- Dec 27, 2005
- Reaction score
http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fighter/tu128.htmlFor the solution of the problems of the second and third stages OKB -156 it unfolded works on the design of the new complexes of the interception of aerial targets, in particular, the interceptor “138”. Complex in the version with the rockets K-60 and RLS “Smerch-A” obtained designation Tu-60, and with the rockets K -100 and RLS “Groza-100” - Tu-100. Aircraft “138” was equipped with two engines VD -19, preserved the formal resemblance Tu-128, but it was differed from it in terms of new thin wing and chassis, which was removed into the wing and the fuselage. Aerodynamics of aircraft was improved with the purpose of reaching the maximum speed of order 2100-2400 km/h with the suspended rockets. According to the calculations, on the boundaries of interception reached 2000 km, and the time of bombardment increased to 4,5 h. it was provided for the use of reserves of rockets R -4 from the complex Tu-4.
Work on the project “138” visited sufficiently far. Was constructed a large quantity of blow-off models, whose tests in TsAGI showed that the necessary lift-drag ratio in the subsonic flight conditions and the, therefore, planned distance cannot be obtained. Did not satisfy developers takeoff and landing characteristics, reaching the declared flight speeds because of the increased midsection of aircraft proved to be doubtful. The diverse variants were examined for the solution of the emergent problems. It was proposed to introduce the system of in-flight refuelling with the rod in the forward fuselage according to the type of that utilised on Tu-22, the possibility of the installation of the system of blowing boundary layer from flaps and wing leading edges was studied, but these measures too complicated and made heavier interceptor. As a result theme “138” they recognised as hopeless and closed.
In 1965 g. in the division of engineering designs OKB they prepared the preliminary design of the aircraft Tu-148, which had to enter into the composition of the new aviation- missile complex of distant interception Tu-100. Medium it was intended to equip RLS “Groza-100” and to arm with rockets K -100. On the project, Tu-148 it had variable sweep wing and two turbojets of the type RD-19R-2 with the thrust on the afterburner 14200 kg. Interceptor had to fly at the heights of 50-100 m with a velocity of 1400 km/h, and at the heights of 16000-18000 m with a velocity of 2500 km/h. Distance at cruise had to be about 5000 km, and in the supersonic mode - 2500 km special feature Tu-148 was the for the first time developed IRST system for control of rocket armament. “Groza-100” with a diameter of the antenna mirror of 2m onboard equipment of interceptor it made it possible to use it in the autonomous mode. Complex could be used for the interception of aerial targets on the distant approaches to the territory OF THE USSR and for PVO of areas with the under-developed or disabled ground-based navigation and airport systems. Thus, the problems of complex Tu-4 it was intended to solve at the new technical level.
In addition to this, new complex during the appropriate re-equipment of medium could be used: for the disturbance of the airlifts in the operational rear of enemy; for PVO of surface ships at the large removal from the bases; as the medium of the cruise missiles of class “air-surface” for the defeat of ground RLS and aircraft DRLO; as the reconnaissance aircraft of radio equipment of enemy; as the bomber; as the front shock aircraft, armed OF BUNKS and by the bombs of different calibres. In the version of shock aircraft or reconnaissance aircraft the flying range in the earth with the velocity of 1400 km/h had to be 570 km, and refueling was provided for in flight with the velocity of 1000 km/h - 1850 km. Landing gears Tu-148 made it possible to use it both from the concrete and from ground RUNWAY(S), which was extremely important, since calculated takeoff mass reached 55-60 t with 18,5-21,5 t of fuel. The armament of aircraft was located inside the volumetric loading compartment. This made it possible to preserve the high aerodynamic and flight characteristics independent of of the form of combat load and versions of combat use. It is however strange, but this version did not obtain support precisely because of its polyfunctionality. It was not necessary (front aviation it preferred Su-24), but the command of air defence aviation understood well for VVS that the multipurpose aircraft will not be able to become valuable interceptor.
After studying opinion and wishes of client, in OKB of Tupolev in second-half 60- of X yr. they studied the development of new version Tu-148 for the complex of interception Tu-33. To the aircraft it was intended to establish new weapon system: RLS “covering detachment” from the phased antenna and the rocket K -33. The following aerodynamic layouts of interceptor were examined: with the variable sweep wing, according to the diagram, close to the diagram Tu-22[M], works on which at that time dispatch in OKB; high wing monoplane with the fixed sweepback of wing and the chamfered air ducts with the horizontal wedge of braking the air flow; high wing monoplane with the diamond wing; high wing monoplane with the wing of the type “dual delta” and the front horizontal tail assembly. Of all versions the first proved to be most acceptable. For the aircraft selected engines [RD]36-41 with the full thrust 16000 kG with their own mass 3050 kg. this engine it was projected taking into account the interaction of high temperatures of stagnation (to 330°S) of the flow of surrounding air it had many original technical solutions.
It was intended to create the complex, capable of carrying on a struggle with the existing and perspective air weapon systems both in the field of the induction of ground radio-technical equipment and under the autonomous effects, and also with interaction with the aircraft [DRLO]. They entered into the tasks of complex: the interception of the low-altitude purposes, which fly of against the background terrestrial and aqueous surface, in particular, promising cruise missiles; the interception of the ballistic and cruise missiles of types “Hound Of dog”, SRAM, SCAD and SCAM; the expansion of the speed range of the intercepted purposes in the forward half sphere to 3500 km/h, in the rear - to 2400 km/h; a increase in altitude of the intercepted purposes to 26-28 km; a increase in the distance to 4600 km and time of bombardment to shch ch; a increase in the noise protection; the possibility of the simultaneous attack of two purposes; the possibility of group operations. It was assumed that to be exploited Tu-148 will be able from the same airfields as Tu-128/128[M].
Project was presented to the command of air defence aviation of the country and obtained the support of [glavkoma] a. Of [kadomtseva]. In OKB was unfolded the work along the new aircraft, mock-up was constructed, simulated commission worked. But during May of 1968 g. in the catastrophe on MiG-25[P] a. Of [kadomtsev], excellent pilot and aeronautical engineer, perished. The new management of air defence aviation preferred to establish system “covering detachment” to the modernised interceptor OF OKB a. i. of Mikoyan E -155[Mp], who was accepted for the armament under the designation MiG-31. All attempts a. n. of Tupolev and his associates to attain the continuation of works on the theme “148” result did not give.
Sorry to revive this topic after such a long time!Sentinel Chicken said:The 1972 Tu-148 design sure looks like a scaled down Tu-22M "Backfire"....which came first? This model or the Tu-22M? Or did they come about in the OKB about the same time based on common principles?
The first was Tu-22M ( the project "145" ).The 1972 Tu-148 design sure looks like a scaled down Tu-22M "Backfire"....which came first?
http://www.media-phazotron.ru/?p=383Vladimir Rigmant - Assistant to the President, the press secretary, director of the museum of JSC "Tupolev"
DRAFT long-range supersonic fighter-interceptor Tu-138
In the second half of the 60s. in the bureau, headed by Andrei Tupolev, continued design work on the new long-range interception for air defense of the country. As of 1963-1964. were prepared by two similar project complexes distant interception, designated Tu-Tu-138-60 and 138-100, which had basically the same design aircraft carrier "138" (Tu-138) and differed types of board radar missiles.
The aircraft "138" retained the overall layout of the Tu-128, but differs from it a new power plant with WD-19 engines, improved aerodynamics due to the new aerodynamically clean wing with a smaller relative thickness and form a new plan. Unlike the Tu-128, the main landing gear wheels on a plane "138" retracted into the wing root and partially in the fuselage. For complex Tu-138-60 was supposed to use the radar of the "Smerch-A" and missiles K-60, for complex Tu-138-100 - radar "Thunderstorm" and missiles K-100. Providing for the use of missiles K-80 (P-4) complex Tu-28-80 (Tu-128C-4). Modernization of the aircraft carrier, radar and missiles had significantly enhance the ability of the complex to intercept high-speed targets. For example, the maximum speed with missiles increased to 800 km / h, increases the time loitering, improved takeoff and landing performance, increased range of detection and capture objectives radar and range missiles.
During the design of the aircraft "138" models were conducted aerodynamic studies that have shown that the necessary aerodynamic efficiency at cruising subsonic flight can not be obtained due to a significant increase in the midsection of the fuselage (WD-19 and a new radar station had a larger diameter), and hence jeopardized the achievement of the required range and duration of the flight, which was one of the most important requirements for the interceptor. Non-shiny new thin wing obtained takeoff and landing characteristics.
In order to solve the problems have been proposed various options for completion of the project. Wanted to introduce a system of in-flight refueling "cone" of blowing boundary layer flaps and leading edge flaps or achieve greater aerodynamic efficiency of the wing due to boundary layer suction.
However, all these measures or weighting structure, or significantly reduced the efficiency of the power plant due to the selection of air blowing system. By the mid-60s. in KB it was decided to conduct further work on ways to modernize the distant interception on the basis of aircraft with variable sweep wing, which was proposed in the draft "148". Since the beginning of work on this property, all work on the project "138" were discontinued.
In addition to several projects of the aircraft "138", made by the schemes basically follow the original Tu-128, the OKB was offered several options for projects, "138", were based on non-traditional schemes, in particular, have been proposed scheme tailless delta wing and a "duck ". In addition to the engines of WD-19, for the aircraft "138" considered the possibility of using the RD-36-41.
Project of further interceptors TU-148
Work on deep modernization of air-missile system to intercept long-range based on the Tu-128 and gridlock with the design of the aircraft carrier for the new complex Tu-138 OKB insistently demanded that the search for new creative ways in the development of long-range heavy fighter-interceptors. Almost simultaneously with the beginning of the design of long-range missile with variable sweep wing aircraft 145 "in the bureau started designing aviation complex long-range interception, based had to lie heavy fighter-interceptor with variable sweep wing, won the designation of aircraft design bureau" 148 "(Tu 148).
Its design began in 1965. In the fall of 1965 were the main characteristics of the complex and its possibilities of modification to reflect the new configuration of the aircraft carrier. The use of a variable sweep wing in flight, combined with two turbojet engines VD-19R2 can eliminate many of the contradictions of previous single-mode projects and greatly enhance the tactical use of the aircraft. In configurations maximum and expected to get a big sweep speed when flying at altitudes of 50-100 m - 1400 km / h and at altitudes of 16000-18000 m - 2500 km / h and a practical range at this speed - 2500 km.
For flights at altitudes of 50-500 m at speeds of 1400 km / h - 570 km at a speed of 1000 km / h - 1,850 km. With a sweep of the wing corresponding to subsonic cruise provides a range of 4800 km. In the case of in-flight refueling performance in range, depending on the mode of flight, increased by 30-40%. Takeoff and landing performance, even with an increase in take-off weight of the Tu-148 to 55-60 tons (for the Tu-128 - 43 tons) were obtained significantly better than the Tu-128: 800 m length of the runway and the ability to use a third-class airfields and unpaved runways (for the Tu-128 - 1350m and the second class, respectively). In addition to the functions of long-fighter-interceptor Tu-148 after further conversion could be applied for violations of air transport in the operative behind enemy lines - samolet- "raider" to ensure the defense of surface ships at great distances from their bases as a carrier missiles "air-to-ground "for various purposes, including passive homing to destroy ground radar and AWACS aircraft, as a scout radio equipment, low-level and high-rise fotorazvedchika, tactical bombers carrying nuclear and conventional bombs and attack aircraft armed Nursi and guns, to strike by ground forces with a relatively weak defense and small ships. In fact, it was about creating a multi-purpose aircraft.
The second "highlight" of the project, along with a variable sweep wing, identify the person of the project and in many ways it was a proposal layout solutions used on the Tu-148 combined teploradiolokatsionnuyu weapon control systems "Smerch-100" includes radar quasi-continuous radiation with a mirror diameter of the antenna 2.0 m (antenna phased array), thermal equipment channel detection and tracking of targets that transmitted radar, digital onboard computer and radar antenna side-view. The developers of the "Smerch-100" intended to provide a detection range of aerial targets Tu-16 when attacking from the front hemisphere to 300-3500 km detection range in side the search of 600 km detection range teplopelengator on free courses to 100 km. System "Smerch-100" was to provide start-up and management of missiles in the search mode with a range of 250 km when attacking from the front hemisphere. By the time these characteristics looked on the verge of fiction and could in the case of the successful achievement of for many years to solve the problem of long-range aircraft interception. In the first phase planned to equip the complex with K-100 combined with teploradiolokatsionnoy GOS with different types of warheads with a range of up to 80 km, in the future, because the possibility of "Smerch-100" is enabled, it was supposed to go to rockets "air-to-air" more range. Weapons system made it possible to intercept and destroy targets flying at altitudes from 50 m to 32000-35000 m at speeds from 500 to 4000-4500 km / h. The onboard equipment includes the most advanced features of the system: the system trajectory control, the PNA complex, providing autonomous navigation, single-board automatic system for receiving information about the different types of goals, commands from the control, guidance and transfer information to other aircraft system low-altitude flight. All weapons and equipment targeted at different variants of tactical use housed in fuselage gruzootseke. Multiple use of the Tu-148 implied a rapid transition from one model to another in the field. Gruzootseke with interchangeable module calculates the following download options: four missiles K-100; one X-22 or X-28 two or four K-100P; machinery electronic intelligence "Bulat" or "Sabre" or "Bend"; aerial camera (AFA) type "Diamond", panoramic AFA and AFA-42/20 plus an additional fuel tank or AFA-42/20, two AFA-54 and AFA-45; two tactical nuclear bombs or containers with Nursi, or containers with guns with ammunition. In an embodiment of long-loitering interceptor complex Tu-148-100 could provide subsonic line interception 2150 km at a speed of 2500 km / h - up to 1000 km and combined cycle - up to 1700 km. Turn on time loitering 1300 km - 2 hours, and at 500 km - 4 hours. This made it possible to reliably cover the relatively small forces and means of the northern and eastern borders of the country. In case of success of the project defense could get a highly efficient system.
The project had a high degree of saturation of the super modern equipment. And this is how it turned out, was his weakest point, given the level of development of the electronic industry in the USSR in the 60s. Such a complex could actually occur under the most favorable conditions, at least ten years. Which has been confirmed in practice. Much simpler and less efficient system based on the system "Barrier" was released only in 70-ies. Aimed at creating a multi-purpose machine capable of performing the functions and the interceptor, and the front shock machine was not in line with the mainstream of domestic Air Force, which, unlike the US, always wanted to be armed with several types of aircraft narrowly targeted destination, rather than a multi-purpose combat vehicle . As a result of all these factors, the project Tu-148 in this configuration does not arouse the interest of the Air Force and has not been developed.
Work on the Tu-148 came to life in the second half of the 60s., When work began on a new weapon system "Barrier" with missiles K-33 (detection range 110-115 km, launch range 80-90 km), the structure of the building and functionally similar to the "Smerch-100", but which had a much more modest but real possibilities. It was decided to abandon the idea of creating a multi-role aircraft for the Air Force and is fully focused on further interception equipped with modern equipment, which could give our industry. Work on the Tu-148 is now regarded as the further modernization of the Tu-128. Expansion of combat capabilities and effectiveness of the complex as compared to the Tu-128C-4 was achieved by improving the flight and performance characteristics that reduce the minimum flight altitude intercepted goals with 8 km to 0.05 km, providing intercept low-altitude targets against the background of the earth, intercept small targets (air-launched missiles "Hound Dog», SRAM, SCAD and SCAM), expanding the range of speeds, intercepted goals in the forward hemisphere from 2000 km / h up to 3500 km / h and in the back - from 1250 km / h to 2300- 2,400 km / h, increasing the height of intercepted targets with 21000 m to 26000-28000 m, increase noise immunity of the complex, providing a simultaneous attack of two goals, providing group activities that increase the efficiency of the semi-autonomous and autonomous action, increased range and endurance, improved takeoff and landing characteristics , improved acceleration characteristics, the introduction of additional elements of the automation of the main phases of flight. Improving the performance of the aircraft carrier was to be carried out by replacing the engine AL-7F-2 to more powerful RD-36-41, fuselage modifications, alterations, air inlets and canals, installation of a new wing with variable sweep in flight with slats and double-slotted inboard flaps, gain chassis design and implementation of a new type of wheel, the introduction of electron-intertseptornogo stability control and automatic way, the introduction of trajectory control, etc. It was assumed that in a modified form of the aircraft can be operated with the same airports as the Tu-128. Project Design Bureau presented Command air defense of the country. The new complex was supported air defense commander AL KP.
In OKB the works on designing aircraft and complex. Prepared a full-scale model of the Tu-148, which is several times examined by the customer. In May 1968 in a plane crash on one of the first E-155P dies Kadomtsev. The new management of air defense relies on the modernization of the system under the "Barrier" serial MiG-25P, begin work on the E-155MP with "Barrier", a prototype of future serial MiG-31. Formally, a new air defense command of the Tu-148 project for some time refused. Still, it was a question of contacts with the largest and most prestigious in the country by air and with its chief designer AN Tupolev, opinion and expression is a lot of cost. Come a little differently: the aircraft carrier exhibited additional requirements, which largely were at odds with the basic concept of the aircraft and the complex (one of those requirements was the point to significantly improve maneuverability characteristics of the Tu-148 at low altitudes). Kolmogorov himself and his closest colleagues persistently tried to achieve a breakthrough related to the Tu-148 and a formal ruling on the complex, the allocation of money for the further design. But it was all in vain. In the early 70-ies. Work on the complex had finally collapsed. In the future, EDB is no longer engaged in specialized subjects heavy aircraft carrier for long-distance air defense complexes interception. All work in the bureau in this direction in the future were limited to consideration of technical proposals for the creation of long-range heavy fighter interceptor class "raider" based on the Tu-144 and Tu-22M (projects complexes distant interception DP-1 and DP-2), but this work not out of the initial discussion stage projects.