Russian J-10 Article (Chinese)

overscan (PaulMM)

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俄罗斯空军眼中的歼-10战机(客观且深刻的评论)

  歼-10战机发展的历程相当漫长, 作为中国第一种自行独立发展的战斗机, 毫无例外地受到非常多的子系统的困扰.作为一种先进的战斗机, 它的指标需要一个系统的工业整体进步的成果.大量的先进子系统比如发动机、雷达等领域中国并没有制造研发的成功经验.在80年代后期的独特国策环境下, 轻工业, 民用电子产业发展迅速, 需要高级加工技术的领域从西方引进技术的收益没有想象中那么大, 高水平元器件更是始终匮乏, 既不能生产, 也无法购买.这导致配套系统有些组件发展顺利, 有些组件严重滞后, 特别是几个关键的核心部件上的进度拖拉, 致使飞机比预计的服役时间晚了8年.

  心脏病的烦恼

  飞机的发动机我们已经知道是留里卡-萨图恩联合体的AL-31FN了, 照片上机尾的不锈钢隔热环是AL-31系列发动机高温部分的外部特征.这种发动机重量约1740kg, 而推力和其他AL-31发动机一样, 是122.55kn.AL-31FN发动机结构上采用带可变弯的进口导叶片的涡扇发动机, 进口导叶片有23片, 前缘固定后缘有调整片, 叶片上有从压气机第7级引气的除冰结构,4级全钛合金风扇, 前三级叶片为长弦带防振凸肩的叶片, 压比3.6, 涵道比 0.6.9级高压压气机, 压比6.6, 总增压比23, 环形燃烧室, 高低压涡轮都是单级的, 涡轮前温度1665k, 发动机空气流量112Kg/s, 军用推力 76.2kn, 最大加力推力122.55kn.耗油率0.0695kg/n.h, 加力耗油率0.198kg/n.h.AL-31FN在苏霍伊飞机上的出色表现证明了这种发动机异常优异的工作稳定性, 对各种恶劣工作条件下的适应性, 它能在眼镜蛇那样的超过90度大迎角下正常工作, 轮机动的360度旋转更是进气条件恶劣到极点, 而AL-31F发动机都完美的运作并展示了, 这个特性对于新飞机的研制非常重要, 尤其是单发战斗机.歼-10计划从86年执行至今, 飞机首飞到现在已经超过8年以上, 并未有坠毁之类的消息传出, 对比当时中国内的一些对老旧的涡喷发动机的改进装机却屡屡有坠毁的传闻, 可见AL-31FN的稳定对于歼-10意义非凡.


  按照最初的计划, 中国人也许从没有打算过会使用俄罗斯的发动机.回忆一下80年代的国际政治环境,80年代中期, 中国和苏联的关系还没有象现在这样亲密, 相反互相敌视的情绪相当高涨, 中国在远东部署有超过100万人的部队, 而苏联也在蒙古有50 万以上的部队.歼-10瞄准的对手是苏联空军主力米格-23, 米格-25, 也一定程度瞄准了米格-29和苏-27的身影.不过政治关系的转变往往比工程计划更具有戏剧性, 到了80年代末, 在戈尔巴乔夫的主导下, 中苏关系再度亲密起来, 中国获得苏-27战斗机的出口就是一个很大的证明, 在此之前苏联是绝对不卖这种当时极为先进的大型远程战斗机的, 因为他在帮助中国对抗中国的同时也有能力威胁苏联的腹地, 为此苏联曾要求中国不能将这种飞机部署在北方, 并关闭了相当多的对地攻击的功能, 使其只能使用火箭弹或者BoB!!!作前线临时支援用途, 而不具备特别的攻击能力.


  一切的担心没有成为现实, 随之而来的不幸解体突然瓦解了苏联的威胁, 俄罗斯的经济需要大量出售军事技术来维持, 以前不能卖的东西现在是深恐推销出去少了, 俄国成为中国获得先进武器和技术的最好的窗口.1989年tian~an-door事件以后, 与中国亲密的西方也因为美国主导的封锁突然变得陌生和对立起来, 中国的歼-10原先预期在西方技术支持下开展的可能性突然关闭, 再加上90年代台湾问题的中国和美国的巨大分歧, F-16战斗机和幻影2000进入台湾, 导致歼 -10的作战对手更换成F-16、F-15, 从西方引进发动机或者是从西方获得研制发动机技术的大门彻底关闭.美国的技术封锁相当严密, 而掌握高级发动机技术的英国, 法国则将中国看作倾销淘汰技术的理想市场, 并不愿意冒政治风险向中国输入较先进的技术.中国航空发动机工业早先因为苏联提供的战斗机技术而建立起来的, 工业水平不高, 且没有正常建立研发机构.米格-21战斗机的R-13发动机中国直到80年代才算真的仿制成功并将其实用化, 这种苏联20年前的技术还让中国为难了长达10几年之久.


  所以, 在90年代末21世纪初, 中国还愿意花费巨资购买英国60年代的斯贝发动机的设计生产技术资料, 自此才让中国国内仿制斯贝发动机获得成功.可见中国飞机发动机科研水平和工业水平的低下.正是在这种背景下, 中国几乎所有的新研制飞机都受到发动机问题的巨大影响, 前面我们谈到的歼-9战斗机的屡次延误和中国自称的WS-6型发动机的拖延无不关系.中国的歼-8战斗机类似于我国的苏- 15.也是因为缺乏推力更大的发动机, 飞机的性能仅仅和米格-21改进型号相当, 即便如此还花费了20多年才完成实际的设计定型工作.


  如同歼-9计划一样, 歼-10计划配套研制的发动机仍然是编号为航空部第606研究所的沈阳航空发动机研究所, 他们为歼-10计划准备了名为WS-10 的涡轮风扇发动机, 预计设计推力120kn, 推重比为8.这个型号的发动机研制比飞机设计的时间早差不多一年, 在80年代初期, 中国引进波音737飞机的时候曾按照苏式飞机的维护标准, 购买了一些作为备份的CFM-56-3发动机.后来中国在使用中发现这种方式对于西方飞机并不适用, 波音737终身都不用更换一台全新的发动机.这个时候中国的发动机学者们考虑到CFM-56-3的核心机与美国通用研发的F110涡扇发动机几乎是一致的, 西方有瑞典利用普惠 JT-8D民用发动机改进成为战斗机发动机的前例, 中国也计划从这种发动机基础上研究下去, 获得一种中国的F110发动机, 经过计算, 利用这种发动机的核心机可以获得110-130kn的推力, 完全能满足飞机的要求.中国认为这样利用现成成熟的技术完全可以比自己重新建立一套来的迅速和简单, 可以满足新飞机研发的进度需要.


  这一次作为曾经为歼-9研制的涡扇6(WS-6)母工厂,606所接受了这一推力相近的发动机的研制任务.新发动机理所当然放弃了在几乎完成的涡扇6G发动机上进行改进的打算, 而是决定跟踪西方航空发动机发展的潮流, 决定完全重新研制一款先进的发动机(官方语).新发动机采用和模仿了美国通用公司的CFM-56-3发动机的核心机, 这种发动机大量装配在中国拥有的数量庞大的波音737机群上, 这种发动机是从美国通用动力公司以提供B-1轰炸机的F101发动机发展而来, 同时衍生出性能相当杰出的F110发动机, 中国选择这个作为参考, 充分考虑到这个平台出色的可移植能力, 已经成熟的结构和大量的使用经验, 还有可通用零部件的易采购和易于维护的特点.尽管选择了一条看上去的捷径, 工业化水平的差距仍然需要花费十几年的时间和精力才将发动机变得更为现实和能够被自己的工艺生产出来.到目前为止甚至还没有能够应用在中国生产的歼-10上的消息, 至少赛坦公司的订单还在源源不断地增加.中国航空工业一集团的官方网站最新的消息表示这种发动机似乎已经获得了最后的成功, 相信距离大规模应用还有一段时间.这种发动机在中国还处于高度保密的状态, 很少量的文章会通过一些专业的学术期刊发表, 这些零星的消息, 是推测他的存在和性能的证据, 我们认为这种发动机具有如下的性能与结构.为了方便对比, 我们采用和F110-GE-100的数据进行图表对比.FWS-10的数据大部分为预估.


       F110-GE-100      FWS-10A

  进气口   带进口导叶    可变弯度进口导叶

  风扇   3级, 压比3.2    3级, 压比3

  涵道比    0.87        0.8

  压气机  9级, 压比11    9级, 压比11~12

  空气流量   115kg/s     126kg/s

  总压比 3032

  燃烧室    浮壁短环式         浮壁短环式

  涡轮   对转式, 高压1级, 低压2级   对转式, 高压1级, 低压2级

  涡轮前温度  1655k          1700k

  军用推力   75.56Kn        79Kn

  加力推力    122kn         132.4kn

  重量     1800kg          1795kg


  FWS-10的外形尺度和重量与AL-31F系列发动机高度相似, 中国考虑在歼-10和国产化的苏-27上采用, 形成类似于美国的发动机通用战略.缺点在于全部主力战斗机都采用同一类型的发动机, 一旦出现事故, 所有的机群都会受到限制停飞.优点在于可以利用批量生产降低发动机的生产成本, 摊薄研制成本, 大量可互换的零件便于地勤的培养和通用.有趣的是, 现在中国空军将拥有两种不同的发动机, 但两者的性能和水平相当接近, 到目前为止, 有超过500台以上的 AL-31F系列发动机被中国空军采用, 而设计WS-10A发动机的厂家恰好又是承担中国空军AL-31F发动机大修的工厂, 几乎不需要考虑, 我们也可以认为中国的发动机上一定有我们的发动机的技术.这一点可以从WS-10进化到WS-10A这一过程推导.据说中国最先研发的WS-10发动机是不太成功的, 这种发动机推力大约有12000kg, 但在一系列定型试验中表现恶劣, 技术问题层出不穷, 无法达到使用状态.而中国在96年便获得了AL-31F发动机所有的大修资料, 并且也获得一定数量的零件生产资料和技术, WS-10A发动机大约在2000年前后成型, 技术的扩散有相当的可能性.当然, 如果一切如同我们设想那样美好, WS-10A发动机将会很快影响我国飞机出口市场, 中国已经计划在他们生产的苏-27上安装它, 歼-10作为原定使用客户反而落在后面, 当赛坦公司的发动机出口停滞, 中国的发动机才是真的准备好了.当然, 俄罗斯也不再死板了,143kn的AL-31FM便是一个很好的继续使用下去的理由, 还有更大推力的或者装备推力矢量技术的发动机, 这些都是中国所不具有和不能很快具有的.


  战斗机的设计上, 发动机的重量是决定飞机重量的一个重要参数, 我们可以通过参考设计上类似的飞机的设计比例参数, 推测出一型战斗机的重量等参数.有经验的飞机设计师会选择一个尽量小的重量配置到飞机上, 考虑歼-10的外型尺寸, 它的空重将会在F-16和F-18之间, 不过三角翼无尾布局可以获得较轻的结构重量系数, 以动力装置的重量和设计常数来推测, 我们推测歼-10战斗机的动力系统和飞机空重的比例大于应该在0.2-0.22之间, F-16A的这个参数是0.25, F-18的参数是0.18, 法国的幻影2000约为0.2, 而中国的米格-21这一参数是0.22.以中国习惯上参考的米格-21的设计习惯为例, 和歼-10机翼设计与幻影2000的相似度来看, 我们推算出歼-10战斗机的空重为7900kg.从中国网站上流传的消息上看, 大致上认为歼-10的空重在7800kg和 8600kg之间, 这对于上面的取值都是正常合理的.再根据结构效益上中国提出更高的寿命时数和高过载要求, 电子设备也大大增加, 这足以抵消结构和材料上设计的, 我们将歼-10的重量比值再考虑高一点, 大约0.21左右, 空重在8300kg左右较为合理.考虑到美国F-16系列战斗机在安装F110发动机和增加电子设备以后, 以及增加最大起飞重量4吨以后, 重量达到从早期的6900kg增加到8600Kg.目前的歼-10看上去还是以空优为主的飞机, 最大起飞重量可能不会大于F-16C的水平, 而三角翼飞机的结构重量也该大致相当.


  推测飞机作战性能还有一个比较关键的数据, 飞机的内部载油量.传统的战斗机设计机内载油时, 都选择较小的比例, 增大航程依靠携带副油箱, 这样可以尽量减轻飞机的结构体积和重量, 能够让飞机的推重比尽量的大, 欧洲的台风和阵风是这种设计概念的最典型表现, 机内载油系数较小.而另一种设计思想以苏-27为代表, 在机内设置足够的空间和载量, 满足飞机长续航时间和大作战半径的需求, 甚至不需要携带副油箱, 这在巡航时阻力和油耗方面的优势较佳.单发战斗机中F-16采用大内部载油系数、大航程的设计, 而受制于落后发动机的幻影2000则采用小载油系数, 大副油箱的设计完成同样的要求.歼-10战斗机的外形尺寸比F-16、幻影2000都大, 机体的空间也相对而言大很多, 燃油的载运量也一定会大于这两种战斗机, F-16和幻影2000的机内载油量大约都在3100kg左右, 在传统的飞机设计中, 米格- 21选取燃油重量比为27.8%, F-16为27%, 幻影2000为24%, 其他飞机都在24%到30%之间.曾经有期刊传闻中国歼-10的机内载油为 4600-4900升左右, 那么飞机的内部载油量在3600-3900kg上下, 考虑到载油系数,3600kg左右似乎更值得相信, 这样歼-10的燃油系数大约为29%, 单发战斗机中米格较为接近, F/A-18也较为接近.另外也有传言飞机内载油为3吨, 虽然对于那么大尺度的飞机来说有点偏小, 不过考虑到尽量减小重量因素下也是可能的, 这样燃油系数为25.4%, 取值偏小.对比歼-10和F-16, 幻影2000的尺寸上的差异, 这个3600kg的重量应该算是相当中肯的.而照片上显示的转场飞行的副油箱挂载提供了1700+900+1700升的配置, 大约3400kg的燃油, 总燃油量达到7000kg, 挂装符合设计风格和对其的要求.


  通过载油量和重量的分析, 我们能够建立起一个合理的飞机作战性能评估, 这种分析法则在冷战 30年中发挥了巨大的作用, 也有相当的精确度.借助上面的参数, 我们可以评估出歼-10的作战性能.以国际流行的空战重量估计(机内半油, 两枚格斗导弹, 机炮.这是根据设想飞机机内满油, 携带外挂如上, 从机场最大加力起飞, 并保持最快的速度赶到格斗区域这个作战条件形成的), 歼-10这个状态大约重 10600kg, 飞机的推重比为1.18, 翼载荷为260kg/平米, 这个作战指标已经高于原定的作战对象F-16A, 大大高于重点参考和考察的幻影 2000战斗机, 在以西方第三代战斗机衡量的标准来看, 这个指标在单发战斗机里也是异常优异的.考虑到留利卡-萨图恩一度建议中国购买性能改进后的发动机, 以及中国自行研制的发动机推力稍大, 飞机的推重比还有上升的潜力.定常盘旋的性能目前还不清楚, 这个作为持续机动的指标, 以歼-10的气动布局能获得较大的可用升力系数和较大的推重比来说, 应该大大高于幻影2000.瞬时盘旋角速度方面, 相似的机翼形状和更大的可用升力系数, 歼-10至少不会低于幻影 2000那非常高的瞬时盘旋角速度的指标.这项参数对下一代的格斗作战意义更重要一些, 它是占据导弹发射先机的一个保障, 也是规避导弹的一个关键性机动指标.在和以高机动见长的第三代战斗的空战中, 依靠稳定盘旋那种微弱的差别获得优势需要太长的时间, 在目前导弹技术的支持下, 尽量先将机头转到可以瞄准的角度获得胜利的几率远大于失去一点动能的所带来的危险.瞬时盘旋受到阵风, 台风这类新战斗机的重视, 包括F-22在内的新一代战斗机在这方面都被大大增强了.


  中国空军长期使用米格早期战斗机, 比如在中国被称为歼-6的米格-19, 歼-7的米格-21, 这些战斗机都有机场围墙保卫者的"美称".中国在引进苏-27以前从没有过远程战斗机, 他们对这方面是相当渴望的, 尤其是在90年代台湾问题和南沙群岛的领土争端都需要作战半径超过1000km的战斗机.AL-31FN是一种相当省油的发动机, 这在苏-27上获得验证, 歼-10的载油量相当大, 苏-27重量大约是歼-10的2倍, 而9000kg燃油可以飞行3800km, 一半重量的歼-10保守估计也能携带6000kg以上燃油, 航程达到苏-27的水平并不奇怪, 这种战斗机应该具有或者超过F-16相似的航程和作战半径, 飞机的最大航程至少可以达到3500km以上, 这是中国第一次获得这样的国产的远程战斗机, 如同照片显示的携带三副油箱2枚导弹的巡逻任务构型据说能够远至半径1270km以外.这意味着凭借机内燃油, 飞机至少要能够飞行2000km以上, 对于一种轻型单发战斗机来说这是一个非常好的消息.中国空军长期依赖的主力歼-8系列飞机机内携带4吨燃油仅能飞行1400km, 加上外挂一共携带6.7吨燃油也只能飞行 2200km, 作战半径小, 大约只有700km左右.而歼10的大航程可以很轻松的提供远达900-1100km的作战半径, 或者能够在战场停留更长的时间, 比如比歼-8长2倍的战场滞空时间.这不仅仅意味着中国空军获得歼-10以后可以以较少的飞机就能大大扩大制空的区域, 而且低燃油消耗对飞机的日常使用费用是一个巨大的进步, 也大大减小了后勤供给的压力.远程战斗机还给中国对周边的军事压力带来影响, 虽然目前歼-10战斗机还没有表现出对地攻击的能力, 但以色列轰炸伊拉克核反应堆使用的F-16也是类似的战斗机, 它的复盖范围足以把韩国, 日本等涵盖在内, 这对东亚地区的政治和军事影响都相当深远, 中国现在还具有空中加油的技术和能力了, 以前的苏-30因为数量问题还不被其他国家重视, 歼-10战斗机注定要大批量生产, 这对某些国家来说不是一个好消息.


  飞机节约燃油是一个很隐蔽的优点, 首先战斗机飞行一次使用燃料的费用本身是相当高的, 一个战斗机飞行员一年至少会飞行 100-200小时, 俄罗斯空军因为军费的问题, 空军长期处于油料紧缺中, 即便拥有大量的战斗机, 并不能保证飞行员的训练时数和作战时的出动数量.廉价省油的单发飞机作为降低空军的使用成本早就被西方空军所证明, 只是俄罗斯一直无力发展几乎就要成为现实的轻型单发战斗机计划.中国长期使用装备高耗油的涡喷发动机的战斗机, 执行同样的飞行任务, 油料上得费用非常高, 新飞机可以在这方面大大节约.如果仅仅是节约油钱, 那可能并不是很为人看重, 但是从作战能力来说, 一个机场的补给能力是有限制的, 以往支持一个歼-8中队作战3天的机场今天也许可以支持一个中队歼-10作战5天, 这就是不可忽视的优点了.以歼- 10的远程巡逻的构型来看, 起飞重量估计达到15800kg, 照片上看起飞的时候前翼的偏转角度较大, 而机翼的襟翼下偏角度并不大, 这似乎显示飞机还能够利用襟翼的增升能力以更重的重量起飞, 尚未有显示歼-10重载能力的照片出现, 估计其最大起飞重量可能会在17800-19000kg之间, 这时候还能保持约500kg/平米的翼载荷, 也算在合理范围.
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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雄鹰利爪


  这个时候我们再来回想一下中国对歼-9计划的提出的远程护航的要求,今天的歼-10的设计完全是满足了中国空军几十年前就迫切需要的能力。飞机的远航能力的增强,载荷能力的增强,势必导致飞机执行更多更复杂的任务,这是早先对歼-9计划时不曾想到的。今天的多用途飞机,不仅仅依靠卓越的飞行性能,还必须装备复杂的电子设备才能获得执行多种任务的能力。中国空军长久以来就缺乏具有良好雷达性能的飞机,以歼-8发展起来的类似于苏-15的截击机受困于中国自身薄弱的雷达电子工业能力,90年代中期以前一直无法突破相参脉冲多普勒雷达的技术难点,以至于大量的歼-8II战斗机在长达十年的时间里没有合适的雷达搭配。而80年代末的中美和平典范计划意图安装美国APG-66雷达的计划最终失败,这让中国人非常失望,在引进苏霍伊的苏-27战斗机时,其上装备的雷达水平依然是较为老旧的,中国一度表示非常的不满,这个问题到了苏-30MKK时才获得一定程度的解决。

  中国国内研发机载雷达的单位较多,目前已知实力较为雄厚的单位是南京电子研究所,而原来中国的机载雷达厂(编号780厂)在80年代的军转民大潮中转向民用产品,以生产电视机为主,其产品被称为"长虹"牌,今天全世界的超级市场都能看到这种牌子的电视机。歼-10的雷达是中国国内最为保密的项目之一,它掩护在多个对老旧战斗机改进的简易型号背后。在中国引入苏-27以后,费佐伦公司曾经提供旗下每一种产品给中国空军测试,一直没有得到中国空军的青睐,在中国人的采购习惯里,如果不是比国内相似的东西性能大大优越,那是没有什么采购的希望的。1996年前后沈阳引进一批当时还没有能安装到米格-33战斗机上的甲虫ME雷达装载在歼-8IIM上用于向外国推销,居然被客户以雷达性能不足为由而失败了,到了2000年以后的沈阳的歼-8IIM飞机已经装配中国自己的研发的PD雷达了,据称性能好于甲虫ME。中国的雷达计划不容易理解,看上去很多厂家在同一时刻取得技术性突破,在中国至少有3家以上的单位在制造用于歼击机使用的PD雷达。


  歼-10的机头直径接近圆形,从照片上通过比例计算直径接近一米,这样的头锥可以安装直径 740mm或者780mm的天线,这样的天线直径比费佐伦提供给中国的甲虫ME的天线大。甲虫ME直径只有680mm左右,大约和美国的APG-66或者 APG-68相似,探测性能也基本和美国APG-66相似,对于米格-21类RCS在3平米的目标,最大探测距离在74到80公里左右,下视距离约40公里。2003年底,中国为巴基斯坦研制的FC-1型飞机试飞了,其研制单位(歼-10的母厂)对外展示了一系列的航电组合,其中提供一种由中国国内生产的轻型脉冲多普勒雷达,具有全数字化多模态的脉冲多普勒雷达,这种雷达有着600mm的直径,具备高、中、低脉冲重复频率(全波形),并且可以智能转换脉冲重复频率,采用脉冲压缩技术以及频率捷变技术,重量轻,功能齐全。其对3平米目标探测距离达到80km,对于大型空中目标达到120km,对海面目标最远可达200km,下视时最远可以达到42km,基本性能和几年前的甲虫ME雷达几乎一致。为了和西方雷达相竞争,特别是和意大利的Grifo-S2000 型雷达竞争,中国提供了同样丰富的对地功能,真实波束测绘,大比例多普勒锐化等等,还具有时髦的边跟踪边扫描的能力,可以同时跟踪10个目标并控制两枚主动雷达制导的中距导弹攻击两个不同的目标。这一型雷达被认为是歼-10雷达的缩小简化版,用于在出口FC-1飞机的时候增加政治筹码的灵活性和争取最大的利润,较大直径的改型出现在沈阳制造的新的歼-8IIM上,取代了原有的甲虫ME雷达。

  由于性能和竞争对手相比毫不逊色,有不少地方还优于意大利雷达,特别是中国还提供和AIM-120、R-77类似的先进的中距空空导弹SD-10以后,在火控的集成上,无疑占据很大的整合优势。有鉴于此这一型雷达的价格并不比国外的竞争对手便宜,甚至还稍微贵一点,我们相信中国用在自己的主力战斗机上的系统,一定要大大优于可以允许出口的装备,这一点是完全沿袭苏联时代的意识习惯。一些小道消息认为,歼-10的雷达性能相当强大,它的天线直径和美国的APG-65差不多大,平均功率达到1500- 2500瓦,而上面所列的轻型雷达功率一般不超过350W,采用栅控液冷中央行波管,探测距离rcs=3平米的目标不小于100km,有人说这雷达发现苏 -27那么大的目标大约在160km左右。同样采用了脉冲压缩和频率捷变的技术,雷达采用计算能力强大的POWER PC类芯片的多余度数字计算机进行处理,计算机的处理能力远远超过法国RDY雷达宣称的每秒1亿次的能力,这是计算机产业进步的结果,今天我们用于打字的桌面电脑都具有超过15亿次每秒的计算能力,较晚出现的系统自然会有更佳的处理能力,强大的计算处理能力和存储能力可以帮助雷达在边跟边扫模式中处理更多的目标。根据法国的RDY雷达的能力,我们相信如果真的如同描述那么强大的计算能力,同时跟踪15-25个目标,攻击其中4-8个目标是完全可能的,费佐伦为苏-30开发的雷达计算能力还没有法国雷达那么夸张时就宣称可以跟踪15个目标而打击其中4个


  今天的雷达和计算机技术发展的很快,战斗机同时打击的目标能力很快就会是飞机携带武器数量的问题,而不会是电子设备的能力问题了。强调跟几打几的数字风潮很快就会过去,就实战而言,战斗机一次控制过多的导弹攻击不同的目标会大大削弱自身的机动和应变能力,不便于自身及时的机动,雷达的工作状态也不是最佳精度的模式,边跟踪边扫模式会对雷达的探测距离有一定程度的影响,由于需要搜索一个较大的角度,不能使用精细的波束进行高精度的探测和分辨,波形的重复率只能以中等重复率或者高重复率为主,对运动方向不一的目标效果较差,一打多的攻击导弹的命中率会大大降低。边跟边扫这个模式的重要意义并不在于具有多少同时打击的能力,他是让飞行员在攻击的同时具有了掌握一定的战场状况的信息能力,而不像以前必须使用单目标模式进行跟踪,还必须照射目标直到导弹命中,那种情况飞行员实际根本无法通过雷达获知其他飞机是否对他造成了威胁,以及及时地对付最具有威胁的目标。从目前的实战记录来看,尚未出现同时发射控制击落2个以上目标的,不过可以认为这是一个趋势,它需要扫描速度更快的相控阵雷达的支持。
 
  歼-10以今天的标准来看,是典型的轻型战斗机了,这类战斗机一般最多携带4枚中距导弹加上两枚红外近距导弹,参与较远距离的作战时往往只能携带2枚中距弹2枚近距弹。从这个角度考虑,过于远程的雷达和复杂的射控技术同时安装在这种机体上并不划算,同时也会极大地增加飞机的造价和复杂程度。有一张在地面展示武力的照片非常有趣,歼-10战斗机挂载了6枚3种不同型号的导弹。最外侧的是较为常见的PL-8型导弹,其原形是以色列的怪蛇-3型导弹。紧挨着PL-8导弹的是一枚中距空空导弹,弹头部有不长的外露导线通道,中部弹翼仔细观察后可以看出是可动的,外形和美国的麻雀导弹一样,判断这是很少在中国的飞机上看到的PL-11导弹,它是在意大利阿斯派德的基础上发展的,而意大利则是从美国的麻雀AIM-7E-2发展而来。中国早期展示过歼-8II型战斗机曾经携带过这种导弹,和阿斯派德的原形麻雀导弹的广泛应用不同,在中国即便是执行截击任务的歼-8II型飞机都是携带4枚PL-8型导弹,并不携带这一型导弹,和美国的EP-3冲突的歼-8II飞机就是这种构型,这种飞机是当时中国国内唯一可以携带和使用该型导弹的作战平台.


  一般的国际观察家都认为中国放弃了这一型号的导弹,这种半主动导引的导弹低空能力差,作战样式呆板。简氏推测可能是这一型导弹发展过程不顺利,中国意图克服导弹的固有缺陷,而花费了很长的时间进行研制,以至于投入使用的时间过晚,而更先进的导弹随后就达到可用状态,作为过渡期可能有生产和组装过一些,数量应该不多。在歼-10的机身上再次看到,这说明歼-10的雷达和火控是具有发射这类半主动雷达导引的空空导弹的,从另一个侧面说明歼-10的雷达比外界预期的会复杂很多。最内侧的导弹没有完全展示出外形,但弹头处没有导线肋条,中部弹翼固定,这应该是外界猜测较多的PL-12型先进中距空空导弹,它的外销型号SD-10的照片显示它采用了流行的尾舵控制,独特的带前掠的切尖三角弹翼是最佳的辨认标志。从照片上看,PL-12导弹的弹翼翼展比PL-11小不少,大致相当于AIM-120A的尺度。采用主动雷达导引头,结合惯性和指令中继修正的能力,与AIM-120,R-77的电子结构差不多。值得注意的是,这种导弹的弹体直径和麻雀系列导弹的尺度一样,大约 200mm,中国并没有打算采用国际流行的减小弹体直径的减阻方式,但换而言之,这种导弹拥有更大更重的火箭发动机,较大的战斗部,说明中国对导弹的设计目的对美国和俄罗斯拥有的大量的大型轰炸机和大型作战飞机作过相当多的考虑,更大的直径可以容纳直径较大的导引头天线,美国的AIM-120弹径 178mm,使用直径114mm的平板天线,而中国在96年珠海航展展示的主动雷达导引头的天线直径达到140-150mm,可以预期中国的制导头拥有更大一点的作用距离。据航展上称,该型导引头的有效作用距离在25-30km左右,比美国AIM-120上的导引头作用距离略远。


  在FC-1的销售宣传中,PL-12的出口型SD-10宣称最大有70-80km的射程,这样看来,这一型号的导弹具有AIM-120中期改进批次的性能。大的体积必然意味着较大的重量,这种导弹一定不会比麻雀系列导弹轻,估计重量在220到250Kg之间。这比AIM-120和R-77都重,会在一定程度上影响载机的导弹携带数量和携带导弹时的机动能力。下表我们将歼-10可能使用的导弹列出,PL-8部分数据引用怪蛇-3,而PL-11的数据引用阿斯派德,PL-12的数据则根据简氏早期的评论。

  歼-10目前没有挂装对地武器的飞行照片,仅有的一张珍贵的地面展示照片已经分析出大量的信息,我们试图继续挖掘出更多的有价值的情报,这张照片上显示的飞机携带的地面武器很少,4枚500kg级的500-4型低阻航空 BoB!!!,2具7联90mm航空火箭弹发射巢,如果按照这个挂装方案,加上机腹的副油箱和两枚用于自卫的红外近程空空导弹,飞机上被占据了9个挂点。这至少说明歼-10的外挂点不会少于9个,这个构型显然是用于近距支援的挂装。照片没有显示有什么精确制导武器,挂装的重量大约在3.5吨左右,根据前面推算的机内燃油的特点,这个构型可以提供飞机远达700km以上的支援能力,或者在距机场不超过400km的前线外40分钟以上的留空等待呼唤的能力,这是中国空军从未能获得的空中机动能力,这比幻影2000和F-16提供的近距支援的能力还要强。相信中国空军一直不打算发展强5型攻击机的后继型号,跟歼 -10的这一强力表现有很大的关系。不过也是从这张照片可以看出,中国空军尚未完成战术思想的转变,还没有从防御空军转化为进攻性的打击空军,精确攻击能力较差、手段单一,这表现在缺乏具有多种攻击方式的精确制导武器。

  歼-10的研发单位提供给最新的轻型出口战斗机FC-1的航电系统被认为是歼-10的一面镜子,因为FC-1的功能和性能要求远低于歼-10,研究单位势必从成熟的系统中演化出一套经过简化的系统出来。FC-1也采用一平三下的座舱布局,同样采用了被中国人自己称为第三代水平的综合航电系统。FC-1的结构基本上和上面的相似,它安装了一套先进的GPS/INS导航系统,轻型的固态环形激光陀螺惯性导航系统,能够为飞机的其他系统提供高精度的飞机矢量数据,雷达的计算机如果在软件支持的情况下,可以利用这个信号作较为粗略的合成孔径计算。GPS则是目前最流行的导航系统,它具有价格低廉,远程性能好的特点,可以很容易和电子地图搭配,甚至可以很轻松的使用流行的商用电子地图


  中国国内的环境可能不允许依靠美国的GPS,他们自己的北斗导航卫星还不清楚能不能提供给这类平台使用,传统的无线电导航设备应该依然保留,塔康等导航设备可以为GPS和INS的备份。从歼7M开始,中国的歼击机都采用了数字式的大气数据计算机,尤其是这一类采用电传操纵系统的飞机,高精度分布式大气数据计算机应该毫不例外的装备。歼-10的机背和进气道下方有两个刀片形的天线,这是数据链的特征,它应该是配属的新一代的战术通讯/数字传输链的天线,工作在V/UHF波段,具有远程工作能力,应该也毫不例外的采用全数字跳频/跳扩频抗干扰能力。结合中国大力发展的战术战场联合信息系统,这将极大的提高飞机的战术信息水平,在有预警信息的支援下,战斗机可以发挥出倍增的战斗力,这一点早在70,80年代就被实战所证明。中国采用到这个系统,已经算发展较慢的了。

  综合航电对外挂和武器管理系统的要求颇高,这一系统使用POWER PC芯片的高速计算机,通过1553B总线与飞机的其他航电系统相连接,每一个挂点都可以接受符合MIL-STD-1760标准的武器,这意味着可以挂载使用西方的武器,据说设计上也考虑了兼容俄罗斯的武器挂载,但没有照片和证据表明歼-10战斗机可以挂载俄罗斯的导弹。通过武器管理系统,火控系统可以随时了解飞机携带和使用武器的状况,各挂架武器的准备和反馈状况等等,对武器的灵活挂装有很大的好处。以前的苏联式的设计系统里,每一个挂架使用的武器有严格的限制,没有统一的标准,这导致火控系统的复杂和混乱,往往一架飞机必须使用专门为其设计的导弹和武器,而且必须挂装在指定挂架上,这不利于现代多用途战斗机的发展趋势,让飞机的作战样式和能力显得呆板,不易发挥出飞机和武器的真正效率。统一的灵活的武器挂装和管理系统,正是一架先进的多用途飞机的必然保证。


  ESM/ECM电子对抗系统的情况最不明朗,RWR电子告警机是其中一个部分。中国现在的雷达告警接收机性能和西方水平接近,水平不明。在古老的米格-21飞机上搭配的就可以侦测多个通道的雷达信号,具有存储100个型号的比对库。新的电子告警装置是飞机最要紧的电子设备之一,预计会拥有全波段全波形多通道处理能力,并且可以利用INS系统的高精度信号,利用相参技术获得信号源相对精确的位置,能够根据数据库信息比对大致判断出信号源的类别甚至型号,从而获得威胁级别的鉴定,这一系统有变相雷达的功能,是战斗机电子设备发展的重点优先设备之一,中国长期缺乏良好的机头雷达的时候,对这一系统的发展花费过极大的精力,应该有很好的效果。


  导弹逼近告警(MAW)系统也是一个重点,歼- 10的机身上有很多可疑的光学窗口,这些窗口怀疑是应用了分布式多波段全向导弹接近告警系统,飞机机头的白色椭圆形的突起,其他位置因为照片有限或者曝光差异不易分辨。如果采用了这个系统,歼-10就具有红外/紫外波段的高精度的导弹发射逼近告警设备,它能够从光学波段看到导弹的发射,能够极其精确地对导弹定位,便于使用定向电子干扰和定向能光学对抗,还可以非常精确有效的控制CFD(箔条/红外干扰弹投放装置)投放干扰弹,合适的时机投放诱饵是自卫电子干扰系统中最有效也是最关键的,还可以及时地控制红外干扰机和电子自卫干扰机的开启。同样的系统目前只有法国的阵风和欧洲的台风(除德国版)有装备,歼- 10的传感器窗口数目少于阵风,从安装位置看也应该是覆盖了机身的360度空域,如果这个猜测成真,那么歼-10的先进性真的不容小视,如果能将这种监视 360度空间的能力应用在近距空战上,使用先进的具有越肩能力的导弹,加上飞机的机动性,近距空战中将会使敌方飞行员的噩梦。难怪有专家在担心一旦中国放开出口歼-10战斗机的管制,会大量抢走俄罗斯的客户,我们没有与之相竞争的轻型战斗机。
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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In the Russian Air force eye annihilates - 10 fighter planes (objective also profound criticism)

  Annihilates the course which - 10 fighter planes develop to be quite long, took the Chinese first kind of independent development the fighter aircraft, without a single exception receives extremely many subsystems voluntarily the puzzle.As one kind of advanced fighter aircraft, its quota needs the achievement which a system the industry whole progresses.Massive advanced domain China and so on subsystems for instance engine, radar have not made the research and development the success experience.In under the 80's later periods unique national policy conditions, the light industry, the civil electronic industry development is rapid, needs the senior processing technology the domain from in the western introduction technology income imagination that big, the high level primary device is throughout deficient, also cannot produce, also is unable to purchase.This causes the necessary system some modules development to be smooth, some modules serious lag, specially on several essential cores parts progress hauled, causes the aeroplane compared to the estimate service time late 8 years.

  Heart disease worry

  The aeroplane engine we already in knew was keeps card - Sa Toon unified body AL-31FN, in the picture the aeroplane tail stainless steel heat insulation link is the AL-31 series engine high temperature partial exterior characteristics.This kind of engine weight approximately 1740kg, but the thrust and other AL-31 engine is same, is in the 122.55kn.AL-31FN engine structure uses the belt invariable curved import to lead the leaf blade 涡扇 the engine, the import leads the leaf blade to have 23 pieces, the predestined affinity fixed after skirt has the adjustment piece, on the leaf blade has from the air compressor 7th level of luck deicing structure, 4 levels of entire titanium alloys fans, the first three levels of leaf blades for the long string belt antivibration raised shoulder leaf blade, press compared to 3.6, contains compared to 0.6.9 levels of high-pressured air compressors, presses compared to 6.6, the total supercharger ratio 23, the annular chamber combustor, the high and low pressure turbine wheel all is a single stage, in front of turbine wheel temperature 1665k, engine air flow 112Kg/s, militaryThrust 76.2kn, biggest thrust augmentation thrust 122.55kn. oil consumption 0.0695kg/n.h, thrust augmentation oil consumption 0.198kg/n.h.AL-31FN had proven on the Sukhoi aeroplane outstanding performance this kind of engine exceptionally outstanding work stability, to under each kind of bad working condition compatibility, it can such surpass under 90 big angle of attack in the cobra the normal work, turn of mobile 360 revolves is lets in air the condition to arrive the extreme badly, but the AL-31F engine all perfect operation and had demonstrated, this identity is extremely important regarding the new aeroplane development, in particular single shot fighter aircraft.Annihilates - 10 plans from 86 years executing until now, flew the nose to fly already surpasses now above for 8 years, by no means had crashed and so on the news to spread, in contrast at that time China's some actually repeatedly had the hearsay to obsolete 涡喷 engine improvement installing equipment which crashed, obviously AL-31FN stabilising regarding annihilated - 10 significances to be extraordinary.


  Perhaps according to the initial plan, the Chinese from had not planned can use Russian the engine.Recollects next 80's international political contexts, the 80's intermediate stages, Chinese and Soviet Union's relations have not looked like the present to be like this intimate, on the contrary is hostile to mutually the mood quite surges upward, China in the far east deployed has surpasses 1,000,000 human of armies, but Soviet Union also has 500,000 above in Mongolia the army.Annihilates - 10 aiming matches is the Soviet Air force main force Mig - 23, Mig - 25, also the certain degree has aimed at the Mig - 29 with the Soviet - 27 forms.But the political relation transformation often has the theatrical nature compared to the engineering effort, to the end of the 80's, under Gorbachev's leadership, the Sino-Soviet relations has been once again intimate, China obtains the Soviet - 27 fighter aircrafts the exportation is a very big proof, before this Soviet Union was absolutely does not sell this kind of at that time extremely advanced large-scale long range fighter planes, because he while helped China to resist China also to have the ability to threaten Soviet the centre, once required China for this Soviet Union not to be able this kind of aeroplane deployment in the north, and has shut down quite many the function which attacked to the place, enabled it only to use the rocket projectile or BoB!!!Makes the front temporary support use, but does not have the special attack capability.


  All worries have not become the reality, the following unfortunate disintegration disintegrated Soviet Union's threat suddenly, Russia's economy has needed to sell the military technology to maintain massively, before could not sell the thing now was is very much afraid sells has been short, Russia became China obtained the advanced weapon and after the technical best window .1989 year tian~an-door incident, with Chinese intimate west because also US led the blockade changed suddenly strange and opposes, China annihilated - 10 to anticipate originally developed the contingency under the west technical support to shut down suddenly, again added on the 90's Taiwan problem China and US's huge difference, the F-16 fighter aircraft and the illusory image 2000 enters TaiwanCauses to annihilate - 10 operational matches to replace F-16, F-15, or is obtains the development engine technology from the western introduction engine from the west the gate thorough shutdown.US's technical blockade is quite strict, but grasps the senior engine technology England, France then China will regard as to dump the elimination technology the ideal market, is not willing to take the political risk to input the advanced technology to China.Because the China aircraft engine industry previously Soviet Union provided the fighter aircraft technology established, the industry level was not high, also not normal establishment research and development organisation.Mig - 21 fighter aircrafts R-13 engine China until the 80's only then calculated real mimicking successful and its practical application, this kind of Soviet Union 20 year ago technology also let China feel embarrassed long has reached for 10 several years long time.


  Therefore, in at the end of the 90's the beginning of 21st century, China is also willing to spend the large amount of money to purchase the English for 60's the Si shell engines design production technical data, from now on only then will let China domestically mimicking the Si shell engine to obtain successfully.Obviously China aircraft engine scientific research level and industry level low.Is precisely under this kind of background, the Chinese nearly all new developments aeroplane all receives the engine question the huge influence, front we talk about annihilate - 9 fighter aircrafts repeatedly to delay the WS-6 engine which calls self with China to delay relate.China's F-8 fighter aircraft is similar to our country's Soviet - 15. also is because lacks a thrust bigger engine, aeroplane performance merely with Mig - 21 improvements models quite, even if so also spent for more than 20 years only then to complete the actual design stereotypia work.


  Was similar to annihilates - 9 plans to be same, annihilates - 10 plans necessary developments engine still was numbers for air ministry 606th research institute's Shenyang Aircraft engine Research institute, they for annihilated - 10 plans to prepare the named WS-10 turbo-fan engine, estimated design thrust 120kn, the thrust ratio was 8. this models engine developments a time early almost year which designed compared to the aeroplane, in the 80's initial period, China introduced the Boeing 737 aeroplanes times once defers to the Soviet-type aeroplane the safeguarding standard, purchased some to take the backup the CFM-56-3 engine.Afterwards China in the use detected this mode is not suitable regarding the western aeroplane, the Boeing 737 lifelong all do not need to replace a brand-new engine.At this time China's engine scholars considered CFM-56-3 the nuclear plans with the American general research and development F110 涡扇 engine are nearly consistent, the west has Sweden to favour the JT-8D civil engine using Pu to improve into the fighter aircraft engine the precedent, China also plans from this kind of engine foundation studies, obtains one kind of Chinese the F110 engine, the process computation, uses this kind of engine the nuclear plans to be possible to obtain 110-130kn the thrust, definitely can satisfy the aeroplane the requirement.China believed like this uses the ready-made mature technology definitely to be possible reto establish rapid and the simplicity compared to oneself which a set comes, may satisfy the new aeroplane research and development the progress need.


  This achievement once for annihilated - 9 developments 涡扇 6 (WS-6) the female factory, 606 had accepted this thrust close engine development task/role.The new engine naturally gave up on 涡扇 the 6G engine which completed nearly make the improvement the plan, but was the resolution tracks the tidal current which the west aircraft engine developed, resolved redeveloped a section advanced engine completely (官方语).The new engine used and has imitated the American General Company's CFM-56-3 engine nuclear plans, this kind of engine massive assemblies had in China on the quantity huge Boeing 737 aeroplane groups, this kind of engine was provides B-1 from US the General Dynamics Corporation the bomber aircraft the F101 engine development to come, simultaneously grew the performance quite outstanding F110 engine, China selects this achievement reference, considered fully this platform outstanding might port the ability, already mature structure and massive uses experience, but also had passable the characteristic which easy to purchase with the spare part and easy to safeguard.Although selected one to look the shortcut, the industrialisation level difference will still need to spend several years and the energy only then starts to be adaptable more realistic and can produce by own craft.So far does not even have to be able to apply produces in China annihilates - 10 on news, the match Tanzania Corporation's order form also in continuously adds at least.A China aviation industry group's official website most recent news represented this kind of engine has as if already obtained the final success, believed is away from the large-scale application also to have period of time.This kind of engine also is at the state in China which keeps secret highly, the very few articles can publish through some specialised academic periodicals, these fragmentary news, are extrapolated his existence and the performance evidence, we thought this kind of engine has the following performance and the structure.For the convenience contrast, we use with the F110-GE-100 data carry on the graph to contrast .FWS-10 the data majority are the estimate.


       F110-GE-100 FWS-10A

  The air inlet belt imports the guide vane variable camber import guide vane

  The fan 3 levels, press the ratio 3.23 levels, the pressure compare 3

  Contains a ratio 0.87 0.8

  The air compressor 9 levels, press the ratio 119 levels, the pressure compare 11~12

  Air flow 115kg/s 126kg/s

  The total pressure compares 3032

  The combustion chamber floats the wall short concentric type to float the wall short concentric type

  The turbine wheel to transfers the type, the high-pressured 1 level, the low pressure 2 levels to transfers the type, the high-pressured 1 level, the low pressure 2 levels

  In front of turbine wheel temperature 1655k 1700k

  Military thrust 75.56Kn 79Kn

  Thrust augmentation thrust 122kn 132.4kn

  Weight 1800kg 1795kg


  The FWS-10 contour criterion and the weight and the AL-31F series engine are highly similar, China considered in annihilates - 10 and manufacture domestically Soviet - on 27 uses, forms is similar to US's engine general strategy.The flaw lies in the complete main force fighter aircraft all to use the identical type the engine, once appears the accident, all aeroplane groups can receive the limit aircraft grounding.The merit lies in may reduce the engine using the volume production the production cost, the booth thin development cost, massive may exchange the components are advantageous for the ground duty raise and general.Interesting is, now Chinese Air force will have two kind of different engines, but two performance and the level will quite approximate, so far, will have surpasses 500 above the AL-31F series engine by the Chinese Air force use, but will design the WS-10A engine the factory exactly also undertakes the Chinese Air force AL-31F overhaul of engine factory, will not need to consider nearly, we might also think Chinese on the engine will certainly have our engine technology.This point may evolve from WS-10 to the WS-10A this process inferential reasoning.It is said China first researches and develops WS-10 engine not too successful, this kind of motor power probably has 12000kg, but displays badly in a series of type test, the technical question emerges one after another incessantly, is unable to achieve the running condition.But China has then obtained the AL-31F engine all overhauls information in 96 years, and also obtains the certain quantity the components producer goods and the technology, the WS-10A engine probably takes shape around 2000, the technical proliferation has the suitable contingency.Certainly, if all are similar to us to conceive such happily, the WS-10A engine will be able to affect our country aeroplane to export the market very quickly, China already plans Soviet which produced in them - on 27 to install it, annihilated - 10 to take the original use client instead lagged behind, when the match Tanzania Corporation's engine exportation stagnated, China's engine will be real prepares.Certainly, Russia no longer has been also stodgy, 143kn AL-31FM then is a reason which a very good continuation uses, but also has a bigger thrust or the installed thrust vector technology engine, these all are China does not have with cannot have very quickly.


  The fighter aircraft design, the engine weight is resolved the aeroplane weight an important parameter, we may through the reference design in the similar aeroplane design proportion parameter, extrapolates a fighter aircraft parameters and so on weight.The experienced aircraft designer can select a as far as possible small weight to configure to the aeroplane on, considered annihilates - 10 outlooks sizes, its bare weight will be able between F-16 and F-18, but the delta tailless topology might obtain the light construction weight coefficient, extrapolated by the power unit weight and the design constant, we extrapolated will annihilate - 10 fighter aircrafts dynamic systems and the tare weight proportion is bigger than should between 0.2-0.22, F-16A this parameter will be 0.25, the F-18 parameter will be 0.18, France's illusory image 2000 will approximately be 0.2, but China's Mig - 21 this parameter will be 0.22. the Mig which will refer by the Chinese custom in -21 designs customs are the examples, with annihilates - 10 wings designs and illusory image 2000 相似度 looked, we calculated annihilates - 10 fighter aircrafts bare weights is 7900kg. in the news which spreads from the Chinese website looked, thought roughly annihilates - 10 bare weights between 7800kg and 8600kg, this regarding the above value all is normal reasonable.Again acts according to in the structure benefit China to propose the higher life hour and the high overload requirement, the electronic installation also greatly adds, this counterbalances on sufficiently the structure and the material designs, we will annihilate - 10 weights ratios to consider high one again, approximately about 0.21, bare weight about 8300kg more reasonable.Considered the American F-16 series fighter aircraft in installs after the F110 engine and the adding electronic installation, as well as after adding maximum total weight 4 tons, the weight achieved adds from early 6900kg to 8600Kg. at present annihilates - 10 to look by the empty superior primarily aeroplane, the total weight possibly cannot be bigger than F-16C most greatly the level, but delta-winged aeroplane construction weight also this approximately quite.


  Extrapolated the aeroplane operational performance also has a quite essential data, the aeroplane internal fuel on board.When traditional fighter aircraft design computer which states as follows oil, all selects the small proportion, increases the range dependence to carry the auxiliary oil tank, like this may reduce the aeroplane as far as possible the structure volume and the weight, can let the aeroplane thrust ratio as far as possible big, Europe's typhoon and a wind is this kind of design concept most typical performance, computer the which states as follows oil system number is small.But another kind of design thought take Soviet - 27 as representative, in computer in sets the enough space and the load capacity, satisfies the aircraft commander cruise duration and the big combat radius demand, even does not need to carry the auxiliary oil tank, this when cruise the drag and the oil consumption aspect superiority is good.In the single shot fighter aircraft F-16 uses the big interior to carry the oil system number, the great range design, but is restrained in the backwardness engine illusory image 2000 pieces uses slightly carries the oil system number, the first mate fuel tank design completes the similar requirement.Annihilates - 10 fighter aircrafts external dimensions compared to F-16, the illusory image 2000 all in a big way, fuselage space also relative says are greatly very many, the fuel oil store-carrying capability also certainly can be bigger than these two kind of fighter aircrafts, F-16 and the illusory image 2000 computer which stateses as follows oil masses approximately all about 3100kg, in the traditional aeroplane design, the Mig - 21 selections fuel oils load ratio is 27.8%, F-16 is 27%, the illusory image 2000 is 24%, other aeroplanes all in 24% to 30% between.Once had periodical hearsay China to annihilate - 10 computer which stateses as follows oils was about 4600-4900 litre, then the aeroplane internal fuel on board about 3600-3900kg, considered carried the oil system number, about 3600kg as if is worth believing, like this annihilated - 10 fuel oils coefficients probably is 29%, in the single shot fighter aircraft the Mig approximated, F/A-18 also approximated.Moreover also has the rumour aeroplane which states as follows oil is 3 tons, although regarding that great criterion aeroplane said is a little small, but considered reduces under the weight factor also is possible as far as possible, such fuel oil coefficient is 25.4%, the value is small.The contrast annihilates - 10 and F-16, in the illusory image 2000 sizes differences, this 3600kg weight should be quite critical.But in the picture displayed the interairfield flight auxiliary oil tank hung carries has provided 1700+900+1700 litres configurations, probably the 3400kg fuel oil, the total fuel hold-up achieved 7000kg, loaded clothing hung at full length conforms to the design style and to its requirement.


  Through the fuel on board and the weight analysis, we can establish a reasonable aeroplane operational performance to appraise that, this kind of analysis principle has played the huge role in the cold war 30 years, also has the suitable precision.With the aid of the above parameter, we may appraise annihilates - 10 operational performance.By international popular air fight weight estimation (computer in half oil, two wrestles missiles, machine gun.This is according to conceives in the aeroplane computer full oil outside, carries hangs like on, from the airport biggest ab takeoff, and holds the quickest speed to rush the wrestle area this combat condition to form), annihilates - 10 this states probably heavy 10600kg, the aeroplane thrust ratio is 1.18, the wing load is the 260kg/square metre, this operational quota already was higher than original operational object F-16A, was higher than the key reference and the inspection illusory image 2000 fighter aircrafts greatly, in the standard which evaluated by the western third generation fighter aircraft looked, this quota in the single shot fighter aircraft also was exceptionally outstanding.Considered keeps advantage card - Sa Toon once after to recommend the Chinese purchase performance improvement the engine, as well as China independently develops the motor power is slightly big, the aeroplane thrust ratio also has the rise the potential.The steady turn performance is not clear at present, this achievement sustained manoeuvre quota, annihilated - 10 air operated topologies to be able to obtain big may use the lift coefficient and big is respected recently said, should be higher than the illusory image 2000. instants to circle greatly the angular speed aspect, the similar wing shape and bigger might use the lift coefficient, annihilated - 10 not to be able to be lower than the illusory image 2000 that extremely high instant at least to circle the angular speed quota.This parameter is more important to the next generation wrestle combat significance some, it occupies a safeguard which the missile launching takes the initiative, also is dodges the missile a crucial mobile quota.In and by in the third generation fight air fight which high grows perceptibly mobile, depends upon steady turn that kind of weak difference to obtain the superiority to need the too long time, in under the present missile technology support, changes to the nose the angle which may aim to obtain as far as possible first the victory the probability to be bigger than far loses the danger which a kinetic energy brings.The instant circles receives a wind, the typhoon this category of new fighter aircraft value, all greatly is strengthened including the F-22 new generation of fighter aircraft in this aspect.


  The Chinese Air force long-term use Mig early time fighter aircraft, for instance is called in China annihilates - 6 Migs - 19, annihilates - 7 Migs - 21, these fighter aircrafts all have airport fence security " laudatory name ".China in introduced Soviet - 27 before from has not had the long range fighter planes, they were quite long for to this aspect, in particular all needed the combat radius to surpass 1000km in the 90's Taiwan problem and Nansha Islands' territory conflict fighter aircraft .AL-31FN is one kind quite saves the oil the engine, this - on 27 obtained the confirmation in Soviet, annihilated - 10 fuels on board to be quite big, the Soviet - 27 weights probably annihilate - 10 2 times, but the 9000kg fuel oil might fly 3800km, a half weight annihilated - 10 conservative estimates also to be able to carry above 6000kg the fuel oil, the range achieved the Soviet - 27 levels were not strange, this kind of fighter aircraft should haveOr surpasses the F-16 similar range and the combat radius, the aeroplane maximum range may achieve at least above 3500km, this is China first time obtains such domestically produced the long range fighter planes, is similar to the picture to display carries third mate the fuel tank 2 missiles the patrol mission configuration it is said to be able far to radius 1270km outside.This meant depending on taking the opportunity in the fuel oil, the aeroplane at least must be able to fly above 2000km, regarding one kind of light single shot fighter aircraft said this is an extremely good news.In the Chinese Air force long-term dependence main force F-8 series aeroplane computer carries 4 tons fuel oils only to be able to fly 1400km, in addition outside hangs altogether carries 6.7 tons fuel oils also only to be able to fly 2200km, the combat radius is small, approximately only then about 700km.But annihilates 10 great ranges to be possible very relaxed to provide reaches 900-1100km far the combat radius, or can pause a longer time in the battlefield, for instance is longer than 2 time of battlefields the F-8 to stay in the air the time.This meant not merely Chinese Air force will obtain annihilates - 10 later to be possible to be able to expand the air supremacy greatly by the few aeroplanes the area, moreover the low fuel oil consumption to the aeroplane daily working costs will be a huge progress, also reduced the logistical supply pressure greatly.The long range fighter planes return to give back to China to bring the influence to the peripheral military pressure, although at present annihilates - 10 fighter aircrafts not to display the ability which attacks to the place, but Israel bombs F-16 which the Iraqi nuclear reactor uses also is the similar fighter aircraft, its cover scope South Korea, Japan and so on covers sufficiently, this quite is all profound to the East Asian zone politics and the military influence, China also had air refueling now the technology and the ability, before Soviet - 30 because the quantity question is not taken by other countries, annihilated - 10 fighter aircrafts to be doomed to want the mass production, this to certain countries said was not a good news.


  The aeroplane saves the fuel oil is a very covert merit, first the fighter aircraft flies time of use fuel expense itself is quite high, a fighter aircraft pilot year can fly at least for 100-200 hour, Russian Air force because of the military expenses question, the air force is in the fuel oils for a long time scarcely centre, even if has the massive fighter aircrafts, cannot guaranty time pilot's training hour and the combat sets out the quantity.The inexpensive province oil single shot aeroplane achievement reduces the air force the use cost already to prove by the western air force that, only is the Russian continuously incapable development nearly must become the reality the light single shot fighter aircraft plan.China uses for a long time equips the high fuel consumption 涡喷 the engine fighter aircraft, executes the similar aerial mission, on the fuel oils the expense is extremely high, the new aeroplane may save greatly in this aspect.If merely saves the charge for oil, that possibly is not the manner regards as important very much, but said from the operational capacity that, an airport military supplies ability has the limit, formerly supports a F-8 squadron to battle 3 day-long airports perhaps to be possible to support a squadron today to annihilate - 10 to battle 5 day, this was the noticeable merit.Annihilates - 10 long distance patrols configuration to look that, the total weight estimated achieves 15800kg, in the picture looked takes off the time forward wing deflexion angle is big, but under the wing flap the leaning angle is not big, this displayed as if the aeroplane also can add using the flap rises the ability to take off by a heavier weight, not yet has the display to annihilate - 10 heavy loads abilities picture appearance, estimated its total weight possibly can maximum between 17800-19000kg, at this time also can hold approximately the 500kg/square metre wing load, also calculates in the reasonable scope.Loading…

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  At this time we recollected again China to annihilated the long-range escort requirement which - 9 plans proposed, today annihilates - 10 designs is completely has satisfied the Chinese Air force for several dozens years ago on the urgent need ability.The aeroplane long-distance voyage ability enhancement, the load ability enhancement, will cause aeroplane executing to be more inevitably a more complex task/role, this will be previously to annihilates - time 9 plans not once thought.The today general purpose aeroplane, depends upon the remarkable flight performance not merely, but also must equip the complex electronic installation to be able to obtain executes the many kinds of tasks/role ability.Since Chinese Air force long-time on has had the good radar performance deficiently the aeroplane, develops being similar by the F-8 to be stranded in the Soviet - 15 interceptor aircrafts in the Chinese own weak radar electronics industry ability, 90's intermediate stages before is unable to breach continuously consults the pulse Doppler radar the technical difficulty, down to the massive F-8 II fighter aircraft in ten years the appropriate radar not to match.But at the end of the 80's China and America peace model plan intention installs the American APG-66 radar the plan finally to fail, this lets the Chinese be extremely disappointed, when introduces Sukhoi's Soviet - 27 fighter aircrafts, above equips the radar level still is more obsolete, China once represented the unusual disaffection, this question arrived when Soviet - 30MKK only then obtains the certain degree the solution.

  The Chinese domestic research and development airborne radar approach unit are many, at present a known strength more abundant unit is Nanjing Electron Research institute, but the original China's airborne radar approach factory (serial number 780 factories) in the 80's conversion of military technologies and facilities for civilian use flood tide relays to the civil product, produce the television primarily, its product is called " the rainbow " sign, today the world supermarket all can see this kind of sign the television.Annihilates - 10 radars is one of projects which the Chinese home most keeps secret, it shields in many behind the simple model which improves to the obsolete fighter aircraft.Introduces Soviet in China - after 27, Fei Zuolun the company once provided serves under somebody's banner each product Air force to test for China, has not always obtained Chinese Air force the favour, in Chinese's purchase custom, if were not is greatly more superior than the domestic similar thing performance, that did not have what purchase the hope.Around 1996 Shenyang introduced one batch not to be able to install on the Mig - 33 fighter aircrafts at that time the beetle ME radar to load on F-8 IIM uses in to the foreign sales promotion, insufficient as by has failed unexpectedly by the client take the radar performance, the later Shenyang's F-8 IIM aeroplane has already assembled the Chinese research and development to in 2000 the PD radar, it is said that performance good in beetle ME.China's radar plan not easy to understand that, looked very many factories obtain the technical breach in the identical time, has 3 above in China the unit to use in at least the PD radar in the manufacture which the fighter plane uses.


  Annihilates - 10 noses diameters to approximate the circular, approximates a metre from the picture through the proportion computation diameter, such nose cone may install diameter 740mm or the 780mm antenna, such antenna diameter provides Fei Zuolun for China's beetle ME antenna is bigger than.The beetle ME diameter only then about 680mm, approximately is similar with US's APG-66 or APG-68, the survey performance basically is also similar with American APG-66, regarding Mig - 21 category of RCS in 3 square metres goals, the maximum probing range in 74 to 80 kilometers about, gets down the apparent distance to leave approximately 40 kilometers.2003 year's end, China the FC-1 aeroplane test flight which developed for Pakistan, its development unit (annihilated - 10 parent factories) foreign to demonstrate a series of navigations electricity combination, in which provided one kind by the China home production light pulse Doppler radar, had the entire digitised multi- modalities the pulse Doppler radar, this kind of radar has the 600mm diameter, had high, centre, the low pulse rate (the entire profile), and might the intelligent conversion pulse rate, use the pulse compression technology as well as the frequency agility technology, the weight is light, the function was complete.It achieves 80km to 3 square metres target detections distance, achieves 120km regarding the large-scale airborne target, is farthest to the sea level goal may reach 200km, gets down the apparent solar time to be farthest may achieve 42km, the basic performance and several year ago beetle ME radar is nearly consistent.In order to emulate with the western radar, specially with Italy's Grifo-S2000 radar emulation, China has provided similarly richly to the place function, the real wave beam mapping, great proportion Doppler peaks and so on, but also has the abilities which the fashionable on the one hand track on the other hand scans, may simultaneously track 10 goals and check the centre which two active radars guide to be apart from the missile attack two different goals.This radar was considered is annihilates - 10 radars to reduce simplifies the version, uses in exporting the FC-1 aeroplane the time adding politics chip flexibility and strives for the biggest profit, the large diameter modification appears on new F-8 IIM which makes in Shenyang, has substituted for the original beetle ME radar.

  Because the performance and the competitor compare not in the least inferior, has many places also to surpass the Italian radar, specially China also provides with AIM-120, the R-77 similar advanced centre is apart from after air-to-air missile SD-10, in the fire control integration, without doubt occupies the very big conformity superiority.The taking this into consideration this radar price is not cheaper than the overseas competitor, even also slightly expensive, we believed China uses on own main force fighter aircraft the system, certainly must surpass greatly may permit the export the equipment, this point is follows completely the Soviet time consciousness custom.Some hearsay believed that, annihilates - 10 radar performances to be quite formidable, its antenna diameter and US's APG-65 is almost big, the average power achieves 1500 - 2500 tiles, but above lists the light radar power does not surpass 350W generally, uses the grid control fluid cooling central t w tube, a probing range rcs=3 square metre goal is not smaller than 100km, some people said this radar detects the Soviet - 27 that big goals approximately about 160km.Similarly has used the pulse compression and the frequency agility technology, the radar uses computation ability formidable POWER a PC category of chip the unnecessary digital computer to carry on processing, the computer handling ability goes far beyond each second 100,000,000 abilities which the French RDY radar declared, this is a result which the computer industry progresses, today we use in the desktop computer which types all having surpass 1,500,000,000 time each second computation ability, late appears the system can have the better handling ability naturally, the formidable computation handling ability and the memory property may help the radar in on the one hand with on the other hand to sweep in the model to process more goals.According to France's RDY radar ability, we believed if really is similar to the description that formidable computation ability, simultaneously tracks 15-25 goal, attacks 4-8 goal is completely possible, Fei Zuolun does not have for the Soviet - 30 developments radar computation abilities the French radar that exaggerates when to declare may track 15 goals to attack 4


  Today radar and computer technology development very quick, the fighter aircraft simultaneously attacks the goal ability very quick can be the aeroplane carries the weapon quantity the question, but could not be the electronic installation ability question.The emphasis very quick can pass with several dozen several digital unrest, speaking of the actual combat, the fighter aircraft time checks the excessively many missile attack different goal to be able greatly to weaken own mobile and the strain capacity, is not advantageous for own prompt mobility, the radar working mode active status is not the best precision model, tracks while sweeps the model to be able to have the certain degree to the radar probing range the influence, because needs to search a great angle, cannot use the fine wave beam to carry on the high accuracy the survey and the resolution, the profile repetition rate only can by the medium repetition rate or the high repetition rate primarily, to a heading not goal effectMisses, a dozen many attacks missiles hit probability can reduce greatly.On the one hand with on the other hand sweeps the ability which this model the vital significance does not lie in has how many simultaneously to attack, he was lets the pilot simultaneously have in the attack has grasped the certain battlefield condition the information ability, but did not look like before had to use the simple target model to carry on the track, but also had to shine the goal until the missile hit, that kind of situation pilot basic was unable through the radar to learn actually whether other aeroplanes have become the threat to other party, as well as coped with promptly most has the threat the goal.Records from the present actual combat looked that, not yet appears the simultaneous firing check to shoot down 2 above goals, but may think this is a tendency, it needs the scanning velocity quicker phased-array radar the support.
 
  Annihilates - 10 to look by today standard that, was the typical light fighter aircraft, often this category of fighter aircraft most carried in 4 to be apart from the missile generally to add on two infrared short-range missiles, the participation compared the long-distance range when the combat only can carry in 2 to be apart from the ball 2 short-range balls.Considered from this angle that, the too long-distance radar and complex shoots controls the technology simultaneously to install on this kind of fuselage does not take into account, simultaneously also can add the aeroplane enormously the construction cost and the complex degree.Some was extremely interesting in the ground demonstration military force picture, annihilates - 10 fighter aircrafts to hang has carried 6 3 kind of different models missiles.The most flank is the more common PL-8 missile, its primary form is Israel's strange snake - 3 missiles.Is suffering the PL-8 missile is tightly in is apart from the air-to-air missile, shoots the forehead to have not not long appears externally the wire channel, after middle the wing careful observation may see is may move, the contour and US's house sparrow missile is same, judges this is short very much on China's aeroplane saw the PL-11 missile, it is develops in the Italian Arab League Si Parke davis co's foundation, but Italy is from US's house sparrow AIM-7E-2 development.The Chinese early time had demonstrated the F-8 II fighter aircraft has carried this kind of missile, is different with the Arab League Si Parke davis co's primary form house sparrow missile broad application, even if was executes the interception task/role F-8 II aeroplane in China all carries 4 PL-8 missile, does not carry this missile, with US's EP-3 conflict F-8 II aeroplane is this kind of configuration, this kind of aeroplane was China domestic only may carry and use this missile at that time the operational platform.


  The common international observers all thought China gave up this model missile, this kind of semi-active guiding missile low altitude ability is bad, the form of operations is stereotypical.Jan extrapolated possibly is this missile developing process is not smooth, China purports to overcome the missile the inherent flaw, but spent the very long time to carry on the development, down to the investment use time excessively was late, but a more advanced missile afterwards achieved might use the state, possibly had as the transition-period produces and has assembled some, the quantity should not be many.In annihilates - on 10 fuselages to see once more, this explained annihilates - 10 radars and fire control is has emanates the air-to-air missile which this category of semi-active radar guides, from another facade explained annihilates - 10 radars compared to the outside anticipated to be able complex very many.The most inside missile completely has not demonstrated the contour, but the warhead place does not have the wire rib, middle the wing is fixed, this should be the outside guessed many PL-12 advanced centre are apart from the air-to-air missile, its for sale abroad model SD-10 picture displayed it has used the popular tail vane check, the unique belt forward-swept cuts the sharp triangle wing is best identifies the symbol.Looked from the picture that, the PL-12 missile wing wingspan is smaller than many PL-11, is equal approximately to the AIM-120A criterion.Uses the active radar detection unit, the ability which the union inertia and instruction relaying revises, with AIM-120, the R-77 electronic structure is similar.The worth noting is, this kind of missile body diameter and the house sparrow series missile criterion is same, probably 200mm, the Chinese plan has not used internationally popular reduces the body diameter to reduce the anti- mode, but trades says it, this kind of missile has the greatly heavier rocket motor, the big warhead, explained China the massive large-scale bomber aircrafts and the large-scale battle aeroplane which has to US and Russia has made quite many considerations to the missile design target, a bigger diameter may hold the diameter big detection unit antenna, US's AIM-120 calibre 178mm, the use diameter 114mm plate antenna, but China in 96 yearsZhuhai 航展 demonstrated the active radar detection unit antenna diameter achieves 140-150mm, may anticipate Chinese the system carrier has the major range coverage.According to 航展 at stated that, this detection unit useful effect is away from about 25-30km, is slightly farther than the American AIM-120 on homing-head range.


  In the FC-1 sales propaganda, PL-12 export model SD-10 declared has 70-80km most greatly the firing distance, this way, this model missile has a AIM-120 intermediate stage improvement raid of performance.The great volume meant inevitably the great weight, this kind of missile cannot certainly be lighter than the house sparrow series missile, estimated the weight in 220 arrives between 250Kg.This is all heavier than AIM-120 and R-77, can affect the carrier vehicle when the certain degree the missile to carry the quantity and carries the missile the manoeuvre cabability.The next table we will annihilate the missile which - 10 will possibly use to list, the PL-8 partial data will quote the strange snake - 3, but the PL-11 data will quote the Arab League Si Parke davis co, the PL-12 data acts according to the Jan early time the criticism.

  Annihilates - for 10 at present not to load clothing hung at full length to the place weapon flight picture, only a some precious ground demonstrated the picture already analysed the massive information, we attempted to continue to excavate more valuable informations, in this picture displayed the aeroplane carried the terrestrial weapon were very few, 4 500kg level 500-4 low resistivity aviation BoB!!!2 7 unite the 90mm aviation rocket projectile emanation nest, if loads clothing hung at full length the plan according to this, in addition the underbelly auxiliary oil tank and two the infrared short range air-to-air missile which used in self-defensing, on the aeroplane are occupied 9 to hang the spot.This explained at least annihilates - 10 store mounting points not to be able to be short in 9, this configuration is obviously loading clothing hung at full length which uses in supporting short-range.The picture does not have the display to have any precision guidance weapon, loads clothing hung at full length the weight probably about 3.5 tons, calculates computer in the fuel oil characteristic according to front, this configuration may provide the aeroplane to reach above 700km far the support ability, or in is apart from the airport not to surpass 400km outside the front 40 minute above to leave a blank the waiting summon ability, this is the airborne manoeuvre cabability which Chinese Air force never can obtain, this the short-range support ability which 2000 and F-16 provides the illusory image also must be stronger than.Believed Chinese Air force did not plan develops the strong 5 attack aeroplanes successor model, with annihilates - 10 this force performance to have the very big relations.But also is may see from this picture, Chinese Air force not yet completes the tactical thought the transformation, but also has not transformed from the defence air force as the combative attack air force, the pinpoint attack ability misses, the method is unitary, this displays is having the many kinds of mode of attack deficiently the precision guidance weapon.

  Annihilates - 10 research and development units to provide to newly light exports fighter aircraft FC-1 the navigation electricity system to consider annihilates - a 10 mirror, because the FC-1 function and the performance requirement are lower than far annihilate - 10, the research unit will inevitably evolve the system from the mature system which set of processes will simplify to come out.FC-1 also uses even three cabins topologies, similarly used has been been called by Chinese the third generation level the comprehensive navigation electricity system.FC-1 structure basically and above similar, it has installed a set of advanced GPS/INS guidance system, the light solid state ring-like laser gyroscope inertial navigation system, can provide the high accuracy for the aeroplane other systems the aeroplane vector data, the radar computer if in the situation which the software supports, may use this signal to make the sketchier synthesis aperture computation.GPS is at present most popular guidance system, it has the price to be inexpensive, the long-distance performance good characteristic, may very easy and the electronic map matches, even may the very relaxed use popular commercial electron map


  The Chinese domestic conditions possibly does not allow to depend upon American GPS, can they dubhe navigation satellite also not clear provide to this category of platform use, the traditional radio navigation device should still preserve, navigation aids and so on tacan may be GPS and the INS backup.From annihilates 7M to start, China's fighter plane has all used the digital atmosphere electrodata machine, this category uses the fax control system in particular the aeroplane, the high accuracy distributional atmosphere electrodata machine should not the exceptional equipment.Annihilates - underneath 10 computer backs and the air intake has two knives laminated forms the antenna, this is the data chain characteristic, it should be the new generation of tactical communication/digital transmission chain antenna which deploys, works in the V/UHF wave band, has the long-distance working ability, should not the exceptional use entire digit frequency-hopping/jump the wide frequency antijamming ability.Unifies tactical battlefield union information system which China develops vigorously, this enormous will enhance the aeroplane the tactical information level, in will have the early warning information under the support, the fighter aircraft might display the battle efficiency which will multiply, this point as early as in 70,80 ages on by the actual combat was proven.China uses this system, already calculated the development slowly.

  The comprehensive navigation electricity foreign hangs with the weapon management system management system requirement is quite high, this system uses POWER the PC chip the high-speed computer, links through the 1553B bus and the aeroplane other navigation electricity systems, each hangs all to be possible to accept conforms to the MIL-STD-1760 standard weapon, this meant may hang carries uses western the weapon, it is said designed on had also considered the compatible Russia's weapon hung carries, but did not have the picture and the evidence indicated annihilated - 10 fighter aircrafts to be possible to hang carries Russian the missile.Through the weapon management system management system, the fire control system may understand as necessary the aeroplane carries with the use weapon condition, various carriers weapon preparation and feedback condition and so on, loads clothing hung at full length flexibly to the weapons has the very big advantage.In the before Soviet Union's -like design system, each carrier used the weapon had the strict limit, did not have the unification the standard, this caused the fire control system complex and the confusion, often an aeroplane had to use specially for its design missile and the weapon, moreover had to load clothing hung at full length in designates on the carrier, this did not favour the modern multipurpose fighter aircraft the development tendency, let the aeroplane the form of operations and the ability appears stereotypically, not easy to display the aeroplane and the weapon true efficiency.The unification flexible weapon loads clothing hung at full length with the management system management system, is precisely an advanced general purpose aeroplane inevitably guaranty.


  ESM/ECM electronic countermeasure system situation not brightest, the RWR electron warning computer is part.The Chinese present radar warning receiver performance and the western level approximate, the level is unclear.Matches on the ancient Mig - 21 aeroplanes may detect many channels the radar signal, has stores 100 models the ratios to the base.The new electron alarm device is one of aeroplane most important electronic installations, estimated can have all band entire profile multichannel handling ability, and may use the INS system the high accuracy signal, the use consults the technology to obtain the supply oscillator relatively precise position, can compared to judge the supply oscillator approximately according to the database information the category even model, thus obtains the threat rank the appraisal, this system has in disguised form the radar function, is the fighter aircraft electronic installation develops with emphasis first one of devices, China lacks the good nose radar for a long time time, has spent the enormous energy to this system development, should have the very good effect.


  The missile approaches the warning (MAW) the system also is a key point, annihilates - on 10 fuselages to have the very many suspicious optics window, these window suspicions were apply the distributional multi- wave bands omnidirectional missile to approximate the warning system, aeroplane nose white ellipse breaking out, because other positions the picture restricted or the exposure difference not easy to distinguish.If has used this system, annihilates - 10 to have the infrared/ultraviolet wave band the high accuracy missile launching to approach the warning device, it can see from optics wave band the missile the emanation, can to the missile localisation, be advantageous for extremely precisely the use direction detection electronic countermeasure and the direction detection can optics resistance, but also may extremely precise valid check CFD (foil strip/infrared countermeasure ball release gear) put in the disturbance ball, the appropriate opportunity delivery bait is in the self-defence electronic countermeasure system most valid also is most essential, but also may check the infrared countermeasure aircraft and electronic self-defence countermeasure aircraft opening promptly.The same system at present only then France's wind and Europe's typhoon (except the German version) has the equipment, annihilates - 10 sensors windows number to be short in a wind, from installs the position to look also should has covered the fuselage 360 air zones, if this guessed really, then annihilated - 10 先进性 really not to allow to look down upon, if could monitor this kind 360 spatial the ability applications at the close air combat, used advanced has the shoulder ability missile, in addition the aeroplane mobility, in the close air combat will be able to cause the enemy side pilot's nightmare.Once no wonder has the expert China to let loose the exportation in the worry to annihilate - 10 fighter aircrafts controls, can rob Russian massively the client, we not the light fighter aircraft which emulate with it.
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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俄罗斯空军看中国的J-10(二)(客观且深刻的评论)

在第46届巴黎航空航天博览会上发生的两起事件引起了西方情报部门的兴趣,头一件是负责与俄罗斯宇航部门进行技术谈判的SAFRAN集团属下萨热姆防务安全公司(Sagem Defense Securite)的负责人Alfonso Paredes告诉我(本文作者),俄国的技术人员和机师近来一直对搜集幻影战机的某些战术技能和结构工艺非常感兴趣。在与法方商谈利用法国先进电子技术改进俄制米格-29/29K和苏-27/30战斗机的过程中,俄国人一直有意无意地将话题转移到他们感兴趣的范围,并多次试图利用其他方式从私人处获得这些资源。

Alfonso Paredes告诉我说,法方是以相当开诚布公的态度来处理这一事件的,法国人提出以透明公开的方式来解决双方感兴趣的问题是最为符合双方利益的。然而出乎法方意料的是,俄方承认他们之所以对幻影2000战斗机的某些战术技术问题发生兴趣并不是出于他们自身的原因。主要是负责生产苏-27(该机被称为歼- 11)的中国沈阳飞机工业集团在最近频频向苏霍伊设计局抱怨说,由他们生产的苏-27战斗机在与成都飞机工业集团生产的“龙”式战斗机的对抗演习中接连败北,尤其是在04年于中国西北地区的“空中大比武”中,“龙”式战斗机向中国空军引以为傲的苏-30MKK和沈阳歼-11发起了攻击并取得了压倒性胜利!这使原本准备大量装备歼-11的中国军方转变了采购意向。

考虑到“龙”式战斗机本身是在法国的帮助下发展起来的,在法国航空工业界内部该机有“推力增强版的幻影2000-5”之说,因此俄方才如此迫不及待地搜集有关幻影战机的资料和情报。当然这一事件本身对法俄两国在军机改装方面的合作并未产生任何不良影响。

另外在这次航展中,来自留里卡-萨图恩(Salyut)的代表叶甫盖尼•马尔秋科夫对商业日报的记者表示,除了最新签署的向中国出口价值3亿美金的100台 AL-31FN合同之外,Salyut最终还将获得中国空军另外150台改进型AL-31的合同。叶甫盖尼•马尔秋科夫表示,这些AL-31FN都将装置在中国自制的歼-10“龙”式战斗机上,而不是引进的俄制苏-27和30战斗机。叶甫盖尼•马尔秋科夫还进一步表示,为中国生产的AL-31FN将是采用最新技术的推力增强型。

从后来暴露出的气动布局上的问题来看,以色列的设计并没有真正吃透和掌握近距耦合鸭(抬)式布局,他们将鸭翼的布局和机翼根部重合一半,这样可以产生最佳的近耦增升效果。但他们没有注意到这样设计的一些弊端,原型机暴露出飞机的操作有问题,不灵活,阻力大,航程远远达不到要求等等,需要对气动布局进行很大的修改才能满足要求,这无异于重新设计一款新飞机。很难相信这样一款极不成熟的飞机设计,可以作为技术输出而销售。


从中国自己公开的航空工业史资料来看,中国最早在一些未成功的型号上就开始接触鸭式设计,比如歼-9。有限的资料显示,歼 -9计划早在1964年10月就开始策划了,当时中国沈阳飞机制造厂(现沈阳飞机工业公司)正在仿制从米高扬设计局引入的米格-21飞机。与此同时,在沈阳,当时中国唯一的战斗机设计研究所(第601所)已经开始计划中国的下一代战斗机了。为了稳妥起见,提出一个双发和一个单发的设计方案。它们都是在米格 -21的基础上进行放大的型号。看来中国当时并不满足于米格-21这种在那个时代表现极其杰出的前线战斗机,希望拥有航程较远的远程截击机,满足其广大的边界上的国土防空的问题。装两台发动机的型号被命名为歼-8,而装一台发动机的战斗机被命名为歼-9。这两个计划中,歼-8被优先考虑,并坚持发展下来,最后演变成为类似于苏-15那样的防空高速截击机。而歼-9计划一直隐藏在神秘的幕后,从诞生到终结,很少有什么资料被公开。


1965 年4月,中国军方要求在新飞机的研制中把作战对象设定为当时美军投入越南战争的主力战机F-4B,这是未来15年到20年内美国乃至西方世界的主力战机,实际上一直到40年后的今天,F-4战斗机都仍然在西方国家使用,这个战术目标的制定是相当合适的。受到第二代战斗机学术思潮的影响,高空高速能力需求被特别放大,新飞机要求有比米格-21更大的航程和续航时间。歼-9和歼-8计划走了不同的路子,它不同于歼-8只是简单的将米格-21放大并采用两台耗油率较高的R-11发动机,歼-9打算采用当时非常先进的涡轮风扇发动机,由中国沈阳发动机研究所(第606所)负责研制推力为8500kg的新型发动机为其配套。1965年1到4月间,中国空军经过思考后,提出第一次对歼-9计划的战术要求:

1. 突出歼击性能,兼顾截击性能。飞机的机动性在高空要比米格-21(中国称为歼-7)好,在低空要比米格-19(中国称为歼-6)好。歼击作战时,最大速度不小于马赫2.3,最大高度为18000到20000米。作战半径不小于450公里;

2. 双25指标,指飞机的最大速度要达到马赫2.5,最大飞行高度要达到25000米。作战半径为350公里;

3. 飞机总重量控制在14吨左右;

1和2的要求实际上是两个不同的条件,空军希望研究单位可以选择达到其中的一个要求。

上述要求于1965年4月12日下达。601所面对繁多的型号设计任务,于同年5月起,抽出约10%的设计力量对歼-9展开初始设计。考虑到在同一时期前苏联本身正在进行米格-23/25和苏-15飞机的研制,可以想象对于中国这样一个新兴的工业化国家而言,研制这样一种全新的高性能战斗机是多么的艰难。正是因为如此,在此之前601研究所对全国的技术实力进行了摸底,同时派遣专家仔细研究了在越南战场上获得的美国F-4残骸。经过一年的调查研究,601所于1965年4月向上级部门提出歼-9的4个气动布局设计方案。这些方案都选择了两侧进气的正常布局,结构设计的经验则来自米格-21。

Ⅰ.前缘后掠角为50度的后掠翼
Ⅱ.前缘后掠角为55度的后掠翼
Ⅲ.前缘后掠角为57度的三角翼
Ⅳ.双后掠角的双三角翼

根据早在米格-19时期的研究经验表明,速度如果要达到马赫2.0以上,后掠翼的前缘后掠角最好大于60度,这样大角度的后掠翼低速时的性能恶化剧烈,很大的气动弹性发散造成的扭动对结构强度上提出很大的难题。如同米高扬设计局在设计米格-21时所遇到的问题一样,Ⅲ号方案的三角翼看上去性能最好,既能确保高速性能,又有较长的翼弦和机体连接,强度处理较为容易,后来又因为机动性方面的要求,将机翼后掠角改为55度,重新命名为Ⅳ-Ⅰ。

非常有趣的是,这个设计方案和20年后中国提出的超七计划的布局几乎一模一样。当时认为这种方案的布局是在米格-21上进行一定的放大而成,结构和气动上把握比较大,不存在特别的难点,可行度非常高。于是决定以这个型号作为发展,从1966年9月到1967年2月,大量的风洞数据显示,歼-9Ⅳ的性能也不够理想,尤其是机动性较差,不能符合要求,沈阳飞机设计所在风洞的资料研究中,提出了新的大无尾三角翼设计的Ⅴ号方案,Ⅴ号方案采用前缘后掠角为60度的无尾三角翼,翼面积高达62平米,使翼载荷极低,提高了机动性,同时代刚刚出现的法国的幻影Ⅲ/Ⅴ都是机动性较好的无尾三角翼的成功范例,算是当时非常先进的布局方案,超音速性能和机动性结合相当不错。

不过这个布局方案比法国的幻影Ⅲ/Ⅴ大很多,对设计和制造提出了很高的要求,首先是零升力矩的操作性问题,而后发现升降副翼的刚性和控制功率都是当时工业制造很难克服的技术难题。这种情况下在1968年4月,中国还是正式下达了批准歼-9 总体设计方案的通知,要求正式按照Ⅴ号方案展开全面的研制。当时正处于中国历史上一个非常令人迷惑的时期——文化大革命,盛行献礼活动,有关部门甚至打算让歼-9计划全面提速,争取在1969年10月前就首飞上天,赶上对建国20周年的纪念。在前社会主义国家中,这一举动并非是什么新鲜事。但这在科技发展史上是一个不可能的速度——一个研究所仅仅分出10%的技术力量就想完成这样难度的工作简直就是天方夜谭。


Ⅴ号方案所面对的技术难题一直没有得到有效的解决,而当时的中国人正处于歇斯底里的政治狂热中,正常的科研和生产完全混乱了,理所当然地,V号计划根本无法进行,甚至在 1968年7月就已经停止了对歼-9的研制。作为官方口吻,将责任推卸到一段不能明了的历史当中,显然是不理智的,考虑到当时同一研究所的另一个平行项目歼-8进行得非常顺利,在1968年中就完成总装,1969年中完成首飞,可以这样认为,当时中国的航空科研实力并不强大,即使以前苏联的标准去看都是非常幼稚的,很难想象一个小规模的研究所里同时可以完成两个完全不同的飞机设计任务。作为设计所,歼-8系列显而易见的是主力发展型号,在资源和技术实力不足的情况下,停下一个确保主力发展,是理智的选择。


成都飞机设计所

可能是有鉴于此,中国决定在西南面的所谓的 “三线建设”(类似于卫国战争中的乌拉尔战略生产基地)中将飞机的设计和制造迁移一部分过去。1969年,从沈阳飞机研究所分离了一部分人力物力迁移到成都,成立了成都飞机研究所(第611所),专门的负责歼-9计划的研制,以避免前期出现的并行型号的干扰。1970年,中国空军重新审视了歼-9的发展计划,考虑到即将发展成功的歼-8战斗机的高空高速能力基本成形,不再急迫的需要专门用于高空高速的截击机,军方再度修改了对歼-9的性能指标。 1970年6月9日下发要求如下:

1. 主要作战任务从截击转变为护航和歼击,机动性要好,机动能力要大于8g;

2. 为了确保能够对轻型轰炸机护航,作战半径要大,必须大于800~1000km;

3. 最大速度可以略低,应不小于马赫2.2,最好达到马赫2.5;

4. 静升限应达到25000米;

5. 重量控制在13吨左右为宜。

而在1970年11月短短不到半年的时间内,中国空军的主意又改变了,向研发单位提出双25太低,双28太高,双26刚刚好,要求最大飞行速度达到马赫 2.6,静升限达到26000米。在善变的中国空军面前,以前所有的设计方案都不能使用了。中国空军这一善变的特性一直被中国航空工业界和军工界所诟病,据说在歼-10的研制和歼-11的国产化进程中这一类的情况依然时有发生。这表明空军与研制单位之间始终无法就新型技术和工程运用达成一致意见,这一情况过去也出现在前苏联的航空和军工界。一直到1985年以前,阿尔巴特和空军以及防空部队与各设计局之间都需要一个更为强力的部门进行协调。


经过一段时间的研究,歼-9的气动布局重新进行了彻底的改变,在原有的V方案基础上选用了大量的模型进行风洞试验,其中最有希望的是采用鸭式布局的模型,其间大量试验了两侧进气和腹部进气的方案。最后的结论是,双26的方案要求太高,沈阳航空发动机研究所(606所)设计的910(后来的涡扇6)涡轮风扇发动机的工作性能无法达到那个高度。歼-9计划又一次面临无以为继的困境。此后不久,更雪上加霜的事情发生了。1972年中国从英国引进了斯贝Mk202发动机技术,606所需要把全部精力投入到该型发动机的国产化工作中去,原定配套的910发动机暂停研制,歼-9转为课题性研究。有意思的是,由于引进斯贝 Mk202,莫斯科曾一度认为中国将很快研制出新一代的战斗机。考虑到MK202是英国用于皇家空军装备的F-4战机的,前苏联认为中国将很快完成单发的轻型战斗机和双发的大型截击/攻击机。实际上成功运用Mk202发动机的中国FBC-1战斗轰炸机一直到1996年后才逐步具备作战能力。

1975 年,正当莫斯科为中国即将从法国获得幻影III战斗机的消息感到苦恼的同时,当时的三机部(航空工业部的前身)上报中共中央国防委员会(类似前苏联部长会议军事工业委员会的机构)要求降低歼-9的部分指标,以使其变得更加现实。同年2月18日获得答复,同意在修改的指标上继续研制。新的设计要求如下:

1. 最大飞行速度确保在马赫2.3以上,尽量达到马赫2.5到2.6;

2. 静升限改为23000米;

3. 最大过载8g;

4. 最大爬升率220米/秒;

5. 机内燃油最大航程2000km,作战半径不小于600km;

6. 飞机重量控制在13到14吨。

这个结果就算以今天的眼光来看也很高,特别是静升限。在高度、速度就是一切的学术潮流下,封闭的中国人也深深受到影响。成都飞机研究所根据这一最新的指标,以原Ⅴ设计的无尾三角翼为基础展开深入的型号研究,根据前期的一些资料和决议,形成了缩小机翼面积,增加前翼的新Ⅳ-Ⅰ方案,其后经过一年多的风洞研究,不断的优化气动参数和性能,最后得到Ⅳ-Ⅲ的最终布局,确定了歼-9战斗机的最终气动布局,以此展开系统的正式设计,到1978年,完成了全机的打样设计,其间对飞机的航电,工艺,气动加热,动力系统等几十个难题进行了有效的协调和研究,并一一得到一定程度的解决。


当飞机的很多零件都被制造出来,第一架飞机开始准备总装的时候,另一场中国政治的巨变带来了对该项目毁灭性的打击,上层的一纸通令,歼-9永久性的下马了。文化大革命结束,中国调整思路,准备进入随后让世界震惊的经济腾飞“改革开放”时代,几乎所有军事工业计划都被搁置和放弃,倾全国之经济技术能力,转向民用工业系统的发展,这样的时代大变革以放弃绝大多数军事研究基础换取经济国力的增强是一个巨大的需要有胆识的赌博计划,它必须赌博苏联和美国在相当长的时间内都不会和中国开战或者出现摩擦。要知道当时中国军队刚刚结束其在越南的军事行动,阿尔巴特正在全力组织对越南的新一轮军事援助。同时前苏联对阿富汗的大规模军事行动正进入高潮阶段,从而使苏联军队从中国的西北方向进行合围成为可能。然而就在这个时候,中国领导人开始了号称“新长征”的改革开放运动,并取得了辉煌的成功。到今天,中国已经成功地发展成为经济大国,而莫斯科则拼命得将国力耗费在各类尖端的军事技术上,以致前苏联庞大的实力也不堪负荷,瞬间就瓦解。直到今天俄罗斯在很多军事技术上仍然领先,但在经济上恐怕花费更多的时间也难以追赶上东方邻国前进的步伐。

前苏联的军事情报机构大约是在 80年代初期得知中国正在研制或者说研制过歼-9这一型号战斗机的。在中国北京航空航天学院(原属著名的清华大学)的一间简陋的陈列室里,来自日本和其他西方国家的学生和记者偶然间发现了该型号的风洞模型和木制1:72模型。通过在中央流体动力研究院进行的对比吹风测试后,我们的专家得出了该型号应该属于歼-8同一时代产品的这一结论。当时还有一种看法认为该机是中国新型涡轮风扇发动机的测试飞机,或者是为了测试新一代气动外形而制造的验证机。歼-9 是一种采用无尾三角翼的飞机(根据前文应带有前翼),很多数据今天依然保密,稀少的极为简陋的三面线图通过一些史料零星的暴露,根据中国航空工业90年代初散发的图形资料,该机的基本数据是:

机长:18米

翼展:9.7米

翼面积:50平米

前缘后掠角:60度

前翼:固定安装角3度的切尖三角翼,前缘后掠55度,翼面积2.53平米

进气道:两侧式斜板二元多波系可调进气道,外形类似于美国的F-4B。

动力:606所的910涡轮风扇发动机,正常推力71.3kn,最大推力122.4kn,后来这款发动机改称涡扇6型,在80年代初完成研制时推力高达132.2kn。发动机涵道比为0.93-1.0,重量2000kg。

飞机空重:估计约为9260kg

机内载油: 4200kg,系数约为29.3%

正常起飞重量:14230kg

正常起飞推重比:0.87(0.94,涡扇6G数值)

空战推重比:1.05(1.13,涡扇6G数值)

最大使用过载:8g

航程:机内燃油估计2100km

雷达:205雷达,最大探测距离75km,跟踪距离55Km,据估计来源于从越南获得的美国F-4战斗机搭配的AN/APQ-72和AN/APQ-120雷达残骸分析改进设计而来。而后似乎发展成为SL-5雷达,被另一个机型歼-8B所使用。

武器:霹雳-4导弹4枚,半主动雷达导引,似乎从没研制成功过,大约拥有18-28km的射程,类似于早期的麻雀导弹。

从上述的参数和歼-9的三视图可以看出,中国在60/70年代发展的这款单发轻型战斗机和同期出现的以色列的幼狮有令人惊讶的相似性,都是在无尾三角翼的基础上增加固定前翼的布局。考虑到从历史上来看,以色列在80年代以前和中国处于敌对的状态,并且中国当时处于极其自我封闭的状态,不大可能两者互通设计。而中国的歼-9计划所展现出的性能参数都略高于幼狮,三视图中大量的米格飞机的气息,更让人感觉到这种设计风格的苏式情调。尽管歼-9没有真实的样机可供品评,有些特征还是可以进行有限的分析。从涡扇6发动机高达1.0的涵道比可以看出,歼-9飞机的航程是非常被看重的,它肯定比同胞兄弟歼-8的油耗低,在相似的载油和重量下,歼-9飞机应该拥有远得多的航程,不过如此大涵道比涡扇发动机,应该并不适合高空高速的工作,马赫2.5的设计要求很有可能无法完成,而23000米的静升限恐怕也是镜花水月一般虚无缥缈。

这类涡扇发动机最佳的工作区域是在高度9000米以下的空域,充分体现出了歼 -9作为护航战斗机的本色。然而这就又出现了一个问题,在南昌强-6计划下马后,歼-9这样具有非常低的翼载荷和大的推重比的高速歼击机又去为谁护航呢?很显然高亚音速的轰-6(仿自图-16)不应该作为选择的对象。有人曾经断言歼-9将会是二代机中机动性最好的飞机,可问题的关键是该机首先要能够被制造出来并进行试飞。遗憾的是,如同那些淹没在历史河流中的默默无闻的未完成方案一样,这种虚无缥缈的战斗机将只留下中国空军刻意空出这个编号纪念外,无人再会记起。

费了大量篇章谈论和歼-10莫不相关的飞机,并不是打算喧宾夺主,而是为了让大家对本身就非常神秘的中国军用飞机研制体系有更深入的印象。从70年代中尼克松访华以后,中国和西方国家的关系日益密切,考虑到北约在欧洲面对苏联庞大的常规武器优势,美国特别重视和希望将中国当作在远东牵制苏联集团军事力量的重要平衡点,为紧张得欧洲缓减压力。而极端落后的中国军事装备是不可能负担起这样的任务的。苏联在欧洲拥有巨大的数量优势的常规武器和部署着强大的集团军,如果在远东苏联较为薄弱的腹部制造出一个军事威胁点,可以迫使苏联分兵,极大的缓减欧洲的压力。

在这重大的战略背景下西方开始放宽对中国的军事技术出口管制,在整个80年代,甚至带有相当大的鼓励的程度去劝说中国政府采购西方的先进武器,一些先进的战斗机开始进入中国的视线。首先考虑的是美国的F-16战斗机,这种飞机在很早的时间就随雷鸟进入中国在政府高层人士面前展示。中国人非常惊讶F-16所展示出的第三代战斗机极其优异的性能,决定有条件的话将优先考虑采购F-16。就在中美就F-16的输出以及美国对台湾的军火输出讨价还价的时候,中国人发现他们还可以采购法国的幻影2000C型战斗机。中方于是派出大量的军事考察团前往欧洲,多次试飞和评估了幻影2000C型战斗机,英国的鹞式和狂风战斗机。

经过相对完整和周密的测试飞行后,在中国方面发现幻影2000C低空飞行性能颇为优异,但高空能力基本和国内现役飞机持平,电子设备先进可靠。美中不足的是其搭配的RDM雷达不及美国F-16的AN/APG-66雷达先进,没有后者所拥有的下视能力。综合性能比国内已经开始装备的类似苏-15的歼-8II并不具备质的飞跃,且价格极其昂贵,以80年代的中国的经济实力根本无法达到足够的采购数量。中国人在认真考察了西方战斗机后,认为中国和西方差距最大的还不是在于飞行平台,而是缺乏先进的航空电子设备,尤其是性能优异的机载雷达,无法实现拦截高速目标急需的远距离攻击能力。于是中国和美国达成了利用歼- 8II平台安装美国APG-66雷达的协议,同时似乎也准备将这一雷达安装到较小的米格-21两侧进气版本的超级7型中去。

龙的腾飞

长期处于冷战对峙夹缝中的中国人明白,在新型战斗机上不能过度依赖别的国家,中国必须展开对下一代战斗机的研制工作,不然将无法保护自己的天空。1984 年,中国在考察了西方先进飞机以后开始在全国范围内进行自己的先进战机技术层面研究计划。通过几家研究所送交的初步设计方案的对比,1986年,新一代歼击机的计划正式确定。新飞机被命名为歼-10,交由成都飞机研究所(611所)负责研发,成都飞机公司(132厂)负责制造,发动机由沈阳航空发动机研究所(606)负责研制。

看上去,这和当初歼-9计划的班底一模一样。不过背景故事似乎并不那么简单,对于空军世界,1982年的贝卡谷地空战具有非常特殊的地位,以色列空军面对对手强大的数量优势和看上去不可抵御的地空优势下取得完胜,这对于全世界军事领域都是一次极大的震撼。中国领导人非常惊异的发现,以色列装备的幼狮战斗机居然和中国自身开展的歼-9有几分相似,这型战斗机在两次战争中表现相当出色,而理论上歼-9具有更优异的性能,这对中国高层的潜意识倾向无疑有巨大的影响。

80年代初,国际上已经开始了对第四代战斗机的构思,欧洲的法国和英国提出各自的阵风和 EFA计划,瑞典也展现了JAS-39计划,常常处于战争焦点的以色列也意外地提出自己的狮式计划。在中国,对先进战斗机的研制分裂成了两个派别,以沈阳飞机研究所(601)为主的一部分技术人员和美国接触较多,认为仿制F-16是中国最为需要的,力主自行研究模仿F-16进行自己的轻型先进战斗机计划,测绘飞机可以通过特别的外交渠道从美国或者其他国家引进,和中国交好的巴基斯坦和埃及都先后装备了F-16。

而成都飞机研究所(611)则利用自己多年研究歼-9飞机的经验,配合研究当时的国际潮流,提出直接研制下一代战斗机,气动外形在早期的歼-9的基础上采用了更灵活的全动前翼的鸭式布局,和欧洲的新一代战斗机结构和性能类似。在航空部门的内部竞争中,611所的理念表现似乎更符合中国空军对先进战斗机的期待,而歼-9同幼狮的相似度在一定程度上影响了上层的好感,611所呈交的报告仔细地研究了法国在从幻影3到幻影2000战斗机中发展和进步的方式,提供了清晰的发展可行性路线图,而沈阳的计划更依赖于易&#
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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Russian Air force looks at Chinese J-10 (2) (objective also profound criticism)

Two incidents occurs which at the 46th session of Paris aerospace exposition have aroused the west intelligence service's interest, first one is responsible for carries on the technical negotiations with Russian Astronavigation Department SAFRAN group subordinate Sa Remu the defence security company (Sagem Defense Securite) person in charge Alfonso Paredes to tell me (this article author), Russia's technical personnel and the pilot recently continuously to collect the illusory image fighter plane certain tactical skills and the structure craft are interested extremely.In with the France side discussed improves Russia system Mig - 29/29K and in the Soviet - 27/30 fighter aircraft process using the France advanced electronic technology, the Russian transfers continuously unintentionally the topic to them feels the interest the scope, and attempts to use other modes many times from personally place to obtain these resources.

Alfonso Paredes tells me to say that, France side is by the manner which quite has a frank and sincere talk handles this incident, the French proposed solves both sides by the transparent public mode to be interested the question most serves the duplex benefit.However stems from the France side to anticipate, the Russia side acknowledges them the reason that to have the interest to the illusory image 2000 fighter aircrafts certain tactic technical questions stems from they own reason.Mainly was is responsible to produce Soviet - 27 (this computer was called annihilates - 11) the Chinese Shenyang aeroplane industry group in repeatedly to the Sukhoi designing bureau to complain recently, produced the Soviet - 27 fighter aircrafts by them in to produce “the dragon” with the Chengdu aeroplane industry group in the type fighter aircraft field manoeuvre to suffer defeat one after another, in particular in 04 years in the Chinese northwest zone “the airborne large-scale military training exercise” centre, “the dragon” the type fighter aircraft Soviet - 30MKK and Shenyang which 引以为傲 to Chinese Air force annihilates - 11 to initiate has attacked and has gained 压倒性 the victory!This caused to prepare to equip massively originally annihilates - 11 Chinese Military to change the purchase intention.

Considered “the dragon” type fighter aircraft itself is develops under France's help, this computer has “the thrust in the French aviation industrial world interior to strengthen the version the illusory image 2000-5” saying, therefore Russia just now so impatiently collects the related illusory image fighter plane the information and the information.Certainly this incident itself reequips the aspect to France and Russia in the military aircraft the cooperation to produce by no means any affects not good.

In moreover in this 航展, comes from keeps card - Sa Toon (Salyut) representative leaf 甫 Gainey•The Mar fall branch husband indicated to commercial daily paper reporter that, besides the newest signature to the Chinese exportation value 300,000,000 Dollar 100 AL-31FN contract, Salyut also will finally obtain Chinese Air force other 150 advanced versions AL-31 the contract.Leaf 甫 Gainey•The Mar fall branch husband indicated that, these AL-31FN all will install in the Chinese self-restraint annihilates - 10 “the dragon " on the type fighter aircraft, but will not be introduction Russia system Soviet - 27 and 30 fighter aircrafts.Leaf 甫 Gainey•The Mar fall branch husband also further indicated, will produce AL-31FN for China will be uses the newest technical the thrust enlargement mode.

From in the air operated topology question which afterwards exposed looked that, Israel's design truly has not had a thorough understanding and grasps the short-range coupling duck (to lift) the formula topology, they superposed the duck wing topology and the wing root one half, like this might produce the best near pair to add rises the effect.But they have not noted some malpractices which designs like this, the prototype expose the aeroplane the operation to have the question, is not flexible, the drag is big, the range could not achieve by far requirement and so on, needs to carry on the very big modification to the air operated topologies to be able to answer the purpose, this is no different with a redesign section new aeroplane.Very difficult to believe this kind of section not mature aeroplane design, may sell extremely as the technical output.


Looked from the China public aviation industry history information that, China most as early as has not started in some success model to contact the canard shaped design, for instance annihilates - 9.The restricted information displayed that, annihilated - 9 plans as early as to start in October, 1964 to plan, at that time Chinese Shenyang Aircraft factory (presently Shenyang Airplane Industrial corporation) mimicking the Mig - 21 aeroplanes which introduced from the Mikoyan designing bureau.At the same time, in Shenyang, the Chinese only fighter aircraft design research institute (601st) already started to plan Chinese at that time the next generation fighter aircraft.In order to in order to safe, proposes a twin engine and a single shot design proposal.They all are carry on the enlargement in the Mig - 21 foundations the model.Looked like China did not satisfy at that time the Mig - 21 this kinds in that time performance extremely outstanding front fighter aircraft, hoped had the range far long range interceptor, satisfied in its general boundaries the air defence for the nation question.Installs two engines the models to name as the F-8, but installs an engine the fighter aircraft to name for annihilates - 9.In these two plans, the F-8 was first considered that, and persisted develops, finally evolves into is similar to the Soviet - 15 such air defence high-speed interceptors.But annihilates - 9 plans to hide continuously in mystically secretly, from emerges to the end, very little has any information to publicise.


In April, 1965, Chinese Military required in the new aeroplane development to invest at that time the operational object setup for the United States military the Vietnamese war main force fighter plane F-4B, this was the future 15 years to 20 years in American and even the western world main force fighter plane, in fact always to 40 year after today, the F-4 fighter aircraft all still in the western nation use, this tactical goal formulation was quite appropriate.Receives the second generation of fighter aircraft academic ideological trend the influence, the upper air high speed ability demand is enlarged specially, the new aeroplane requirement has compared to the Mig - 21 greater ranges and the cruise duration.Annihilated - 9 and the F-8 plans the different pathway, it was different with the F-8 only is simple - 21 enlarges the Mig and uses two oil consumption high R-11 engine, annihilated - 9 plans to use at that time the extremely advanced turbo-fan engine, (606th) was responsible by Chinese Shenyang Engine Research institute to develop the thrust is the 8500kg new engine forms a complete set for it.In 1965 1 to April, Chinese Air force after the ponder, proposed first time to annihilates - 9 plans tactical requirements:

1. Prominent ground attack performance, proper attention to both interception performance.The aeroplane mobility must - 21 (China be called in the upper air compared to the Mig annihilates - 7) well, must - 19 (China be called in the low altitude compared to the Mig annihilates - 6) well.When ground attack combat, the maximum speed is not smaller than Mach 2.3, most is greatly highly 18000 to 20000 metres.The combat radius is not smaller than 450 kilometers;

2. The double 25 quotas, refer to the aeroplane the maximum speed to have to achieve Mach 2.5, the biggest flight altitude must amount to 25000 metres.The combat radius is 350 kilometers;

3. Airplane gross weight check about 14 tons;

1 and 2 requirements are in fact two different conditions, the air force hoped the research unit may select meets requirements.

The above requirement issued in April 12, 1965.601 face many model design task/role, in May, extracts approximately 10% design strength to annihilate - 9 in the same year to launch the reference design.Considered is carrying on the Mig in at the same time former Soviet Union itself - 23/25 with the Soviet - 15 aeroplanes developments, says regarding the China this kind of emerging industrialised country, develops this kind of kind of brand-new high performance fighter aircraft is conceivably the how difficulty.Was precisely because of so, before this 601 research institutes carries on to the national technical strength has known the real situation, simultaneously dispatched the expert carefully to study the American F-4 wreckage which obtained in the Vietnamese battlefield.After a year investigation and study, 601 in April, 1965 to the higher authority department proposed annihilates - 9 4 air operated topologies design proposal.These plans all selected the normal arrangement which two sides let in air, the structural design experience have come from the Mig - 21.

Ⅰ.The predestined affinity angle of sweep-back is 50 arrow-head wings
Ⅱ.The predestined affinity angle of sweep-back is 55 arrow-head wings
Ⅲ.The predestined affinity angle of sweep-back is 57 deltas
Ⅳ.Double angle of sweep-back double delta

& # x6839; & # x636E; & # x65E9; & # x5728; & # x7C73; & # x683C; - 19& # x65F6; & # x671F; & # x7684; & # x7814; & # x7A76; & # x7ECF; & # x9A8C; & # x8868; & # x660E; & # xFF0C; & # x901F; & # x5EA6; & # x5982; & # x679C; & # x8981; & # x8FBE; & # x5230; & # x9A6C; & # x8D6B; 2.0& # x4EE5; & # x4E0A; & # xFF0C; & # x540E; & # x63A0; & # x7FFC; & # x7684; & # x524D; & # x7F18; & # x540E; & # x63A0; & # x89D2; & # x6700; & # x597D; & # x5927; & # x4E8E; 60& # x5EA6; & # xFF0C; & # x8FD9; & # x6837; & # x5927; & # x89D2; & # x5EA6; & # x7684; & # x540E; & # x63A0; & # x7FFC; & # x4F4E; & # x901F; & # x65F6; & # x7684; & # x6027; & # x80FD; & # x6076; & # x5316; & # x5267; & # x70C8; & # xFF0C; & # x5F88; & # x5927; & # x7684; & # x6C14; & # x52A8; & # x5F39; & # x6027; & # x53D1; & # x6563; & # x9020; & # x6210; & # x7684; & # x626D; & # x52A8; & # x5BF9; & # x7ED3; & # x6784; & # x5F3A; & # x5EA6; & # x4E0A; & # x63D0; & # x51FA; & # x5F88; & # x5927; & # x7684; & # x96BE; & # x9898; & # x3002; & # x5982; & # x540C; & # x7C73; & # x9AD8; & # x626C; & # x8BBE; & # x8BA1; & # x5C40; & # x5728; & # x8BBE; & # x8BA1; & # x7C73; & # x683C; - 21& # x65F6; & # x6240; & # x9047; & # x5230; & # x7684; & # x95EE; & # x9898; & # x4E00; & # x6837; & # xFF0C;Ⅲ& # x53F7; & # x65B9; & # x6848; & # x7684; & # x4E09; & # x89D2; & # x7FFC; & # x770B; & # x4E0A; & # x53BB; & # x6027; & # x80FD; & # x6700; & # x597D; & # xFF0C; & # x65E2; & # x80FD; & # x786E; & # x4FDD; & # x9AD8; & # x901F; & # x6027; & # x80FD; & # xFF0C; & # x53C8; & # x6709; & # x8F83; & # x957F; & # x7684; & # x7FFC; & # x5F26; & # x548C; & # x673A; & # x4F53; & # x8FDE; & # x63A5; & # xFF0C; & # x5F3A; & # x5EA6; & # x5904; & # x7406; & # x8F83; & # x4E3A; & # x5BB9; & # x6613; & # xFF0C; & # x540E; & # x6765; & # x53C8; & # x56E0; & # x4E3A; & # x673A; & # x52A8; & # x6027; & # x65B9; & # x9762; & # x7684; & # x8981; & # x6C42; & # xFF0C; & # x5C06; & # x673A; & # x7FFC; & # x540E; & # x63A0; & # x89D2; & # x6539; & # x4E3A; 55& # x5EA6; & # xFF0C; & # x91CD; & # x65B0; & # x547D; & # x540D; & # x4E3A;Ⅳ-Ⅰ.

& # x975E; & # x5E38; & # x6709; & # x8DA3; & # x7684; & # x662F; & # xFF0C; & # x8FD9; & # x4E2A; & # x8BBE; & # x8BA1; & # x65B9; & # x6848; & # x548C; 20& # x5E74; & # x540E; & # x4E2D; & # x56FD; & # x63D0; & # x51FA; & # x7684; & # x8D85; & # x4E03; & # x8BA1; & # x5212; & # x7684; & # x5E03; & # x5C40; & # x51E0; & # x4E4E; & # x4E00; & # x6A21; & # x4E00; & # x6837; & # x3002; & # x5F53; & # x65F6; & # x8BA4; & # x4E3A; & # x8FD9; & # x79CD; & # x65B9; & # x6848; & # x7684; & # x5E03; & # x5C40; & # x662F; & # x5728; & # x7C73; & # x683C; - 21& # x4E0A; & # x8FDB; & # x884C; & # x4E00; & # x5B9A; & # x7684; & # x653E; & # x5927; & # x800C; & # x6210; & # xFF0C; & # x7ED3; & # x6784; & # x548C; & # x6C14; & # x52A8; & # x4E0A; & # x628A; & # x63E1; & # x6BD4; & # x8F83; & # x5927; & # xFF0C; & # x4E0D; & # x5B58; & # x5728; & # x7279; & # x522B; & # x7684; & # x96BE; & # x70B9; & # xFF0C; & # x53EF; & # x884C; & # x5EA6; & # x975E; & # x5E38; & # x9AD8; & # x3002; & # x4E8E; & # x662F; & # x51B3; & # x5B9A; & # x4EE5; & # x8FD9; & # x4E2A; & # x578B; & # x53F7; & # x4F5C; & # x4E3A; & # x53D1; & # x5C55; & # xFF0C; & # x4ECE; 1966& # x5E74; 9& # x6708; & # x5230; 1967& # x5E74; 2& # x6708; & # xFF0C; & # x5927; & # x91CF; & # x7684; & # x98CE; & # x6D1E; & # x6570; & # x636E; & # x663E; & # x793A; & # xFF0C; & # x6B7C; -9Ⅳ& # x7684; & # x6027; & # x80FD; & # x4E5F; & # x4E0D; & # x591F; & # x7406; & # x60F3; & # xFF0C; & # x5C24; & # x5176; & # x662F; & # x673A; & # x52A8; & # x6027; & # x8F83; & # x5DEE; & # xFF0C; & # x4E0D; & # x80FD; & # x7B26; & # x5408; & # x8981; & # x6C42; & # xFF0C; & # x6C88; & # x9633; & # x98DE; & # x673A; & # x8BBE; & # x8BA1; & # x6240; & # x5728; & # x98CE; & # x6D1E; & # x7684; & # x8D44; & # x6599; & # x7814; & # x7A76; & # x4E2D; & # xFF0C; & # x63D0; & # x51FA; & # x4E86; & # x65B0; & # x7684; & # x5927; & # x65E0; & # x5C3E; & # x4E09; & # x89D2; & # x7FFC; & # x8BBE; & # x8BA1; & # x7684;Ⅴ& # x53F7; & # x65B9; & # x6848; & # xFF0C;Ⅴ& # x53F7; & # x65B9; & # x6848; & # x91C7; & # x7528; & # x524D; & # x7F18; & # x540E; & # x63A0; & # x89D2; & # x4E3A; 60& # x5EA6; & # x7684; & # x65E0; & # x5C3E; & # x4E09; & # x89D2; & # x7FFC; & # xFF0C; & # x7FFC; & # x9762; & # x79EF; & # x9AD8; & # x8FBE; 62& # x5E73; & # x7C73; & # xFF0C; & # x4F7F; & # x7FFC; & # x8F7D; & # x8377; & # x6781; & # x4F4E; & # xFF0C; & # x63D0; & # x9AD8; & # x4E86; & # x673A; & # x52A8; & # x6027; & # xFF0C; & # x540C; & # x65F6; & # x4EE3; & # x521A; & # x521A; & # x51FA; & # x73B0; & # x7684; & # x6CD5; & # x56FD; & # x7684; & # x5E7B; & # x5F71;Ⅲ& # xFF0F;ⅤAll is the mobile good tailless delta successful model, was at that time the extremely advanced configuration, the supersonic performance and the mobile union is quite good.

& # x4E0D; & # x8FC7; & # x8FD9; & # x4E2A; & # x5E03; & # x5C40; & # x65B9; & # x6848; & # x6BD4; & # x6CD5; & # x56FD; & # x7684; & # x5E7B; & # x5F71;Ⅲ& # xFF0F;Ⅴ& # x5927; & # x5F88; & # x591A; & # xFF0C; & # x5BF9; & # x8BBE; & # x8BA1; & # x548C; & # x5236; & # x9020; & # x63D0; & # x51FA; & # x4E86; & # x5F88; & # x9AD8; & # x7684; & # x8981; & # x6C42; & # xFF0C; & # x9996; & # x5148; & # x662F; & # x96F6; & # x5347; & # x529B; & # x77E9; & # x7684; & # x64CD; & # x4F5C; & # x6027; & # x95EE; & # x9898; & # xFF0C; & # x800C; & # x540E; & # x53D1; & # x73B0; & # x5347; & # x964D; & # x526F; & # x7FFC; & # x7684; & # x521A; & # x6027; & # x548C; & # x63A7; & # x5236; & # x529F; & # x7387; & # x90FD; & # x662F; & # x5F53; & # x65F6; & # x5DE5; & # x4E1A; & # x5236; & # x9020; & # x5F88; & # x96BE; & # x514B; & # x670D; & # x7684; & # x6280; & # x672F; & # x96BE; & # x9898; & # x3002; & # x8FD9; & # x79CD; & # x60C5; & # x51B5; & # x4E0B; & # x5728; 1968& # x5E74; 4& # x6708; & # xFF0C; & # x4E2D; & # x56FD; & # x8FD8; & # x662F; & # x6B63; & # x5F0F; & # x4E0B; & # x8FBE; & # x4E86; & # x6279; & # x51C6; & # x6B7C; - 9 & # x603B; & # x4F53; & # x8BBE; & # x8BA1; & # x65B9; & # x6848; & # x7684; & # x901A; & # x77E5; & # xFF0C; & # x8981; & # x6C42; & # x6B63; & # x5F0F; & # x6309; & # x7167;ⅤThe number plan launches the comprehensive development.At that time was being in the Chinese history extremely to make the time — — Great Cultural Revolution which one confused, was in vogue offers a gift the activity, the department concerned even planned let annihilate - 9 to plan raises comprehensively fast, strove for front flies in October, 1969 on the heaven, caught up with to the 20th anniversary commemoration.In the front socialist countries, this action is any 新鲜事 by no means.But this is not an impossible speed — — research institute to branch out 10% technical force in the technical history to want merely to complete such difficulty the work is simply Arabian Nights.


ⅤThe number plan faces the technical difficult problem has not always obtained the valid solution, but then Chinese was being in hysteria frantically politics centre, the normal scientific research and the production has been completely chaotic, V plan basic was unable to carry on naturally, even on already stopped in July, 1968 to annihilating - 9 developments.As the official tone, shirks the responsibility the history which cannot understand to a section, obviously the reason, did not consider at that time the identical research institute's another parallel project F-8 carried on extremely smoothly, completed the general equipment department in 1968, in 1969 completed to fly, might believe like this, at that time China's aviation scientific research strength was not formidable, even if beforehand Soviet Union's standard looked all was extremely weak, very difficult to imagine a small scale in the research institute at the same time to be possible to complete two completely different aeroplanes designs task.As the design institute, the F-8 series obvious is the main force development model, is insufficient in the resource and the technical strength in the situation, stops to guaranty the main force development, is the reason selection.


Chengdu aeroplane design institute

Possibly is the taking this into consideration, China resolved so-called “the third line construction” (was similar in 西南面 in war of national defence Ural strategy production base) centre migrates the aeroplane design and the manufacture part of pasts.In 1969, separated part of manpower physical resources from Shenyang Airplane Research institute to migrate to Chengdu, has established Chengdu Airplane Research institute (611th), special annihilated - 9 plans developments responsibly, avoided the parallel model disturbance which the earlier period appeared.In 1970, Chinese Air force recarefully examined has annihilated - 9 development plans, considered soon developed the successful F-8 fighter aircraft upper air high speed ability basic forming, no longer urgent needed to use in specially the upper air high speed interceptor aircraft, the military modifies once again to has annihilated - 9 performance indices. On June 9, 1970 after-cropped the requirement to be as follows:

1. The main operational mission transforms from the interception into the escort and ground attack, the mobility is friends with, the manoeuvre cabability must be bigger than 8g;

2. In order to guaranty can to the light bomber escort, the combat radius must be big, must be bigger than 800~1000km;

3. The maximum speed may be slightly low, should not be smaller than Mach 2.2, best achieves Mach 2.5;

4. The steady-flight ceiling should amount to 25000 metres;

5. Weight check about 13 tons for suitable.

But in November, 1970 short not to half year in, the Chinese Air force's idea changed, to the research and development unit proposed pair of 25 too low, double 28 too high, double 26 just good, the requirement peak velocity achieved Mach 2.6, the steady-flight ceiling amount to 26000 metres.In front of fickle Chinese Air force, beforehand all design proposal all could not use.Chinese Air force this fickle identity continuously denounced by the Chinese aviation industrial world and the war industry, it is said in annihilates - 10 developments and annihilates - in 11 manufacture domesticallies processes this category of situation still to sometimes occur.This indicated the air force is unable throughout with the development unit between on the new technology and the project utilisation reaches the consensus of opinion, this situation also appeared in the past in former Soviet Union's aviation and the war industry.Continuously to 1985 before, Ahl Baht and the air force as well as the air defence unit all need a more force department to carry on the coordination with various designing bureaus between.


After period of time research, annihilated - 9 air operated topologies reto carry on the thorough change, selected the massive models in the original V plan foundation to carry on the wind tunnel test, most hopeful was uses the canard the model, during experimented two sides to let in air massively the plan which let in air with the abdomen.The final conclusion is, the double 26 plans requirement too is high, Shenyang Aircraft engine Research institute (606) designs 910 (afterwards 涡扇 6) the turbo-fan engine operating performance was unable to achieve that altitude.Annihilates - 9 to plan time faced with the difficult position which 无以为继.Hereafter soon, the one misfortune after another matter occurred.In 1972 China has introduced Si from England the shell Mk202 engine technology, 606 need to invest the complete energy into in this engine manufacture domestically work, the original necessary 910 engines suspend the development, annihilates - 9 to transfer the topic research.Interesting is, because introduces Si shell Mk202, Moscow once thought China very quickly will develop new goods come into the market a generation of fighter aircraft.Considered MK202 is England uses in the F-4 fighter plane which the royal air force equips, former Soviet Union believed China very quickly will complete the single shot the light fighter aircraft and the twin engine large-scale interception/attack aeroplane.In fact succeeded utilises Mk202 the engine the Chinese FBC-1 fighter bomber continuously only then gradually to have the operational capacity after 1996.

In 1975, while Moscow soon obtains the illusory image III fighter aircraft for China from France the news to feel worried at the same time, then 三机部 (aviation ministry of industry's predecessor) reported the Central Committee of the CCP national defence council (to be similar former Soviet Union ministers council war industry committee organisation) to require to reduce annihilates - 9 partial quotas, caused it to change realistically.On February 18 obtains the answer in the same year, agreed continues in the modification quota to develop.The new design requirement is as follows:

1. The peak velocity guaranties in Mach above 2.3, achieves Mach 2.5 as far as possible to 2.6;

2. The steady-flight ceiling changes 23000 metres;

3. Overloads most greatly 8g;

4. Maximum climb rate 220 metres/seconds;

5. Computer in fuel oil maximum range 2000km, the combat radius is not smaller than 600km;

6. Airplane weight check in 13 to 14 tons.

& # x8FD9; & # x4E2A; & # x7ED3; & # x679C; & # x5C31; & # x7B97; & # x4EE5; & # x4ECA; & # x5929; & # x7684; & # x773C; & # x5149; & # x6765; & # x770B; & # x4E5F; & # x5F88; & # x9AD8; & # xFF0C; & # x7279; & # x522B; & # x662F; & # x9759; & # x5347; & # x9650; & # x3002; & # x5728; & # x9AD8; & # x5EA6; & # x3001; & # x901F; & # x5EA6; & # x5C31; & # x662F; & # x4E00; & # x5207; & # x7684; & # x5B66; & # x672F; & # x6F6E; & # x6D41; & # x4E0B; & # xFF0C; & # x5C01; & # x95ED; & # x7684; & # x4E2D; & # x56FD; & # x4EBA; & # x4E5F; & # x6DF1; & # x6DF1; & # x53D7; & # x5230; & # x5F71; & # x54CD; & # x3002; & # x6210; & # x90FD; & # x98DE; & # x673A; & # x7814; & # x7A76; & # x6240; & # x6839; & # x636E; & # x8FD9; & # x4E00; & # x6700; & # x65B0; & # x7684; & # x6307; & # x6807; & # xFF0C; & # x4EE5; & # x539F;Ⅴ& # x8BBE; & # x8BA1; & # x7684; & # x65E0; & # x5C3E; & # x4E09; & # x89D2; & # x7FFC; & # x4E3A; & # x57FA; & # x7840; & # x5C55; & # x5F00; & # x6DF1; & # x5165; & # x7684; & # x578B; & # x53F7; & # x7814; & # x7A76; & # xFF0C; & # x6839; & # x636E; & # x524D; & # x671F; & # x7684; & # x4E00; & # x4E9B; & # x8D44; & # x6599; & # x548C; & # x51B3; & # x8BAE; & # xFF0C; & # x5F62; & # x6210; & # x4E86; & # x7F29; & # x5C0F; & # x673A; & # x7FFC; & # x9762; & # x79EF; & # xFF0C; & # x589E; & # x52A0; & # x524D; & # x7FFC; & # x7684; & # x65B0;Ⅳ-Ⅰ& # x65B9; & # x6848; & # xFF0C; & # x5176; & # x540E; & # x7ECF; & # x8FC7; & # x4E00; & # x5E74; & # x591A; & # x7684; & # x98CE; & # x6D1E; & # x7814; & # x7A76; & # xFF0C; & # x4E0D; & # x65AD; & # x7684; & # x4F18; & # x5316; & # x6C14; & # x52A8; & # x53C2; & # x6570; & # x548C; & # x6027; & # x80FD; & # xFF0C; & # x6700; & # x540E; & # x5F97; & # x5230;Ⅳ-ⅢThe final topology, had determined annihilates - 9 fighter aircrafts finally the air operated topology, launches the system by this the official design, to 1978, has completed entire computer pulls the design, during to the aeroplane navigation electricity, the craft, the aerodynamic heating, the dynamic system and so on several dozens difficult problems has carried on the valid coordination and the research, and 11 obtains the certain degree the solution.


When aeroplane very many components are made all, the first aeroplane starts prepares the general equipment department time, another Chinese politics great change brings to this project ruinous attack, an upper formation paper had issued an order, annihilated - 9 permanently to discontinue.The Great Cultural Revolution ended, the Chinese adjustment mentality, the preparation enters afterwards lets the world shock the economy soar “the reform and open policy” the time, the nearly all war industry plan is put all aside and the giving up, leans economy of technology ability the national, changes the consumer industry system the development, such time big transformation gives up the overwhelming majority military exploration foundation receive in exchange for the economical national strength the enhancement is huge needs to have the courage and wisdom the gambling plan, it must gamble Soviet Union and US all cannot make war in the quite long time with China or appear the friction.Must know at that time the Chinese army just finished it in Vietnam's military action, Ahl Baht is organising with all one's strength to Vietnam's new turn of military assistance.Simultaneously former Soviet Union is entering the high tide phase to Afghanistan's large-scale military action, thus causes the Soviet army to carry on from China's northwest direction possibly encircles into.However on in this time, the Chinese leaders started is known as “the new long march” the reform and open policy movement, and has obtained the magnificent success.To today, China already successfully developed into the economical great nation, but Moscow went all out the national strength consumption in each category of state-of-art military technology, so that the former Soviet Union huge strength also was unable to withstand the load, instantaneous disintegrated.Was still in the lead until today Russia in the very many military technology, but perhaps spent more time in the economy also with difficulty to pursue on the Eastern neighboring country advance step.

Former Soviet Union's military intelligence organisation probably is in the 80's initial period knew China is developing or said develops has annihilated - 9 this model fighter aircraft.(Is famous Qinghua University originally) in Beijing, China Aerospace Institute in a crude exhibition room, came from Japanese and other western nations students and reporter accidentally between has detected this model wind tunnel model and wooden 1:72 models.Through the contrast which carries on after the central hydrodynamics research institute catches a chill the test, our expert obtained this model to be supposed to belong to the F-8 identical time product this conclusion.At that time also some one view thought this computer is the China new turbo-fan engine test aeroplane, or is for test the confirmation computer which the new generation of air operated contour makes.Annihilates - 9 is one kind uses the tailless delta the aeroplane (before basis article to be supposed to have forward wing), still keeps secret very most according to today, the scarce extremely crude three graphs through some historical data fragmentary expositions, the graphics information which disseminates according to the China aviation industry the beginning of 90's, this computer master data is:

Aircraft commander:18 metres

Wingspan:9.7 metres

Wing area:50 square metres

Predestined affinity angle of sweep-back:60

Forward wing:Fixed angle of setting 3 cut the sharp delta, leading sweep 55, the wing area 2.53 square metres

Air intake:The bilateral type sloping plate dual multishock may send in the gas channel, the contour is similar to US's F-4B.

Power:606 910 turbo-fans engine, normal thrust 71.3kn, maximum thrust 122.4kn, afterwards this section engine renamed 涡扇 6, completed the development when the beginning of the 80's the thrust reached as high as 132.2kn.The engine contains a ratio is 0.93-1.0, weight 2000kg.

Tare weight:The estimate is approximately 9260kg

Computer which states as follows oil: 4200kg, the coefficient is approximately 29.3%

Normal total weight:14230kg

Takes off normally the thrust ratio:0.87 (0.94, 涡扇 6G value)

Air fight thrust ratio:1.05 (1.13, 涡扇 6G value)

Most ambassador uses the overload:8g

Range:Computer in the fuel oil estimates 2100km

Radar:205 radars, biggest probing range 75km, the track is away from 55Km, AN/APQ-72 and the AN/APQ-120 radar wreckage analysis improvement design which from Vietnam originates according to the estimate in which obtains the American F-4 fighter aircraft matches.But after develops into the SL-5 radar as if, is used by another type F-8 B.

Weapon:Thunderclap - 4 missiles 4, semi-active radar guiding, as if ever have not developed crosses successfully, probably has 18-28km the firing distance, is similar in the early house sparrow missile.

And annihilates - 9 three views from the above parameter to be possible to see, China Israel's young lion which appears in 60/70 age development this section single shot light fighter aircraft and the same time has the surprising similarity, all is adds the fixed forward wing in the tailless delta foundation the topology.Considered looked from the history, Israel in 80's before and China is at the hostile state, and China was at extremely the self- seal state at that time, not greatly possible two to exchange the design.But China the performance parameter which annihilates - 9 plans to unfold all slightly is higher than the young lion, in three views massive Migs aeroplane breath, lets the human feel this kind of design style the Soviet-type affective tone.Although annihilates - 9 real prototypes not to be possible to supply the appraisal, some characteristics may carry on the restricted analysis.Reaches as high as 1.0 from 涡扇 6 engines to contain compared to be possible to see, annihilates - 9 aeroplanes ranges is regarded extremely as important, it the F-8 oil consumption is definitely lower than full brothers, in similar carries under the oil and the weight, annihilates - 9 aeroplanes to be supposed to have is farther much ranges, greatly contains mediocre compared to 涡扇 the engine, should not suit the upper air high speed work, the Mach 2.5 designs requirement has the possibility to be unable very much to complete, but perhaps 23000 metres steady-flight ceilings also are the illusion general illusory.

This category of 涡扇 engine best working space is in highly 9000 metre below air zone, manifested fully has annihilated - 9 to take the escort fighter the true colours.However this had a problem, discontinues after the Nanchang strong - 6 plans, annihilates - 9 to have the extremely low wing load and the great thrust ratio superfighter like this goes for who to escort?The high subsonic speed bang - 6 (imitates very obviously from chart - 16) should not take the selection the object.Some people once asserted will annihilate - 9 to be able to be two generation of computer centre mobile best aeroplanes, but the question key will be this computer first must be able to make and carries on the test flight.It is a pity, is similar to these flooding not to complete the plan which remains obscure in the historical rivers to be same, this kind of illusory fighter aircraft only will leave behind Chinese Air force to empty outside sedulously this serial number commemoration, nobody will meet recalls to mind.

Has spent the massive chapters discussion and annihilates the aeroplane which - 10 none who does not are connected, is not plans to compete, but is for let everybody have a more thorough impression to the itself extremely mystical China military aeroplane development system.Nixon visits China after from the 70's, Chinese and the western nation relations are day by day close, considered NATO in Europe facing the Soviet Union huge conventional weapons superiority, US will take with the hope China to treat as specially in the far east diverts the Soviet Bloc military force the important balance point, for will be anxious Europe to lighten and reduce the pressure.But the extreme backwardness China military equipment not impossible to bear such task/role.Soviet Union has the huge numerical advantage in Europe the conventional weapons and is deploying the formidable group army, if makes a military threat spot in a far east Soviet Union weaker abdomen, may force Soviet Union to divide forces, enormous lightens and reduces European the pressure.

The west starts under this significant strategic background to relax to China's military technology exportation control, in entire 80's, even has the quite big encouragement the degree to persuade the Chinese government to purchase western the advanced weapon, some advanced fighter aircrafts start to enter Chinese the line of sight.First considers is US's F-16 fighter aircraft, this kind of aeroplane on enters China in the very early time along with the capercailye to demonstrate in front of the government senior officials.Chinese extremely surprised F-16 demonstrated the third generation fighter aircraft extremely outstanding performance, resolved will have the condition the speech first to consider will purchase F-16.On outputs in China and America on the F-16 output as well as US to Taiwan's munitions bargains back and forth, the Chinese detected they also may purchase French the illusory image 2000C fighter aircraft.Thereupon the Chinese government sends out the massive military inspection group to go to Europe, many times the test flight and has appraised the illusory image 2000C fighter aircraft, England's kite type and the strong winds fighter aircraft.

After the relative integrity and the thorough test flight, in the Chinese aspect detected the illusory image 2000C low-altitude flying performance is quite outstanding, but the upper air ability basic and the domestic operating aircraft is impartial, electronic installation advanced reliable.The minor defect in something otherwise perfect the RDM radar which is it matches is inferior to American F-16 the AN/APG-66 radar to be advanced, latter has not had under regards the ability.The overall performance compared to domestic already started to equip is similar the Soviet - 15 F-8 II not to have the quantitive leap, also the price was extremely expensive, was unable by the 80's China's economic potentiality to achieve the enough purchase quantity radically.After the Chinese was inspecting the western fighter aircraft earnestly, thought Chinese and the western difference biggest lies in the flying platform, but lacks the advanced aviation electronics, the performance outstanding airborne radar approach, is unable to implement the interception high-speed target urgent need long-distance range attack capability in particular.Thereupon China and US achieved have installed the American APG-66 radar using the F-8 II platform the protocol, simultaneously as if also prepared this radar to install the small Mig - 212 sides to let in air the version super 7 centre.

Dragon soaring

Is in the cold war to confront for a long time in the crevice Chinese to understand that, cannot rely on other country excessively on the new fighter aircraft, China must launch to the next generation fighter aircraft development work, otherwise will be unable to safeguard own sky.In 1984, China in will inspect the western advanced aeroplane later to start in the national scope to carry on own advanced fighter plane technology stratification plane research plan.Preliminary design plan contrast delivers which through several research institutes, in 1986, new generation of fighter plane plan official determination.The new aeroplane is named for annihilates - 10, hands over (611) is responsible by Chengdu Airplane Research institute to research and develop, Chengdu Airplane Company (132 factories) is responsible to make, the engine (606) is responsible by Shenyang Aircraft engine Research institute to develop.

Looked, this and initially annihilated - 9 plans secondary roles to be entirely alike.But background story as if not that simple, regarding the air force world, 1982 Beica valley land air fight had the extremely special status, Israeli Air force and looked facing the match formidable numerical advantage could not be resisted under the place empty superiority obtained the victory, this regarding the world military domain all was an enormous shocking.The Chinese leader extremely astonished detection, Israel equips the young lion fighter aircraft unexpectedly annihilates - 9 with Chinese own development to have several minute similar, this fighter aircraft displays in two wars quite outstandingly, but theoretically annihilates - 9 to have a more outstanding performance, this without doubt has the huge influence to the Chinese high level subconscious tendency.

At the beginning of the 80's, on international already started to the fourth generation of fighter aircraft idea, Europe's France and England proposed respective wind and the EFA plan, Sweden has also unfolded the JAS-39 plan, is in the war focal point Israel also accidentally to propose own lion type plan frequently.In China, split two factions to the advanced fighter aircraft development, (601) a primarily part of technical personnel and US contacted many by Shenyang Airplane Research institute, thought mimicking F-16 is China most needs, advocated strongly studied voluntarily imitates F-16 to carry on own light advanced fighter aircraft plan, the air-mapping aeroplane may through the special diplomatic channel from US or other national introductions, was on good terms Pakistan with China and Egypt all successively has equipped F-16.

But Chengdu Airplane Research institute (611) used oneself many year research to annihilate - 9 aeroplanes experiences, coordinate research then international tidal current, proposed the direct development next generation fighter aircraft, the air operated contour annihilated - in 9 foundations in the early time to use flexibly has all moved the forward wing the canard, was similar with Europe's new generation of fighter aircraft structure and the performance.In in the aviation department's internal emulation, 611 ideas performance as if conforms to Chinese Air force to the advanced fighter aircraft anticipation, but annihilated - 9 to affect the upper formation favorable impression with young lion 相似度 in the certain degree, 611 submitted the report has studied France carefully in from the illusory image 3 to the illusory image 2000 fighter aircrafts in the development and the progress mode, has provided the clear development feasible road map, but Shenyang's plan relied on the instable foreign purchase, two legs walked are the Chinese conservative thought one mode, also was one kind the mode which protected oneself in the difficult conditions.Thereupon China high level chose Cheng Fei to annihilate - 10 plans, but let Shenyang carry on the F-8 II improvement plan balanced strategy which cooperated with US.Annihilates - 10 dense fog big curtains, from this time on unzips officially.


The duck (lifts) the formula topology

Why at that time has the international on new generation of fighter aircraft all as if by prior agreement used the canard?This kind first can fly from Brother Wright the aeroplane ancient air operated topology is at nearly continuously in the aeroplane history leaves uncultivated the state, the early aerodynamics research is unable to solve the canard stability problem and the forward wing air current to the host wing harmful disturbance.But the canard most tempts human's merit to lie in its air operated balancing all is, does not look like in the normal arrangement which completes with the lifting force the tail wing always to use the pressure to hold the aeroplane to be balanced, this one negative brings the very big lifting efficiency interpolation.But the forward wing harmful interference in airflow lets this topology in the very long time the superiority pause merely in theoretically.

The 60's intermediate stages, Sweden's aerodynamic force scientist Professor behrbohm detected the canard the short-range coupling phenomenon, the forward wing may through select an appropriate position, using forward wing turbulent flow union main plane churning advantageous disturbance, aeroplane lift coefficient and l/d obvious adding, but also has provided the bigger angle of attack flight performance, this research achievement has caused the Sweden SAAB-37 thunder type aeroplane appearance, further develops the JAS-39 Gripen.After this air operated achievement announcement, aroused the various countries interest, France, England, US, Germany has all launched the broad thorough research and the experiment.But these achievement research and development time are all late, has not been able to apply in on the western development third generation fighter aircraft.The third generation fighter aircraft has mostly all used the big side strip technology, this also is one kind of use turbulent flow adding airfoil lift, the expansion wing normal angle of attack technology, with the short-range coupling canard different is, the strip wing is fixed cannot be adjusted, the aeroplane use condition and produces the effect quite is all unitary, but the canard forward wing participates in the balancing operation, is dynamic, may check the use detaches the turbulent flow technology, belongs deepens the use to detach the turbulent flow technology advanced air operated topology.Now is called three generations of half aeroplane all is has settled on using the canard this topology merit.The Sweden scientists once summarised as follows:

1. provides the balancing lifting force.
  Canard all air operated air-foils all provide the lifting force to the aeroplane, the short-range coupling might overcome the forward wing the disadvantageous disturbance to transform as the adding lift coefficient advantageous disturbance, the overall lift coefficient effect is still higher than the normal arrangement.

2. further uses detaches the turbulent flow, sharpens the big angle of attack flying ability.
  The canard aeroplane most major characteristic is when the big angle of attack the duck wing 涡 may lighten and reduce the wing stall, thus provided in a big way has been possible to use the lift coefficient, expanded has been possible to use the angle of attack boundary, enhanced under the big angle of attack state l/d.

3. May provide when the big angle of attack stable lowers the head the moment of force normal arrangement aeroplane, specially designs the static unstable aeroplane, the wing approaches the centre of gravity, when big angle of attack wing stall, the fore-body and the wing the frontal area causes the aeroplane not to be possible to contain pitches up the tendency, says regarding the majority aeroplanes, this kind pitches up may not recover, the Soviet - 27 designs is ingenious, its Pu will add the tall husband cobra is in fact the aeroplane surpasses the permission flight the elevation angle later inevitably to fling the very great angle, the Soviet - 27 all aeroplane tails faces forward.The Soviet - 27 aeroplanes can recover from in this kind of advanced stall angle of attack purely are accidentally, in this movement the aeroplane must define the velocity of approach, otherwise the too intense air current meets instantaneous on flings the aeroplane turns a somersault, cannot do well can by the formidable overload disintegration.But acts completes may achieve 120 angles of attack, this did not mean Soviet - 27 may in all be possible to fly 0 to 120 angles of attack, he may use the angle of attack limit is about 28-30, all may not use 30 to 120 this section, also cannot enter accurately, also cannot the calm exit.

The canard aeroplane has the inborn superiority in the big angle of attack aspect, they may the strip technology enhance the traditional topology by way of big nearby to 28-30 may use the angle of attack further to expand, some confirmations computer declared oneself above 45 all is stable controllable.Because canard aeroplane aerodynamic centre projection often after centre of gravity after the far place, enters the big angle of attack loses speed, the aeroplane whole all is in intensely lowers the head in the tendency, not easy to have the normal arrangement to disperse the phenomenon.The big angle of attack flight ultra limit recovery security is extremely good.

4. canards supersonic drag is small, suits the new generation of aeroplane to the supersonic performance, in particular supersonic cruise performance high requirement.
  The canard has two aspects to the supersonic performance compatibility:On the one hand is the canard inborn at your convenience in the aeroplane according to the area law arrangement, fuselage repairs the shape ability;On the other hand after the canard supersonic aerodynamic centre moves very slightly, the aeroplane does not need the extra balancing, the induced drag and the balancing drag low very many.

5. The canard is advantageous for with the advanced check technology unifies.
  The canard aeroplane basic all is static unstable, needs to fax the control system to be able to fly, but like this also causes the canard flight flexible characteristic, its balancing and the check lifting force direction and the thrust vector direction is consistent, easier and the thrust vector forms the joint effort, this is the normal arrangement is very difficult to achieve, the check rule also greatly simplifies, US's X-31, in X-29 performance flight full demonstration this point.

6. The tail-first aircraft forward wing arrangement is very easy to obtain a moment of force big position, may reduce the forward wing greatly the area, moreover deals with in the balancing in the aeroplane, the uncertain need forward wing participation, it may form the synthesis air operated balancing together with the wing trailing edge flap aileron the effect, the permission further reduces the forward wing the area, simultaneously also reduced the aeroplane balancing drag, enhanced the aeroplane to air operated operation Rong Shangxing.

The outstanding air operated topology is a good aeroplane most important foundation, the tail-first aircraft like this merit to the new generation of fighter aircraft enticement is fatal, even then ATF plan also proposed the very many canard aeroplane, finally all is because considers the stealth performance only then 11 givings up.China dares to select the canard to take the new fighter aircraft topology, is and the early time annihilates the canard air operated information which - in 9 plans obtains to have the very big relations, annihilated - 9 fighter aircrafts once which to be called cannot complete the model cannot blow the wind, it is said has used several hundred different air operated topologies, has carried on several years wind tunnel exploration, has imperceptibly consummated China's in aerodynamics basic research.

The initial plan estimate and today annihilates - 10 not how many similarities, at that time China's international conditions was different, further 融入 the west is the national tendency, perhaps new annihilated - 10 plans once to spend the very many energy research with China F-16 to have the very big relations, at that time China was extremely hopeful purchases American the radar and the engine, therefore, the early time annihilated - 10 designs to be similar to F-16, and the expectation purchased F-16 directly some parts.This causes the former Soviet Union military intelligence authority in very long period of time, all thought Chinese the new generation of main force fighter aircraft will be introduction US standard F-16 or the F-16 native place imitates makes lithograph plates.Continuously to 80's intermediate stages, when some is appointed Chinese Premier Li Peng to inspect the aviation industry the picture to obtain by the Headquarters of the General Staff of the CCPLA intelligence department, appeared one to be similar extremely impressively to the F-16 fighter aircraft model picture, vaguely displayed had the forward wing the existence, the air intake is not the F-16 like that simple pitot pickup, but was the transportable half circular cone multishock design, looked like the high speed aspect the requirement was higher than F-16.In the contour again displays the lion type plan which designs with Israel to have highly the similarity.Is precisely this kind of picture, west recognised nearly this aeroplane and Israel could not escape do are.In fact, Israel continuously to 1992 only then with Chinese official establishing diplomatic relations, but Israel's lion plan carried on to 1987 year's end all is keeps secret highly, this picture photography probably was the 80's mid and late parts, was a comparatively integrated plan, very difficult to believe might be so rapid from lion this kind of not mature plan in China obtains the actual transformation.Only if from the very beginning Israel is not unites the development with US, but is unites the development with China.


The air intake model selection, China one instead annihilated two sides which - on 9, the F-8 used to let in air, changed to the ventral duct, this model, China as early as in annihilated - in 9 research to use, obtained the certain quantity the data, but the same time developed annihilates - 13, the strong - 6 plans all had the plan which further the thorough research abdomen let in air, to has annihilated - 10 plans phases, this model technical characteristic and the design essential factor are already grasped in China have been very skilled, massive let in air the model wind tunnel data analysis about the abdomen, with air operated design paper in China academicIn the publication publishes, this indicated the Chinese already very was familiar various ventral duct to design, why looked like F-16 specially as for the early model, that only could say, China's design personnel self-confidence missed, always thought oneself was backward, in the design had the so-called background computer and the reference computer custom, estimated annihilated - 10 plans biggest targets surmounted F-16 comprehensively.The smallest target not badly in F-16, under this kind of technical atmosphere, the early contour and the background reference model has certain similar is China's custom.But the westerner always thought others thing all is steals from their there, the Mig - 29 just in western exposure time also unexpectedly some people said the Mig - 29 was mimicking, including the blind people who F/A-18 comes all can see the Mig - 29 and the F-18 difference, but western these big mouths may talk nonsense unscrupulously on the public media, thus it can be seen western certain cold war warrior laughable custom thoughts.

China in the end of the 70's to the beginning of the 80's, has carried on the massive canard exploration, has carefully studied this air operated topology some characteristics, and deepens to the extremely careful place, for instance the duck wing position and the size, later period the major emphasis lies in the optimised topology the fine position, this point may obtain the proof from Chinese own academic publication as well as the university teaching material to the canard understanding in, does not certainly have the time to be out of stock or unevenness achievement appearance, this indicated annihilates - 10 appearances, is Chinese the achievement which obtains using the basic research.The Chinese developed annihilates - 10 to spend 18 years, this development speed and the west compared are quite slow, but developed the Soviet - 27 experiences with Soviet Union to compare, also calculated almost.

Annihilates - 10 development also is process very many changes and the setback.The 80's designs all are take F-16 as the background, the aeroplane device mostly considered western the device, passed through 89 year Chinese and the American relations huge transition, the western gate instantaneous has shut down, annihilates redesign which - 10 were compelled to carry on may be considered as nearly on starts from the beginning, after as soon as but was restrained unceasingly the engine selection question, the aeroplane modifies modifies again, even stopped down the waiting to have the appropriate engine.The 90's, China consummates gradually war industry standard “country military symbol” the emergence causes the aeroplane structure to modify greatly, “the country military symbol” take US's military industry standard as the reference, requires Soviet-type standard which executes originally compared to China severely many, very many new projects all were compelled reto make the compatible design, annihilated - 10 not to be exceptional, these all causes the development time very long reason.According to the initial tentative plan, annihilates - 10 fighter aircrafts to be supposed to complete the stereotypia investment use in the 95~96 year, the too many element of certainty does not let this plan delay unceasingly.


If annihilates - 10 and the western nation has any relations, then closest is certainly France, on century 80's intermediate stages Soviet troops general staff intelligence department reported the Kremlin in the report in detail to enumerate France to invite Chinese Air force carefully to study and to test the illusory image 2000 fighter aircrafts, said relatively, the American only was allows Chinese Military “to look at” a F-16 aeroplane in the short distance.Through the large-scale technical subcontract production airbus aeroplane spare parts, the French aspect participates in the China aviation industry thoroughly in each kind of project, from the traditional machine manufacture, the software which designs to the aeroplane, may say the China Today aviation industry the development achievement all has with France's cooperation close relationship.Regardless of is the Kremlin or Ahl Baht has not made clear in the quite long time the subcontract airline carrier of passengers production technology and the craft as well as the managerial experience to the military aeroplane impetus function, in fact through large-scale aeroplane spare part subcontract production, not only enables China to be possible to avoid the western conservative influence to enter Chinese to the advanced technology the disturbance, also enables the Chinese aspect to be possible to promote its precise processing and the designed capacity level in the short time.Who can distinguish clearly the processing illusory image fighter aircraft and the A-300 passenger plane craft has the big difference?Recently China's signed with France has purchased 150 A-320 the protocol which produced in the Chinese native place, this indicates the west already acknowledged China in the fighter aircraft and the civil aircraft realm of production achievement and the status.Believed in annihilates - in 10 designs processes, Beijing once massively invited France the scientist and engineer carries on technical training and the instruction for theirs Chinese colleagues, even China also was completes to the country military symbol reform under France's help.


Annihilates - 10 is not with Israeli relations all no.China started from 1983 through the intermediate channel to introduce Israeli the strange snake - 3 air-to-air missiles, at this time Israel's expert started with China's each aeroplane design manufacture unit to contact, was advantageous for the missile installs China on the fighter aircraft.After but 87 year Israel's lion discontinues, contacts on own initiative with China, hoped can the high price resell some related information.China had agreed this kind teaches the mode academic exchange, obtains the lion failure the experience to annihilate - in 10 processes in the development to realise the failure is more important than, with the outside guessed reverse is, the early time annihilates - 10 apparent the lion the time, China and Israel does not certainly have what contact, but when China annihilates - 10 to improve to is not same with the lion, the Israeli talented person has the little contribution.Not the clear Israeli in annihilated - in 10 plans to have the tremendous influence, China's aeroplane looked throughout all was receives French obviously the influence trace.


First annihilates - 10 heads to fly the time to be quite blurred, some people said in 1992 has flown, also some people said in 1996 only then flew, but also some people said in 1998 only then flew, said from the time, 92 year not big possibilities, at that time China has not solved the good engine problem as if, should be the head which conceived originally flies the time.The engine difficult problem will be introduces Soviet - 27 later in China only then to solve in under the Russia side expert's assistance.In the public news, China was most early obtains the first batch of Soviet - 27 fighter aircrafts in 1992 year's end, therefore contacted the performance extraordinary AL-31 engine, when China started to 1996 assembled the Soviet - 27 fighter aircrafts voluntarily only then to have the opportunity further thoroughly to understand the AL-31 engine.But this kind uses in the Soviet - 27 engines uses on the single shot fighter aircraft, China must spend the long time to carry on the inspection, for uses the army for the engine working mode active status record, under each kind of condition test, estimated this also needs to spend many time, moreover and the engine production factory coordination carries on the single shot the improvement also to need to spend the time.

In kept card - Sa the Toon unified body to develop the AL-31FN engine around, this kind of engine should divide into two section, the quantity which the early time provided probably is 50 to 55, estimated used in China annihilating - 10 early productions and the experiment, the engine basically continues to use the structure which - on 27 used in Soviet, the engine accessory and the engine separation, but the later period provided defers to Chinese the requirement to use the western standard, the appendix and the engine integration was a whole, the engine case appendix and the Soviet - 27 positions just right reverse.China in has ordered Soviet - 27 later not the engine fresh property right one and the purchase, they in domestic also in development performance similar engine, this kind of engine numbers FWS-10A in China, it is said is the American general F110 engine replica, already carried on may very many years, because of craft and material level limit, until has not completed recently the sign, in the China domestic air group public news also only mentioned soon completed the development to finalise, in the network had very guessed the Soviet - 27 China production model annihilated - 11 to have installs this kind of new engine, what a pity spread the picture all was insufficientProved whether real replacement new engine in, after but keeps card - Sa Toon to declare achieves 250 engines long-term sales contracts with China.
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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The Ahl Baht's air force expert guessed that, China spent the very big energy only then to develop successfully a fighter aircraft, certainly could not only plan the equipment very few quantities, present Chinese Air force still had the massive Migs - 19 and the Mig - 21 needs to replace, it is said that quantity many in 3000, this was a very fearful digit.But in view of the fact that performance difference between the aeroplane too is big, cannot carry on 1:1 replacement, but estimated also needs about 500-1000 to be able at least to satisfy Chinese the need.In the engine aspect, kept card - Sa the Toon designing bureau's product still to have the very strong competitive power, they in added in the research which pushed already to be possible to achieve 137kn-141kn the level, and provided the upgrade the method, mature and the stable engine should have the suitable attraction to China, looked by US's F-16 development path, in the improvement added the motor power was very ideal enhances the performance the mode in, if later China purchased once more keeps the card - Sa Toon's AL-31FN engine, certainly was because above reason.

In in information exchange which carries on with US, US once provided some China to annihilate - 10 fighter aircrafts clear pictures.Although the Russian aspect already has also obtained the similar information from the internet, but the US provides in the picture has some is from the ground angle photography, many pictures displayed the similar contour and the structure, these pictures not greatly possibly can be obviously use deception.In once arrived China has worked the Mig and keeps the card - Sa Toon's staff to believe, in the picture displayed the model and they saw in China basic consistent.

Believed these pictures all photograph in annihilate - 10 fighter aircrafts take off or descend, when Mikoyan's experts recollect annihilates - 10 fighter aircrafts plant Chengdu aeroplane companies said, that factory in the lively big city edge, an airport runway terminal following closely transportation exceptionally busy primary motorway, most interesting is, can pat outside the control airport to the picture angle are not many, according to runway trend, so long as can see the aeroplane machine gun a side, that is certainly takes off when photographs, if cannot see machine gun that side, that definitely is descends.The airport position had resolved so long as has the daytime the flight, was witnessed nearly inevitably by the up to ten thousand people above, now flows out clear picture one not to be all strange, what is strange this kind of aeroplane existence should have very many years, why did the clear picture until now only then spread, did not know how China did face the thousands people to carry on their security work, their country already already no longer implemented the Soviet time strict all the people's surveillance system.Moreover the Internet developed in China also is above 10 years, how in didn't have the privacy on internet the Chinese to be able to keep the such long privacy, this was precisely its mystical place.


We can see from the picture the aeroplane carries has the short-range air-to-air missile, this kind of missile is called by China the thunderclap - 8, is the strange snake - 3 missiles which introduces after Israel produces, Israel's strange snake which the development comes - 3 in 1982 Beica valley land air fight displays outstandingly, performance slightly strong in US's sidewinder AIM-9L, the strange snake - 3 missiles span 3 metres, we take the proportion by its length, may obtain from the picture annihilates - 10 lengths, the about 17 metres, do not calculate the pitot pickup.The strange snake - 3 wingspan are 560mm, annihilates - 10 wingspan approximately in 9.1 to 9.3 metres between, cantilever low wing angle of sweep-back 50, the after skirt has the slight forward-swept approximately.The leading edge has the leading-edge flap, distributed 4/5 to lengthen, avoids the forward wing the position, might from fluctuate curved.The latter section aileron and the flap wing air operated design is similar with a French wind, wing tip processing looked and the illusory image 2000 extraordinary images, annihilate - 9 wing tips with the early identical designing bureau to process entirely alike, if only looked from the wing contour, adds except the predestined affinity rises to install, nearly annihilates - 9 shapes.The wing root used the very obvious body wing to melt the synthesis design, the wing has used the extremely complex reverse design, down to looked from the different angle could have a pair of delta the illusion, or under counter- illusion.Believed this is designs according to the canard characteristic.Wing area about 42 square metres.Used the multi- Liang all metallic construction, Chengdu Airplane Company in annihilates the aluminium lithium alloy integral fuel cell technology which - on 7 series aeroplanes confirmed to be supposed also in to annihilate - on 10 wings to use, the aluminium lithium alloy application scope should also expand many, the coincidence was, cooperated many Mikoyan with Chengdu Airplane Company also to excel to use the aluminium lithium alloy structure.The aluminium lithium alloy it is said can reduce the weight which the traditional aluminium alloy creates to reach 15%.Looked from the wing that, greatly possibly annihilates - 10 not to have any relations with Israel's lion, in the aeroplane air operated topology, the wing design is a specially essential place, the aeroplane main performance all is decided by the wing, Israel's lion uses American Grumann Company according to the air operated elastic tailor design arrow-head wing, uses the compound materials structure, the predestined affinity adds rises to install uses the simple some flaps.


Annihilates - 10 forward wings to be possible to see very clearly from the picture, uses the angle of sweep-back to be bigger than the wing the angle of sweep-back to cut the sharp delta slightly, the first wing area is big, the proportion and Sweden's JAS-39 is similar, compared to a French wind, Europe's EFA fighter aircraft is all big, displays it to under the low speed state mobility and the operation rate value.The forward wing position depends on front slightly in the host wing root the position, highly above wing.According to the Chinese domestic publication about in the aerodynamics monograph, has the massive discussions forward wing position and the influence content, best selection according to thought is in happens to obtain somebody's favour installs the forward wing wing root chord length 1/4 distance for best, observes the picture carefully the proportion, is away from as if similarly, but France's wind, Sweden's Gripen from the photograhpic scale looked also as if conforms to this principle.The forward wing arrangement in the pilot, is after death small to pilot's field of vision influence, is also far to the air inlet position, the relatively air operated influence quite is also small.Annihilates - 10 forward wings, watches the picture carefully, as if somewhat has used the reverse tendency, this is one kind reduces the drag on wing, enhances the wing aerodynamic efficiency the method, it will be able to provide compared to an ordinary forward wing better performance, Sweden's JAS-39 front wing twisting is specially obvious.

The aeroplane air intake extremely in addition category, used the ancient multishock in the abdomen to be possible to send in the gas channel, this displayed the Chinese always did not have the giving up in fact to the aeroplane speed and the high requirement, might send in the gas channel to be possible when high speed provided the better engine total pressure to recover, the aeroplane thrust was bigger, could fly to a higher speed, mostly all only then Mach looked from the stationary ventral duct aeroplane 1.8 to 2.0 flying abilities, China used such design to be supposed to be able to fly above Mach 2.2, estimated the early time to annihilated - 9 plans to require that Mach 2.3 finally to transform by some form to annihilates - 10In the expectation, forces to annihilate - 10 to apply this kind complex and the unwieldy structure.Considered annihilates - 10 research and development year China domestic not section overall performance good aeroplanes, the F-8 and its modification which Shenyang produces only has the upper air high speed ability, replaces facing the peripheral country three generation of computer pressures to appear one after another extremely clumsily, took the only high performance fighter plane research plan, the naturally expectation has the complete performance.The high speed interception continuously all is the ability which Chinese Air force lacks, this point requirement and the Mig - 29 research processes is extremely similar, two finally all has used the design extremely complex air intake for the high speed performance requirement.


Annihilates - 10 air intakes to use may move the sloping plate to make the area adjustment to the air intake throat, the check shock wave and the near spirit, he has not used looks like the Soviet - 27 Migs - 29 close square shapes sections to let in air the road junction, but uses the short rectangular air inlet, this mainly is for the convenience fuselage structural configuration, longer and a curving air intake has also made the certain consideration to the stealth aspect.But designs like this very difficultly to avoid in front of the air intake extending long, also needs to consider in particular landing gear topology time, annihilates - 10 to use the engine and US's F-16 similar, but length steadily nearly two metres.The illusory image lets in air which with two sides 2000 compares, in engine length also short in illusory image 2000, aeroplane length difference
 

Tam

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You can see the MAWS on both the tails of the J-10 and FC-1 at the exact relative locations in this shot that kills two birds in one stone.
 

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Tam

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Wikipedia entry on the FC-1 (though the source is not original) descrbes the FC-1 RWR as having a database of as much as 500 radar signatures, 10 times more than an F-7MP, which I would assume would relate to the J-7E's too. Its likely this is the same RWR on the J-10 or even possibly a downgraded one.
 

Tam

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FC-1 radar entry on wikipedia, could give a hint on the J-10's radar performance. The J-10's radar may be a little older than the FC-1's but larger. Newer J-10s may have an updated radar.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FC-1

Initially, Pakistan wanted to use the Italian Grifo-S7 radar. However, the Chinese offer had some key advantages over the Italian one, such as compatibility with Chinese weapon systems.

Radar has strong ECCM capacity and multiple modes, such as A2A (both BVR & close), air-to-ground, air-to-sea, terrain avoidance, etc. Terrain following mode is not standard, but can be added upon customer's request by either incorporating an external pod such as the Chinese Blue Sky navigational and targeting pods, or alternatively, the direct integration of the radar itself.
It can simultaneously detect 40+ targets, simultaneously track 10 of 40 detected targets, and simultaneously engage 2 of the 10 tracked targets by guiding 2 semi-active radar homing BVR missiles to attack two separate targets. Alternatively, two missiles can be fired at the same target to insure the kill probability.
When active radar homing air-to-air missiles are used, the number of targets that can be simultaneously engaged are increased to 4.
The detection range for a typical air target of RC 3 m² is 125+ km; looking downrange is 45+ km; range for sea target is 250+ km.
When engaging land targets, the Chinese radar can lock on to individual vehicle like American radars do, instead of only being able to lock on to a large group of vehicles like the Russian Phazotron Kopyo (Spear) radar onboard MiG-21-93.
Easy to access LRUs with fully digitized solid state electronics and built-in self test functions.
Plenty of room for improvement is incorporated in the design so that the current plannar slotted array that can be readily replaced by a passive phased array.
Reporgrammable digital processor with open architecture design.
Option to incorporate IFF.
The internally mounted electro-optics is not standard for JF-17, but the radar is compatible with them for their rapid integration upon customer's request.
 

Pit

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That's an interesting (rather confous sadly due to the language) article but from where it comes Paul?, and who's the author?

Would not be another Chinese/somewhere else work?

Thanks for sharing it...

TAM:

Can you do a little break-up of the Jian-10 avionics? (kinda like, it uses x radar, x FBW, x nav system, X RWR and so)
 

Tam

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Radar and RWR
 

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