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Breguet 941 STOL and related projects

Archibald

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Re: Breguet 941 VTOL and related projects

LowObservable said:
IIRC, the end result of all the "Model 188" demos and STOLPort studies was as follows:

Since the STOLPort was likely to be a "brownfield" site on the edge of town, it made sense to make the runway slightly longer and accept somewhat higher T/O and approach speeds. Importantly, this eased the engine-out control case to the point where the cross-shafted engines of the 941 were not needed. However, four engines were still required (for engine-out and flap blowing) together with robust controls (spoilers and a large double-hinged rudder).

This led to a joint US airline spec for a 48-seat STOL transport, and the DH Dash 7 was designed to it.
Vey interesting. And that probably made a huge difference in maintenance costs. The Armée de l'Air actually got four Breguet 941S in 1971, they flew along Transalls at the 62ème escadre de transport but were dropped in 1974 as too expensive in maintenance. I wondered about a DASH-7 connection, so thank you.
For the record, Breguet merged with Dassault in December 1971 and I wondered why Dassault didn't tried to market the 941. The DASH-7 is part of the answer. The failures of both Falcon 30 (regional jet, too early) and the Mercure airliner are the other part.
It is interesting to note that the DASH-7 STOL was relaxed on the DASH-8 because airlines were not really interested. Two engines and better cruise performance, that's what the market really wanted.

Of the four Breguet 941 build, one is at Le Bourget aviation museum and another has recently been saved from scrapping by LEs ailes anciennes de Toulouse, thank to crowdfunding.
http://www.aatlse.org/news611.php
 

LowObservable

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The Dash 7 competed head-on with the less expensive Fokker F27 and F50. By the late 1970s, after the raising of aircraft size limits on Part 298 operators, and after deregulation made it easier for smaller airlines to compete on short, low-traffic routes (many of them previously owned and inefficiently served by majors), the STOLPort craze had subsided. All that was necessary for the new "supercommuters" - Dash 8, Saab 340 and EMB-120 - was to go anywhere an F27 or a Convair could go but at a lower aircraft-mile cost.
 

VictorXL188

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Amongst the pics of the Breguet 940/941/941S I never saw any of the tests carried out in central Paris, so I hope these may be of interest to people
 

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VictorXL188

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Apologies missed it in the middle of a bunch of others. :p ::)
 

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VictorXL188 said:
Amongst the pics of the Breguet 940/941/941S I never saw any of the tests carried out in central Paris, so I hope these may be of interest to people
I suspect this photo was actually taken at the heliport in Issy-les-Moulineaux, which is just outside Paris. The telephoto lens makes the Eiffel Tower appear closer.
 

Archibald

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and your intuition was right, the Breguet 941 was extensively tested at Issy les moulineaux.
 

JC Carbonel

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Hello Boys and Girls

you maybe interested to know my book on the Br 94 series is planned for 2018 at Artipresse. I had a mock-up cover at Telford. There will be a lot of new material coming from interview with pilots from CEAM and E.T. 03.062. I have not been able to circonstantiate the floatplane version from original Breguet material so I am still undecided as to wether to include it or not.
Coverage will begins with the Br 940.01 of 1954 to the last flight of the type on 18 july 1974.

JCC
 

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JC, will you be including the US airline demonstration flights of the MD-188 version?
 

JC Carbonel

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Both US escapades (Br 941 / Br 941S) are covered. I have a Breguet report dated 1970 which covers the Br 941S trip. The MD 188(S) affair is spread on 5 pages of the word manuscript. I guess it would amount to slightly more pages once the book is layouted.

I also covers various European trips including the "round-Europe" Br 941 campaign , NASA experimentations, flights to Italy and Germany, the aborted flight to Middle East. One of my pilots told me he had done a flight into Africa but I have not been able to substantiate it (and he did not offer to make copy of his logbook so I did not insist). Again I understand some display operation was planned with Short in UK but I have no proof it was actually flown. Often archives are thick with planning memos but light on actual operation reports (and this is no specific of the Breguet research)

JCC
 

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AFAIK the Br 941 did not survive. But two Br 941 S (that's 50% of the production!) survive : one in Toulouse, one in Musée de l'Air (le Bourget)

JCC
 

Archibald

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There were six of them (I was wrong), the "integral" 940 demonstrator, then a Breguet 941, and then the four Breguet 941S that went to 62ème escadre de transport until 1974.
Of these four, as said above, one is MAE in Le Bourget, another has recently be saved through a kickstarted campaign by Les ailes anciennes de Toulouse.

The two others 941S, the 941, and the 940 were all scrapped.

http://histaero.blogspot.fr/2014/11/breguet-940941-linvention-de-ladac.html
 

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In the NASA Publication, Memoirs of an Aeronautical Engineer: Flight Tests at Ames Research Center 1940-1970, author Seth Anderson recounts the results of the 10 hour test program conducted by NASA at the French Flight Test Center in Istres in 1963 and then a 20 hour program in Toulouse in 1966. The program involved transition from cruise to approach speed; VFR and IFR landing patterns; airspeed and flight path control for these same tasks; landing flare technique and method of control; and takeoff and go-around characteristics. The engineers from Ames found that the aircraft (941S) demonstrated marginal performance in that both heading and flight path control while flying at relatively low altitudes and airspeeds during the ILS approaches. Their recommendations were to develop better displays and controls for arresting the descent rates during IFR operations. Ames engineers were also involved in the MD-188 operational tests at Dulles in Washington, D.C. He cites the added weight and complexity of the interconnect system needed for safe low speed operation as one of the aircraft's failings. He also stated that airspace infrastructural changes were needed for the integration of national STOL operations.
 

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There are lots of other papers about the aircraft on NTRS, and DTIC; they're not always easy to find, but it's worthwhile. The American reports often refer to it in the most generic terms possible, e.g. "A deflected slipstream STOL transport having four interconnected propellers".

The aircraft also featured as a baseline for many subsequent studies; the relevance of these to this thread depends upon how far you want to stretch "related projects".
 
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