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Estonian Aircraft Designations

Apophenia

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Estonian Aircraft Production -- 1922-1940

[Q: Was the Narva Õhuasjanduse Ühingule also an aircraft maker/assembler ?]

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Dvigatel

Sablating P.III -- 1922-23, licenced high-wing monoplane passenger aircraft (2 + 6 pax), 6 built (E-7 - E-12)
-- For airline, A/B Aeronaut (for daily Helsinki airmail service, etc.)

Klemm L25 -- 1933 ES-UBA (later ES-SAM), rebuild of crashed ES-UST
-- 1934 ES-AAC, built by Karl Lemm

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Sakalamaa Õhuasjanduse Ühing, Viljandi

Raab Schwalbe II -- 1933, 2-seat biplane trainer, 1 x 200hp AS Lynx, 2 built (ES-AGU, -EHA)
-- for Tallinn Aviation Society use

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'PON' or ÕGL = Õhu- ja Gaasikaitse Liit (Air & Gas Defence League, Tallinn)

[Designations are numerical but prefix is for designers' names - all are variations on the surnames of Voldemar Post, Otto Org, and Rein Neudorf who later changed his name to Tooma.

RWD-8 -- 1934, licenced 2-seat parasol trainer, 110hp PZL (Walter) Junior, 1 built*
-- * ES-RWD for Eesti Aeroklubi [ES-RVD was Polish-built]

PON-1 -- 1934, 2-seat biplane trainer
-- Orig. ÕGL-1 after Õhu- ja Gaasikaitse Liit (Air & Gas Defense League), 3 built*
-- ** ES-PON 'Kai', ES-LDM 'Lendav Mulk', and another PON-1 sent to Latvia
-- PON-1a -- 1936-1937, 2-seat biplane trainer, 4 built (#154-157)
-- KOD-1 -- 13 PON-1 license-built in Latvia by LKOD

PON-2 -- 1934, 1 x 75 hp Pobjoy, 3 built (for Eesti Aeroklubi, prototype ES-ENN, -AIN, -EPP)
-- PON-2: Originally designated ÕGL-2

PN-3 -- 1939, 2-seat monoplane recce/light fighter, 500 hp RR Kestrel, 1 built (#160)
-- Named 'Isamaa Päästja'. Retractable undercarriage planned for production version.

PTO-4 -- 1938-39, 2-seat, low-wing monoplane trainer, 1 x 130 hp DH Gipsy Major, maximum 8 built*
-- 2 for AF, one regular PTO-4 (#161) and one PTO-4a (#162) with glazed canopy
-- 6 others for Eesti Aeroklubi - ES-EAK, ES-EAL, ES-EAM, ES-EAN, ES-EAO and ES-EAP*
-- Another 12 planned for the military (#189-200) but not completed
-- * ES-EAP perhaps unfinished

?? -- planned single-engined fighter (PN-3 derivative?)

?? -- planned twin-engined fighter aircraft
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Antonius Raab - see Sakalamaa Õhuasjanduse Ühing

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Soviets planned to build their I-301 (LaGG-3) beginning in December 1941. A production rate of 350 aircraft per year was planned (starting with a rather optomistic 50 LaGG-3s in 1941). New factory designated Zavod 463 in 1940. Also to produce Kolesnikov-Tsybin KTs-20 glider.

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c460

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Hi Apophenia,
Very interesting post! It is very difficult to obtain information about Estonian aircraft. The language barrier is hard to overcome, and automatic translation from this language is still of poor quality.
Here are some comments and additions.

Apophenia said:
[Q: Was the Narva Õhuasjanduse Ühingule also an aircraft maker/assembler ?]

It seems that "Õhuasjanduse Ühing" translates as "aviation society". (The word "Ühing", of which Ühingule is a declined form, has the meanings of society, association, union, league, etc...) The activity of those aviation societies is described here:
http://forum.boinaslava.net/showthread.php?7787-Estonia-military-history#post139100

Narva is a town, and the "Narva Õhuasjanduse Ühing" was the local aviation society or aeroclub.
Among their activities were the creation of a local airfield, and there are hints that they had an aircraft built for them in Tallinn in 1935, but it could be one of the ÕGL/PON aircraft:
http://galerii.kirmus.ee/biblioserver/index2.php?kid=406003

The local societies were federated first into the "Õhu- ja Gaasikaitse Liit" (Air and Gas Defense League), a paramilitary organization, which was disbanded in 1936 and became the "Eesti Aeroklubi" (Estonian Aeroclub):
http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eesti_Aeroklubi

Apophenia said:
Dvigatel

Sablating P.III -- 1922-23, licenced high-wing monoplane passenger aircraft (2 + 6 pax), 6 built (E-6 - E-12) for airline, A/B Aeronaut (for daily Helsinki airmail service, etc.)

The first Sablatnig P.III aircraft, registered E-6, was built in Germany. Only the six following aircraft (E-7 to E-12 included) were built by Dvigatel in Tallinn:
http://www.tehnikamaailm.ee/dvigateli-lennukid/

Apophenia said:
Raab Schwalbe II -- 1934, 2-seat biplane trainer, 1 x 200hp AS Lynx, 2 built (ES-AGU, -EHA)
-- for Eesti Aeroklubile use
It seems that the two Raab Schwalbe II were also built by Dvigate in 1933l:
http://www.tehnikamaailm.ee/dvigateli-lennukid/
The Eesti Aeroklubi did not exist yet in 1934, and the Estonian wikipedia says that the aircraft were delivered to the Tallinn Aviation Society:
http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eesti_tsiviillennukite_loend_%281921%E2%80%931940%29

In the town of Viljandi, the "Sakalamaa Õhuasjanduse Ühing" or Sakalamaa Aerial Society did produce one or several gliders.

They also rebuilt a Klemm L25 ES-UBA from the remains of the crashed ES-UST of Baron Heinz Ungern-Sternberg ; it is not clear if the design was modified:
http://pluss.sakala.ajaleht.ee/757116/viljandi-parun-pani-aluse-eesti-eralennundusele
http://kultuur.elu.ee/ke509_Ungern-Sternberg.htm
It is said that the aircraft was later re-registered ES-SAM:
http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eesti_tsiviillennukite_loend_%281921%E2%80%931940%29

There was another aircraft built at Viljandi by the "Sakalamaa Õhuasjanduse Ühing" and registered ES-AAC. Internet sources are difficult to understand and sometimes contradictory. The aircraft is sometimes reported as another Klemm L.25, and sometimes as a PON-2, which seems implausible. Construction of ES-AAC was supervised by engineer Karl Lemm for Ungern-Sternberg, as a replacement for the crashed ES-UST. ES-AAC crashed in 1934, killing Lemm. The pilot Ungern-Sternberg survived but sentenced to jail for a short time for having flown it illegally:
http://lennundusajalugu.weebly.com/4-eesti-tsiviillennundus-aastatel-1920-1940.html
http://arvamus.postimees.ee/2326740/ohusoitja-ulrich-brasche-varvikas-elu
It is unclear if the rebuild of ES-UST as ES-UBA was done after this failure or simultaneously.

Apophenia said:
RWD-8 -- 1934, licenced 2-seat parasol trainer, 110hp PZL (Walter) Junior, 1 built (ES-RWD)
-- for Aeroklubile [ES-RVD was Polish-built]
I only found the Polish-built "ES-RVD" in an English-language registration list, but I'm not too confident in it:
http://www.airhistory.org.uk/gy/reg_ES-.html

Apophenia said:
'PON' or ÕGL = Õhu- ja Gaasikaitse Liit (Air & Aircraft Workshop, Tallinn)
"Õhu- ja Gaasikaitse Liit" was the Air & Gas Defense League, which later became the "Eesti Aeroklubi". It had its own workshops in Tallinn.

Apophenia said:
PON-1 -- 1934, 2-seat biplane trainer, 1 built (c/n 154-157)
-- Orig. ÕGL-1 'Kai' after Õhu- ja Gaasikaitse Liit (Air & Aircraft Workshop, Tallinn)
-- PON-1A -- 1936-1937, 2-seat biplane trainer, 4 built (c/n 154-157)
-- KOD-1 -- 13 PON-1 license-built in Latvia by LKOD
There were at least two examples of the original ÕGL-1 / PON-1, registered ES-PON and ES-LDM. The name 'Kai' was applied on the fin of the prototype ES-PON, it was perhaps specific to this aircraft. ES-LDM was called 'Lendav Mulk' and used by the "Sakalamaa Õhuasjanduse Ühing".
There was perhaps a third aircraft sold to Latvia:
http://www.militaar.net/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?f=40&t=890

It seems that Estonian sources use the name "PON-1a" rather than "PON-1A". Those were sold to the military, with a different Gipsy Major engine. Numbers 154-157 are not constructor numbers but serial numbers of the Estonian Air Force.

Apophenia said:
PON-2 -- 19??, 1 x 85hp ?, 3 built (for Aeroklubile, prototype ES-ENN, -AIN, -EPP)
-- Originally ÕGL-2
The ÕGL-2 first flew in 1934. The engine was a Pobjoy 75 hp. Estonian sources say that the name PON-2 is possible but unconfirmed:
http://www.militaar.net/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?t=890
See also the story of ES-AAC told above.

Apophenia said:
PN-3 -- 1939, 2-seat monoplane recce/light fighter, 500hp Kestrel, 1 built (#160)
-- Named 'Isamaa Päästja'. Retractable undercarriage planned for production version.
"Isamaa Päästja" means "Saviour of the Country".

Apophenia said:
PTO-4 -- 1938-39, 2-seat, low-wing monoplane trainer, 1 x 130hp DH Gipsy Major, 13 built
-- 2 for AF, others for Eesti Aeroklubile, PTO-4A (c/n 162) completed with glazed canopy
-- Another 12 planned for the minilitary (c/n 189-200) but not completed
-- Aeroklubile PTO-4s - ES-EAK, S-EAL, -EAM, -EAN, -EAO, -EAP (perhaps unfinished?)
The first military aircraft, a regular open cockpit PTO-4, had military serial 161, and closed cockpit PTO-4a had military serial 162.
The Estonian Wikipedia says that the PTO-4a had a more powerful engines, but official archives mention the Gipsy Major 130 hp for both models:
http://www.militaar.net/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?f=40&t=890&start=15

It is sometimes said that only four civilian PTO-4 were completed: EAK, EAL, EAM, EAN, and that EAO and EAP were left unfinished:
http://et.wikipedia.org/wiki/PTO-4
http://www.militaar.net/phpBB2/viewtopic.php?f=40&t=890
However there is a picture showing EAO in apparently flying condition, contradicting this version:
http://www.letletlet-warplanes.com/2010/07/05/aircraft-of-the-baltic-states/

The total production of 13 seems wrong. Registrations ES-ASN and ES-CFI are mentioned in an English listing but not in Estonian sources, I think they are bogus:
http://www.airhistory.org.uk/gy/reg_ES-.html

I found no motor aircraft production after WW2, but Endel Helme, Hillar Link and Ülo Keedus built the HLK-1 glider ca. 1958, and Peep Lauk built a flying wing motorglider which first flew in 2009:
http://www.tehnikamaailm.ee/eesti-esimene-vaidtiib-purilennuk/
http://www.purilend.ee/node/3413
 

c460

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c460

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Other video at Youtube:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbjb9oO8k94
 

Apophenia

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Many thanks for the corrections and clarifications Adrien! :D

I've left my Narva Õhuasjanduse Ühingule query for now. Many of these aviation societies/flying clubs seem to have assembled their own gliders, etc., in the 1930s.
 

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