration and fatigue on the airframe. An initial scheme was drawn up as a basis for further project studies by Westland.

These preliminary investigations indicated the advantages outlined above, and they also alleviated some of the worries over possible disadvantages with supersonic rotors. The increase in drag, both friction and wave, meant that much more power would be required. In addition, high noise levels were to be expected, up to 135 dB. This meant that civil use was unlikely, but it was thought that military, especially naval, users would be able to tolerate the noise. In addition, the configuration was changed to keep the air intakes aft of the rotors in a shock-free zone as work on the acoustic characteristics of the rotors had indicated this as being vital. The issue of the high power transmission was seen as not being too difficult to overcome, as the torque involved was not much higher than a conventional helicopter. This meant that a conventional transmission system could be used, while the need for two high power gas turbines (approximately 8,000 shp each) meant that there was considerable residual jet thrust available to offload the rotor.

Figure 63 [this is the drawing I posted] shows a drawing from a preliminary study of a naval helicopter with a supersonic rotor of 49.25 ft diameter powered by three Avco Lycoming LTC.4V1 turboshaft engines. Gross weight was 33,500 lb.
 

weirc

CLEARANCE: Confidential
Senior Member
Joined
Jan 15, 2008
Messages
62
Reaction score
8
overscan,

Is it possible to see a copy of that article?

Colin
 

Basil

CLEARANCE: Secret
Joined
Aug 10, 2009
Messages
239
Reaction score
42
Thanks a lot for the prompt reply and the technical details. The combination of counter-rotation, supersonic rotor speed and the use of the residual thrust of the turboshafts is a real refreshing concept for helicopters; would have produced an interesting sound - even if too much for potential non-military use (as mentioned).
 

Jemiba

CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
Staff member
Top Contributor
Senior Member
Joined
Mar 11, 2006
Messages
8,194
Reaction score
846
Mostly the WE.02 is shown and described as a tilt rotor design, but a very similar desing
in tilt wing configuration was shown, too.
 

Attachments

Triton

Donald McKelvy
Senior Member
Joined
Aug 14, 2009
Messages
9,723
Reaction score
465
Website
deeptowild.blogspot.com
Westland WE.02 short-range tilt-rotor transport project, which could be operational in the mid-1970s, is shown in Royal Air Force Transport Command colors in model form. The WE.02 was projected to carry 80 passengers at speeds of up 380 mph.

Source: http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1967/1967%20-%200742.html
 

Attachments

JFC Fuller

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Senior Member
Joined
Apr 22, 2012
Messages
3,256
Reaction score
732
The Flight Global article mentions the use of two sets of coupled engines, do we know which ones were being considered?

The WE.01 is listed as having 'four Allison T63 turbine engines each of 250 s.h.p. coupled together as pairs in two nacelles' whilst the later WG.22 is said to have 'four Rolls-Royce RB.411 turbines in paired nacelles'

I can not find a listed powerplant for the WE.02, however, despite the model of the wing/engine configuration.
 

Apophenia

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Joined
Jul 25, 2007
Messages
2,538
Reaction score
810
sealordlawrence said:
I can not find a listed powerplant for the WE.02, however, despite the model of the wing/engine configuration.
Four T64s as Triton said. Specifically, "Westland WE-02. 4XT64-GE-16 (3,435 s.h.p.)" according to Flight.

http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1969/1969%20-%200034.html
 

Jemiba

CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
Staff member
Top Contributor
Senior Member
Joined
Mar 11, 2006
Messages
8,194
Reaction score
846
With regards to the vstol.org paper "British V/STOL Rotorcraft Concepts in
the 20th Century" it is.
 

Attachments

Stargazer2006

CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
Staff member
Senior Member
Joined
Jun 25, 2009
Messages
13,240
Reaction score
414
The first design (the one in the artwork posted by Barrington Bond) is a true beauty!!! :-* :-* :-*

I thought Bell topped everyone else in VTOL designs, but I think this one tops them all!
 

Barrington Bond

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Senior Member
Joined
May 4, 2007
Messages
929
Reaction score
77
I must agree wholeheartedly, my jaw dropped when I turned the page and saw that ;D

Regards,
Barry
 

Caravellarella

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Senior Member
Joined
Nov 30, 2007
Messages
1,034
Reaction score
196
Dear Boys and Girls, here are artist's impressions of the Westland WE-01 and WE-02 tilt-rotor "projects", used to illustrate a large article in French about Westland......

The pictures come from the 15th September 1968 issue of Aviation Magazine International......

Terry (Caravellarella)
 

Attachments

hesham

CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
Joined
May 26, 2006
Messages
26,250
Reaction score
3,148
Mark Nankivil said:
Greetings All -

Found this piece of artwork in the November 1974 issue of Aero Modeller.

The fuselage looks a bit larger in diameter than the other posted images. Any ideas on the designation?

Enjoy the Day! Mark

Wow,amazing find my dear Mark.
 

alertken

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Joined
Jan 20, 2007
Messages
579
Reaction score
140
So, obvious Q: why no Westland Convertiplane...yet USMC/USAF now deploy Bell/Sikorsky V-22 as an operational asset?

The A will be in some obscure techno field. See, for example, Messerschmitt building a VG in 1945, yet first operational machine, F-111A, 3/68. There, the A was electron beam welding on titanium wing box, to permit loads on wing, stability control &tc. Osprey's credibility will lie somewhere in the swivel/tilt techno, not available in 1960s.
 

Jemiba

CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
Staff member
Top Contributor
Senior Member
Joined
Mar 11, 2006
Messages
8,194
Reaction score
846
Mark Nankivil said:
...The fuselage looks a bit larger in diameter than the other posted images. Any ideas on the designation?
No, but it was shown in viation Week 1969, too, described as a tiltwing for 100 passengers, powere by four
General Electric T64-12 engines and competing to he Hawker Siddeley design with lift fans.
 

Attachments

hesham

CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
Joined
May 26, 2006
Messages
26,250
Reaction score
3,148
Hi,


here is a drawings to Westland VTOL aircraft projects,the first was based on Vickers
Viscount and the other was based on Vickers Vanguard.


http://arc.aiaa.org/doi/abs/10.2514/3.43606
 

Attachments

kitnut617

CLEARANCE: Secret
Joined
Dec 15, 2006
Messages
371
Reaction score
83
Hmm, I could put one of my 1/72 Vanguards to good use there, any more info on that ?
 

hesham

CLEARANCE: Above Top Secret
Joined
May 26, 2006
Messages
26,250
Reaction score
3,148
kitnut617 said:
Hmm, I could put one of my 1/72 Vanguards to good use there, any more info on that ?

OK Kitnut617,


please send to me your E-mail address in special message,I will send to you the
whole PDF file.
 

fightingirish

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Senior Member
Joined
Jun 3, 2006
Messages
2,335
Reaction score
598
WG.17D 138 seat compound helicopter with 4 T64-GE-16 turboshafts and two Bristol Siddeley M45H turbofans.
Source: https://twitter.com/Aerossurance/status/758971991135170561
 

Attachments

Triton

Donald McKelvy
Senior Member
Joined
Aug 14, 2009
Messages
9,723
Reaction score
465
Website
deeptowild.blogspot.com
Model of Westland WG.22 on display at Hanover Air Show 1970.

"VTOL Aircraft Designs Shown in Hanover"
Aviation Week & Space Technology May 11, 1970 p. 60
 

Attachments

Schneiderman

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Senior Member
Joined
Oct 19, 2012
Messages
1,400
Reaction score
379
Photo of WE.01 now on ebay
https://www.ebay.co.uk/itm/Photograph-of-Artist-Impression-Westland-WE-01-Short-Range-Tilt-Rotor-Aircraft/142731201250?hash=item213b714ae2:g:R-cAAOSwTA1atACH
 

Attachments

Top