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Various Russian Prototypes and Projects During & Pre-WW1

hesham

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Nice find dear Iron,

specially Povalishin and Zelinskiy,thank you for share us.
 

Iron Felix

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Suggestion of worker Stepan Markelovich Ivanov, 16 Marth 1917:
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Ivanov projected his apparatus in 1911.
"Apparatus as a mnogodyuznaya model", "dyuza" (Rus. "дюза") - old Russian term for rocket nozzle, "mnogodyuznaya" = "multi-nozzle". "Advantages of my apparatus - flight speed... ...colossal payload". Idea - destroy of enemy army, plants, etc. "Enough of such apparatuses to destroy the plants of the enemy". First Russian jet bomber? (but, after Teleshev 1867 jet project... Why not?) Multi-nozzle... Like a NAA XB-70? Or not? :D
And, other project of Ivanov in this document - triple-barrel AA small-caliber gun.
 

Iron Felix

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I heard about of this idea in WW1 period, but, I can't found data.
IMG_20200412_121749.jpg
Author - Aram Ter-Grigoryevich Dadian, 16 September 1916. "New type of monoplane with double wings" (№2 - moving wings, that can fold into a №1 wings), with new propeller, for speed, "I think", to 500 versta per hour (533.4 kmph).
...
About apparatuses of Dmovskiy:
IMG_20200412_122805.jpg
IMG_20200412_122831.jpg
1. "The anti-aircraft machine is based on a principle contrary to the law of conservation of energy, and therefore doesn't deserve attention"
2. "The triple-deck transport based on AA machine..."
3. "Silent dirigible heavier than air - very strange and incomprehensible invention... ...keep it in the air due to centrifugal force of special kettlebells. These kettlebells driven by motors, because of this, the dirigible willn't be silent..."
 

Iron Felix

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About weird Dubenskiy "air torpedo"
I found documents:
IMG_20200412_125613.jpg
Variants of type of "torpedo" - glider, or, plane with engine
Variants of control - by wires, by radio, or self-targeting.
Variants of start - from ship, or from airplane
Control system:
IMG_20200412_125631.jpg
Mechanical "ear" for self-targeting:
IMG_20200412_125653.jpg
1. Membrane
2. Body
3. Manometric tube
4. Adjustment srew
5. Oil (under pressure)
Standart load - 10-15 kg, range with 10 kg of wires - 1000 m.
 

Iron Felix

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About Guminskiy "Kampo" airplane, 21 Jule 1917:
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Briefly - "the author understands absolutely nothing". I would have skipped this project if not for points 2 and 3.
2. "...Increase in the number of revolutions of the main wheel of the engine by 32,400 times...", "...speed on land 17 597 kmph on wheels..."
3. "...unnecessary parts of the apparatus and motor are piled up in huge numbers, randomly...", "...gears, chains, extra shafts, which represent a lot of weight, dominate..."
This is similar to the description of the SCP object. And, it's after a project of "Immeasurable flying machine"... By the way, I found a review about the project of another freak. "New means of fighting the enemy" are not even described, but it is said that "these are projects of a completely abnormal person"...
 

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Also, information about other projects:
- About Kotov "samolet's" - suggestion of use of this schemes to create a glider-bombs or airplane-bombs
- About Dubenskiy "torpedo" - also, one of variants of start - from mortar (?)
...
Also, I found project of ring turbine, for air injection. Payload of engine with 1400 HP ICE engines for work of turbine - 10 tons. Reaction of engineers - "Actually, need a 4200 HP for this turbine".
...
Nezhdanovskiy, later 1890th - early 1900th, project of airplane, like a Voisin 1908.
 

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List of inventions of Efim Evgrafovich Gorin, 1921 (many inventions - from pre-WW1 period):
Gorin projects (1921).jpg
№40 - "Flying apparatus with centrifugal-rotating plans" ("plan" = wings?), by other documents - like a helicopter, 1915.
№41 - "Postal-passenger aeroship", with VTOL.
Gorin was a very interesting man... №22 - Electric cane "Dont-touch-me", №27 - Method of manufacturing talking objects, №30 - Mechanical watchman protecting valuable items from thieves, №42 - Project of electric steel man-automat, №44 - Rings of Saturn around the Earth's equator... And, early Scype, fax machine, live television, color electrographic camera, mental phone...
About Gorin:
...
N. N. Benardos, flying machine, 1890th:
IMG_20200511_022018.jpg
 

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Project of Gerasimov turbojet engine for rockets and planes, 1909 drawing (patented in 1916 for aircrafts):
IMG_20201103_115417.jpg
...
Plan of experimental model of Nikolskiy 1913-1914 turboprop engine:
IMG_20201103_112214.png
Planned a built of "Ilya Muromets" with four 160 HP Nikolskiy engine, first engine constructed in Russo-Baltique plant, but, around a WW1 wasn't ended. For engine was created a new metal alloy - steel + aluminium + enamel.
Also, Nikolskiy projected a monoplane with jet engines inside wings.
...
Kuz'minskiy steamturboprop engine:
image237.jpg
No 1 - water. First model builted in 1890s. Kuz'minskiy planned a built an airship with these engine (also, projected helicopter with steamturboprop engine). I heard about variant without water. Kuz'minskiy died in 1900, and jet airship wasn't ended.
 
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hesham

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Hi,

On July 15, 1916, M. Bieliński made an offer to the Main Military and Technical Board (GWTU) of the Ministry of War of Russia to build an aircraft of his system, characterized by the possibility of rotating the lifting surfaces - to maintain the lateral stability of the apparatus in flight.

 
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hesham

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Hi,

Pioneering bomber plane project. Poland / Russia.

Ludwik Władysław Bigel on February 26, 1914, in a letter to the governor of Bessarabia, stated that he had developed a design for the model of which he had made and conducted flight tests with it. Speaking of its advantages, he pointed out that he introduced a mechanism connected to the controls, which made it possible to control the flight without the participation of a pilot. In the end, he emphasized that he was in poverty. That is why he asks for help in critical moments, declaring that he can present his invention and demonstrate its operation at any time.
On March 13, 1914, the Bigla project was evaluated by the Technical Commission of the All-Russian Aeroclub - at the request of the governor of Bessarabia, who on July 5, 1914 also sent it to the Aviation Department of the General Staff with the remark that it was not possible to finance Bigla's request. I am sending it to you. Perhaps you will show interest. The project was assessed by the Technical Committee of the Main Military and Technical Board (GWTU). On July 17, 1914 he asked Bigel for a description, drawings and calculations, and if possible, a model of the apparatus. On October 23, 1914, Bigel sent to the address of the Commander-in-Chief of the Russian Army a laconic letter, in which he indicated that his characteristic apparatus was two control units and so lightly controlled that the pilot could put his hands on his lap. He also indicated that his plane can be used to bombard ground targets, it is enough to install a bomb ejector. He offered to offer additional explanations at last.

On November 13, 1914, the GWTU Technical Committee returned the materials regarding Bigla's offer to the Commander-in-Chief of Staff, considering that his response to the call of July 17 was insufficient. From the inventor's correspondence, it is not known what the design and principle of operation of the airplane flight control mechanism and the automatic pilot type device were.

 

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Variants of type of "torpedo" - glider, or, plane with engine
Variants of control - by wires, by radio, or self-targeting.
Variants of start - from ship, or from airplane

Most interesting! I wonder what could be used as "self-targeting". Some sort of primitive acoustic seeker, maybe?
 

hesham

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Hi,

Pioneering bomber plane Project. Poland / Russia.

On May 26, 1910, Bolesław Dmowski (by letter sent from Łomża) informed the Tsar of Russia that he had invented a biplane-type flying apparatus with an automatic stability stabilizer. In a letter to the Chief Engineering Board (GIU) of May 26, 1911, in response to the call of August 21, 1910 for details of his invention, he informs that he built a model of his aircraft with a stabilizer, which is said to have good flight properties . He confirmed that his apparatus can be used for bombing, he also lands and touches the ground properly. He declared his will to explain the secrets of the invention personally and to come to St. Petersburg if the travel expenses were covered by the GIU.

On July 12, 1911, the GIU asks Dmowski to pay a stamp duty for considering his request to help him implement the invention with two fiscal stamps worth 75 copies each. August 17, 1911 Dmowski pays the fee.

On November 8, 1911, the GIU informs Dmowski that, in the absence of drawings and a detailed description of the project, his request to finance the costs of his trip to St. Petersburg in order to provide personal explanations and demonstration of the airplane model with an automatic stability stabilizer using the pendulum action was rejected.

 

hesham

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Hi,

Pioneering aircraft design. Poland / Russia,

On December 30, 1909, Edmund Feder sent the minister of war a plan for a monoplane with a description. He indicated that its implementation requires funds that he does not have, especially for the purchase of a 15-22 kW (20-30 HP) engine. He asked for a subsidy of 1500 rubles. to build this plane.

It is known from the enclosed documentation that its apparatus - monoplane in a tandem wing configuration, duck-type, with a forward deflected rudder, was to have the following technical characteristics: length - 9 m, span - 10.0 m with a chord 3.0 m, span of the front lobe - 3.0 m with a chord 1.5 m, plate tail height, tail, with a span of 1.5 m and chord 3.0 m (including a hinged rudder with a chord 1.5 m), plate tail tail in the direction of 3.0 m long and 1.5 m high (including a hinged rudder with a chord 1.5 m).

On January 29, 1910, the Chief Engineering Board replied to the Federal that, in the opinion of the experts evaluating the project, his proposals were not original, and therefore his request for a subsidy was rejected.

In a letter of February 7, 1910, Feder argued with this assessment, arguing that specialists accusing the project of a lack of originality were wrong, because no similar apparatus had been built in Russia so far. He upheld the request for a subsidy for the construction of the plane, pointing out that it was not much for the Ministry, and if his offer was rejected again, he asked for the plan of his plane to be returned.

The Chief Engineering Board returned the drawings of the plane to the Federation, and in a letter of February 18, 1910, it confirmed its position contained in the letter to the inventor of January 29.

 

hesham

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Hi,

Pioneering and military aircraft design. Poland / Russia.

On March 13, 1917, Ryszard Gumiński asked the Russian Minister of War, Alexander I. Gucchkov, by telegram to commission him by the army to build a new type of steam locomotive and plane.
This request was sent to the Military-Air Fleet Board (UWWF), which passed the information about the locomotive to the Main Military-Technical Board (GWTU). At the same time, on March 17, Gumiński was asked to provide the UWWF Technical Committee with a description and drawings of his plane - necessary to evaluate his offer. Gumiński did not reply to this letter, perhaps he did not receive it. On May 30, 1917, he again telegraphed to the minister of war - already General Kerensky - that the army started building the plane under his direction in the workshops of the Aeronautical Park in Nowa Wieś near St. Petersburg. In a letter to Gumiński of June 5, UWWF asked him not to send the description and drawings of the project to St. the field of aviation technology. At the same time, on June 5, the Aerodynamic Laboratory was asked to evaluate Gumiński's project, if he applied and submit materials, and to provide the UWWF Technical Committee with its findings on the inventor's proposal.

On August 8, 1917, the Aerodynamic Laboratory sent to the UWWF Technical Committee an opinion on Gumiński's airplane (referred to by it as "Kampo"), prepared on June 21, 1917 by Eng. mechanic Władimir P. Vietchikin, specialist in the field of strength of materials and aircraft constructor. From the point of view of mechanics, the law of conservation of energy, the method of technical presentation, wrote Vietchikin, the project is an example of the greatest ignorance. Gumiński determines the center of gravity of the entire apparatus incorrectly. Vietchikin does not know what force will be able to make the plane move, since the author of the project talks about 32,400 engine revolutions / min - about the possibility of ground taxiing at a speed of 17 597 km / h (!), On landing gear wheels powered by an airplane engine through transmission .

Vietchikin emphasizes that the inventor provided a huge number of drawings of unimportant parts of the plane and the engine, disordered and unrelated to each other, in which there are cogwheels, chains, unnecessary shafts of enormous mass and absorbing, without any use, enormous work on friction. They do not show the dimensions, except for the diameter of the landing gear wheels and the propellers, the number of teeth and the wing surfaces. The weight of the camera and the load capacity were not given, and the presented list of materials from which the parts of the aircraft should be made indicate that the author has no idea about the strength of materials (...), as well as everything related to the calculation of engine power and the relationship between force and speed - here he seems to believe in the possibility of obtaining energy from nothing - Vietchikin ends his assessment by saying that both the drawings and the description are as dilettant as the concept of the aircraft, the design of which does not contain any thought deserving attention .

On August 12, Vietchikin's opinion was announced to the chancellery of the minister of war. Gumiński, however, did not accept her. He turned again - this time to the head of the UWWF Technical Committee, Col. Kalinowski - with a request to enable him to build an airplane, this time at his own expense in the workshops of the Aeronautical Park in Nowa Wieś. Kalinowski added a resolution to this letter: at his own expense he can build wherever he wants. In a reply to Gumiński on August 24, 1917, he was informed that UWWF did not have its own workshops for building aircraft in St. Petersburg or anywhere else, advising him to send his order to one of the aircraft factories.

 

hesham

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Fighter plane design. Poland / Russia.

On August 13, 1914, Franciszek Kaczyński sent a telegram to the Minister of War: I invented a plane to destroy enemy planes, etc. - inventor Kaczyński. The GWTU Technical Committee replied on August 20, 1914 that at the present time it was not possible to change the types of aircraft in the army's service. So far, no materials informing about the subject of the offer, the evaluations and decisions of GWTU formulated in connection with it have not been found. It remains beyond discussion that Kaczyński's proposals were dismissed. In the alphabetical list of inventors whose proposals were considered in 1914, the name of Kaczyński was also given, indicating that he presented the design of the flying apparatus in the plane layout.

 

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hesham

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Hi,

On December 6, 1914, Benedykt Klimowicz sent to the address of His
Imperial Highness, Grand Duke Mikołaj Mikołajewicz, the Commander-
in-Chief, a request to grant him a subsidy for the implementation of
two of his inventions:

- a helicopter intended for aerial observation of the enemy position

- unmanned bomber.


 

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hesham

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Hi,

On February 15, 1911, Jan Korotkiewicz submitted a patent for a biplane with automatic stabilization in Russia. Inventive patent No. 24 637 was issued to him on August 24, 1913.

The protection of inventive rights covers the following characteristic aircraft:
- a biplane system, the bearing surfaces and tail of which are based on a multi-spar structure with transverse ribs forming a thin, concave-convex profile, with a high value of lifting force, covered with cloth on both sides,
- the main undercarriage consisting of two-wheeled bogies with spring suspension and equipped with anti-rollback skids, which not only strengthen its connection with the fuselage, but in its front part provide support for a single-plane horizontal stabilizer, rotatably mounted on the axle,
- tailplane and a hinged rudder in the tail part of the fuselage (supported on two rotating skids),
- a direct-driven traction propeller from the internal combustion engine operating in the inter-lobed space,
- load-bearing panels stiffened between posts and struts and with crossed wires. The lower flap is fixed in place, while the upper one, resting on the post at the leading edge, can be tilted by bending an elastic tie at the trailing edge,
- lateral stabilization of the plane by placing the center of gravity of the system low, by raising the tips of the airfoils upwards, by twisting the top panel on the trailing edge
- an automatic stabilizer of longitudinal equilibrium acting as a pendulum. They are connected with a friction clutch sliding on the propeller shaft between two gears.

 

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hesham

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Hi,

Pioneering helicopter project. Poland / Russia,

On May 23, 1912, the Air Navigation Division of the Main Engineering Board analyzed the design of a helicopter-type flying apparatus presented by J. A. Koszelski.
As he did not provide any explanations, the Division was unable to assess the technical merits of his proposals and rejected his request for assistance with the implementation. The letter of July 18, 1912, informing Koszelski about this decision, either did not reach him or disagreed with this opinion, wrote another with a complaint to the minister of war. In response, the GIU Air Navigation Division reiterated on September 17, 1912 that his design did not deserve attention and that he had received postage stamps for 51 copies.

 

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Hi,

design of a pioneering rotorcraft in the rotodine system. Poland / Russia,

Mieczysław Krajewski in 1909 developed a design of a reaction-
atmospheric flying apparatus in a helicopter system. He introduced
it to the Society of Ledencowa, asking for support for the project implementation plan. Correspondence between the author of the
project and the Society was conducted on this matter from December
11, 1909 to March 18, 1910.

 

hesham

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Hi,

Design of a pioneering rotorcraft or airplane flying camera. Poland / Russia.
On May 16, 1911, Stanisław Kulesza wrote to the Russian Minister of War that he had developed an airplane design based on the new rules. It is supposed to distinguish it from the present day by the ability to take off without the movements of flapping wings, from where it stands. Raising the advantages of his rotorcraft, Kulesza wrote that it climbs well and lands similarly, it can fly against the wind and hang in the air. It flies at an altitude of 20-30 m, which ensures the safety of the crew in the event of an engine failure. It is also safer as it is equipped with an automatic stabilizer of the inventor's system. Kulesza emphasized that he had made a model of his apparatus and would like to demonstrate it personally to the Minister of War, counting on his help in improving the model, developing the project and its implementation.

Kulesza's offer was transferred to the Chief Engineering Board (GIU), which asked the inventor on July 12, 1911 for the payment of the stamp duty and for sending a design description and drawings of the flying apparatus necessary for its evaluation. He replied on July 18 - he sent 2 tax stamps, each worth 75 copies, but he silently ignored the request for more detailed information regarding the design of the flying apparatus.

On August 15, 1911 Kulesza, apparently impatient with the lack of response to his offer, sent a letter to the GIU, in which he reminded that he had previously asked the Minister of War for permission to present him the model. The minister did not accept this offer and sent his request to the GIU address. He also informed that he was working on his project in secret, he did not tell anyone about it or showed the model. He keeps the invention a deep secret. If the GIU does not respond to its offer to implement a project for the Ministry of War of Russia, it will present it to other institutions or capitalists, leaving itself full freedom of action in this regard.

On August 22, GIU again asked Kulesza to provide a description, drawings and calculations for the apparatus designed by him. It was also emphasized that before the evaluation of the invention, the Office would not undertake any obligations, except for one - keeping the invention presented to it secret.

It was not enough for the inventor - he did not respond to this call. The Technical Committee therefore commissioned an evaluation of his offer on the basis of the material at its disposal. The expert's opinion was unambiguous, and it was shared by the Technical Committee, informing Kulesza on 9 September 1911 that the proposed apparatus does not present anything new and nothing indicates that its advantages would be better than similar ones. In the absence of drawings and description, Kulesza's request was rejected.

Kulesza continued his work. In 1913, the Polish press said that the plane of its own design and construction was to be presented to the Ministry of War in St. Petersburg. In 1914, as reported in the Kalisz press, he presented one of his models to members of the All-Russian Aeroclub and representatives of military spheres in St. Petersburg. We know from these reports that this model represented a monoplane layout. The pilot was able to change the airfoil angle during the flight-control of the airfoil. The model was equipped with a device ensuring automatic stabilization - of an unknown type, designed by the model designer.

The model in no way had the characteristics that were mentioned in the letter to the Ministry of War in 1911. It is possible that in the meantime the designer abandoned the rotorcraft concept for an airframe. It cannot be completely ruled out that also in 1911 he spoke about the plane - overestimating its flight capabilities.

 

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About Ryabokon' plane:
00000195.jpg
00000196.jpg
"Original construction details:
1) widening the distance between the wing spars when approaching the fuselage
2) the ability to turn the wings to adjust them (by V. Shavrov, "History of construction of airplanes in USSR to 1938", variable-sweep wing)
3) gondola tapering to the bottom, allowing you to shoot down.
4) droppable fuel tank
5) plywood fuselage
6) dual control
7) 360° sector of fire and dual fire in nose"
 

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About Lyamin charger:
00000221.jpg
00000222.jpg
00000223.jpg
00000224.jpg
About use of single "Sunbeam" 150 HP engine (I think, "Sunbeam Crusader"), to rebuilt, for use of Lyamin charger. Working pressure in charger 2 atm or more. Power of upgrade "Sunbeam" - 200 hp at 1500 rpm, with 2 atm pressure (standart "Sunbeam" - 150 hp at 2200 rpm). Fuel consumption is less, as the pressure is higher and the efficiency is higher. Lyamin “at the beginning of the war” (1914?) successfully conducted experiments with a supercharger while in Holland.
This is most likely the first Russian supercharger ever built (1914?).
 

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About A. Nesterov gas distribution mechanism for radial engines:
00000096.jpg
"The number of cylinders can be any odd number, but as the number of cylinders increases, the speed of the moving parts increases. Therefore, it is better to use 3- or 5-cylinder groups installed in several rows."
In fact, it is proposed here to create a large radial engine having 6-9-12-15 or 5-10-15-20 cylinders, to use of Nesterov mechanism.
Blueprints:
IMG_20210213_131321.jpg
IMG_20210213_131449.jpg
IMG_20210213_131048.jpg
IMG_20210213_131205.jpg
 

hesham

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Hi,

Design for a naval reconnaissance seaplane or seaplane ship. Poland / Russia,

On July 15, 1909, Lew (Leon) Maciewicz gave a lecture on the type
of sea aircraft. He developed a design for a amphibious aircraft, and
presented the Russian military authorities with a project to use a
warship as an aircraft carrier, and developed a launch catapult
himself.

 

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