Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects


ACCESS: Secret
5 January 2006
Reaction score
A thread for the Tupolev Tu-2000 aerospaceplane and also other VKS contenders.

The Tu-2000A (first two pictures) was to be a 70-90 tonnes demonstrator of the actual SSTO spacecraft.

The third pic shows a model that was displayed at the 1992 Mosaeroshow. I'm still not certain whether it's meant to represent the Tu-2000A or Tu-2000.

The side view resembles lower quality drawings published within the Oryol/FESTIP program around 1994.

Although official funding for the project stopped in 1992, Tupolev OKB seems to be continuing work at slow pace, and a new model and video were exhibited at the Expo 2005 in Japan.

It is interesting to note that the latest version features air intakes for the turbojet engines above the fuselage, as opposed to the 'true' turboramjet installation shown in the side view.

Does anyone have any ideas what the things that look like cavities on the bottom of the curved rear fuselage on the second drawing are meant to represent?

Some relevant links:
http://www.testpilot.ru/russia/tupolev/2000/2000.htm (in Russian)


  • Tu-2000A.gif
    7.8 KB · Views: 1,103
  • Tu-2000A.jpg
    19.2 KB · Views: 978
  • Tu-2000 -1992.jpg
    Tu-2000 -1992.jpg
    20.2 KB · Views: 940
  • tu2000.gif
    27 KB · Views: 950
  • Tu-2000 -2005.jpg
    Tu-2000 -2005.jpg
    17.7 KB · Views: 1,047
And as a bonus, my own rendering of Tu-2000A...

Usually 3D models are made from top, bottom, front, plus preferably additional cross-sectional drawings. However, all I had was the second drawing above... fortunately the shape of the Tu-2000A is fairly simple.
Unfortunately I'm currently somewhat stuck due to the aforementioned 'cavities'. Thus far I haven't been able to decide what should I put there on my model. :(

Edit: removed old and inaccurate 3D model image. I'm working on a better one (see my avatar pic) and will post pictures to the Models sub-forum when ready.
Something I'd really like to have would be a front view drawing of the Tu-2000. Making a 3D model without one would involve too much guesswork to get an accurate fuselage shape.
Tupolev/TzIAM Tu-2000 VKS booklet


  • Tu-2000_2.jpg
    19.1 KB · Views: 229
  • Tu-2000-2.jpg
    106.9 KB · Views: 277
  • Tu-2000-1.jpg
    175.8 KB · Views: 302
  • Tu-2000 1.gif
    Tu-2000 1.gif
    15.2 KB · Views: 327
Snapshots and link to original promo video from Tupolev's OKB exposition at EXPO 2005


  • snapshot20060416003629.jpg
    17.3 KB · Views: 225
  • snapshot20060416003608.jpg
    15.4 KB · Views: 230
  • snapshot20060416003547.jpg
    13.8 KB · Views: 202
  • snapshot20060416002602.jpg
    10 KB · Views: 1,189
  • snapshot20060416002552.jpg
    10.6 KB · Views: 236
  • snapshot20060416002421.jpg
    9.8 KB · Views: 1,206
Model of the latest iteration.


  • tu2000new.jpg
    383.8 KB · Views: 341
Hmm...to my eyes this looks very much the same as the model from 1992 Mosaeroshow above.
Was this related to the AJAKS/AYAKS program?
SOC said:
Was this related to the AJAKS/AYAKS program?

Good article about ajax in air&cosmos, January 2001 (have to find the exact numero of the magazine, and a scan)
As this thread is for all VKS contenders, there's some info and pics of NPO Energiya proposal at http://www.buran.ru/htm/raks.htm.

Company designation: GK-1??
Wingspan: 23 (32?) m
Length: 67 m
Height: 18 m
Fuselage Width: 8.2 m
Wing Area: 480 m2
Engines: Six variable cycle turboramjets and liquid-propellant rocket engines
Flight deck volume: 24 m3
Cargo hold volume: 620 m3
Liquid hydrogen: 1,200 m3
Liquid Oxygen: 160 m3
Kerosene (RG-1): 80 m3

Now we're only missing the Yakovlev entry...


  • Energia VKS -2.jpg
    Energia VKS -2.jpg
    178.5 KB · Views: 295
  • Energia VKS -1.jpg
    Energia VKS -1.jpg
    226.7 KB · Views: 271
Original Tupolev's drawings of Tu-2000A demonstrator.


  • Tu-2000sm.jpg
    242.5 KB · Views: 350
Thanks a bunch flateric. The drawing clearly shows a version of the Tu-2000A demonstrator. If only I had had this three-view two years ago... (see my post #2).

There seem to be some differences from the images in my first post, for example the wings look more trapezoidal. Also, it looks like the 'cavities' I was wondering about are turbojet exhausts - do others agree with this interpretation of the three-view?
Interesting that NASP contractors team has prove to DoD and NASA that DuPont idea of 60-70 tonnes aerospace plane is implausible - note this demonstrator weight...moving the same way, one step back...
Various full-scale test articles, built by ANTK Tupolev during Tu-2000 program golden age.
Note LACE test equipment.


    100.6 KB · Views: 130
    327.9 KB · Views: 118
  • FULL-SCALE-WING-BOX---NICKEL-ALLOY-EII-99-(10000-x-4000-x-800-mm).jpg
    355.1 KB · Views: 119
    547.3 KB · Views: 337
    307.5 KB · Views: 350
    139.2 KB · Views: 354
    161.9 KB · Views: 389
    58.7 KB · Views: 414
ANTK Tupolev LH2 ground refueling/test complex built in Gromov's LII for Tu-155 was, in future, intended for Tu-2000 program as well.


    217.3 KB · Views: 105
    156.9 KB · Views: 113
    165.7 KB · Views: 122
    227.6 KB · Views: 132
Tu-2000 under 'Oryol-2-1' brand as of 1998


  • oryol-1998.jpg
    151.2 KB · Views: 201
Thank you so much (once again) flateric! Funny how just a few days ago I resumed work on my Tu-2000A 3D model that I started almost a year ago based on the three-view you posted.

Almost all sources on the Tu-2000 program state that "a nickel-alloy wing torque box, some fuselage elements, liquid hydrogen tanks and fuel pipes made of unique composite material" were built before 1992, of which I was somewhat sceptical. But now we have pictorial proof. Can you give us the source? Also, if possible, for the three-view, now that we're at it?

Russian aerospace plane TU-2000
Pukhov, Aleksandr L., Aviation Scientific and Technical Establishment, Moscow, Russia
AIAA and DGLR, International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, 5th, Munich, Germany, Nov 30-Dec 3, 1993

No 3-view in this short 3-page article...I think you should take Oryol/FESTIP drawings posted earlier, as a basis for 3D model...
Sorry, I meant the Tu-2000A three-view in reply #14 (http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,220.msg23538.html#msg23538).
To my sorrow, I have nothing more than that (thanks God for having these at least!)
BTW, new Tu-2000 model pics from Alex Panchenko's site


  • 16162620.jpg
    83.2 KB · Views: 164
  • 16162603.jpg
    136.9 KB · Views: 188
Okay, thanks anyway. It seems the drawing comes from a book, though.
And, don't get me wrong, but those pics are some years old already. Still worth posting. :)
Museum-quality model of the Tupolev Tu-2000 at the USSR-Russian Aviation and Space Collectibles web site. Images of the model have been previously posted by flateric over multiple posts.

Little over 14 inches lenght (35 cm), exact scale 1/200 custom made for museums display model of Tupolev`s TU-2000 transport spaceplane. Availability and price check by e-mail or call. Details on TU-2000: In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. The Ministry of Defence issued technical specifications on 1 September for an MVKS, a single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system. The MKVS was to provide effective and economic delivery to near-earth orbit; develop the technology for effective transatmospheric flight; provide super high-speed intercontinental transport, and fulfil military objectives in and from space. It is known that the Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Energia design bureaux submitted designs. Tupolev seems to have received the development go-ahead. The Tu-2000A was to be an experimental design to test the many advanced technologies required. It would have been 55 to 60 m long, have a 14 m wingspan, and a takeoff mass of 70 to 90 tonnes. It would have only been capable of Mach 6. Before work was stopped in 1992, some development work was completed: a wing torque box of nickel alloy had been built, as well as fuselage elements, cryogenic fuel tanks, and composite fuel lines. The Tu-2000A would have used a variable cycle turboramjet engine using methane or hydrogen fuel. The Tu-2000A was to have been followed by two production designs, as Tupolev felt no single design could meet all of the military requirements. The Tu-2000B would have been a 10,000 km range bomber with a crew of two. 350 tonnes at takeoff, 200 tonnes empty, it would have been 100 m long, with a wing of 40.7 m span and 1250 square metres area. Six liquid hydrogen powered engines would take the bomber to Mach 6 cruise speed at 30,000 m altitude. The Tu-2000 space launcher would have weighted 260 tonnes at lift-off and be capable of Mach 25 (orbital velocity). An 8 to 10 tonne payload would have been delivered to a 200 km orbit. As with the X-30, airbreathing flight to orbit seemed questionable. The 8 turboramjets would have to be supplemented by a scramjet or a rocket engine in order to achieve orbit. Liftoff Thrust: 90,000 kgf. Liftoff Thrust: 900.00 kN. Total Mass: 90,000 kg. Core Diameter: 13.00 m. Total Length: 72.00 m.
In the latest issue of "Aviation and Cosmonautics" by a group of authors: V. Solozobov, A.Slobodchikov, M. Kazakov and V. Rigmant initiated a historical review of work Tupolev's Design Bureau in the development of hypersonic aircraft. Some projects in the open press published the first time.
This article describes the following projects:
1) An experimental unmanned gliding aerospaceplane "130" (TU-130) on DP programm.
additional info: http://www.testpilot.ru/russia/tupolev/130/130.htm
2) Project of a manned rocket plane "136" (TU-136) on "Star" programm.
additional info: http://www.sergib.agava.ru/russia/tupolev/136/136.htm
3) Project of a hypersonic aircraft - "139" / 1(equivalent of American experimental aircraft X15),
the start was made with the Tu-95K.
- "139" / 2 (project heavy strategic supersonic aircraft carrier / one of the derivative bomber Tu-135K /)
Later in 1964 under the designation Tu-139, DBR-2, "Yastreb-2" were the work of recon UAV that is " 139 / 3.
4) The end of the sixties started work on one-step aerospace plane =Воздушно-космическим самолетам (ВКС) / (VKS) with a horizontal launch and landing and a nuclear rocket engine.
5) Project Single-space plane ОДНОСТУПЕНЧАТОГО ОРБИТАЛЬНОГО САМОЛЕТА (ООС)(SSTO) in the program for aerospace systems= авиационно-космическим системам (AKS), start with the super-heavy aircraft carrier.


  • VKS.jpg
    51.6 KB · Views: 216
  • '136-2'.jpg
    158.5 KB · Views: 183
  • AKS (on base Tu-139-2).jpg
    AKS (on base Tu-139-2).jpg
    41.7 KB · Views: 227
  • AKS (on base Tu-139-2)..jpg
    AKS (on base Tu-139-2)..jpg
    26.9 KB · Views: 247


  • AKS  2.jpg
    AKS 2.jpg
    47.7 KB · Views: 255
  • AKS   1.jpg
    AKS 1.jpg
    53.1 KB · Views: 240
  • AKS in action.jpg
    AKS in action.jpg
    165.4 KB · Views: 177
  • OOC- SSTO  3v.jpg
    OOC- SSTO 3v.jpg
    47.2 KB · Views: 183
  • OOC - SSTO.jpg
    OOC - SSTO.jpg
    59.4 KB · Views: 200
Wow! The AKS reminds me of the proposed XB-70/Dyna-Soar combo.

Spasiba i Merry Christmas!

Thanks for posting those, borovik. Now if one could get hold of this issue... Also you said "initiated a historical review", does this mean there will be a second part?

Another image of the OOS was posted by flateric here: http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,28.msg1125.html#msg1125. Perhaps it could be moved to this thread?

And Triton, the description you posted has been directly lifted from http://www.astronautix.com/craft/tu2000.htm.
That's not Tu-2000, its a TsAGI Mach 5 passenger aircraft model presented at the 1989 Paris Air Show. There should be a color image of the model along with additional information somewhere on this forum, but guess if I can find it now :(

Well, I'm not sure about info on this forum, but here's a Flight International article:
Here's an image of the real Tupolev hypersonic passenger airplane study. From "Aviation and Cosmonautics" 1/2010. Unfortunately there doesn't seem to be more information available.


  • Tu-2Passenger.jpg
    67.5 KB · Views: 1,074
Most accounts of the Soviet 1980s VKS program state that

It is known that the Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Energia design bureaus submitted designs. No details of the Yakovlev design have become available to date.

It seems that this information has been copied everywhere from Encyclopedia Astronautica (http://www.astronautix.com/craft/yakvmvks.htm), which in turn gives the Piotr Butowski article "Black Reds" in Air Forces Monthly X-Planes Special, February 1998, p. 35 as the original source. What I find interesting that no Russian sources seem to mention a Yakovlev proposal, either independently or when discussing the Tu-2000 or the NPO Energia VKS. Actually I don't remember seeing mentions of any Yakovlev hypersonic work in general. Does anyone have any comments on this?

It's also interesting to note that much of the information on late Soviet "secret projects" such as the Mikoyan 301, 701 and Tu-360 seems to originate from that same Piotr Butowski article.
Meteorit said:
Here's an image of the real Tupolev hypersonic passenger airplane study. From "Aviation and Cosmonautics" 1/2010. Unfortunately there doesn't seem to be more information available.

...The Orion III rises once again, it seems.

Crew: 2
Length (m): 55-60
Wing span (m): 14
Wing area (m sq): 160
Swept wing leading edge: 70 deg
Empty weight (kg) 40,000
Take-off weight (kg):
normal 70,000
maximum 90,000
Landing weight (kg): 192,000
Thrust (kg/f): 90,000
Fuel tank (kg): 35000-50000
liquid hydrogen: 30,000
liquid oxygen: 5,000
Engines: 4
Maximum flight speed est (Mach): 6.5
Flight altitude m: 30


Crew: 2
Length (m): 100
Wing span (m):40.7
Wing area (m sq): 1250
Swept wing leading edge: 70 deg
Empty weight (kg) 200,000
Take-off weight (kg):
normal 280,000
maximum 350,000
Weight PH into orbit (orbital altitude of 200 km): 6000-10000
Engines: 6
Maximum flight speed est (Mach): 6
Flight altitude mi: 30
Range (mi): 9,000-10,000

(Source: http://www.sergib.agava.ru/russia/tupolev/2000/2000_1.htm)

The VKS accepted the requirement for an tail-less aerodynamic configuration consisting of four turbojet engines including the main booster being located under the rear fuselage. Another prototype consisted of a liquid-propellant engine for manoeuvring in space and placed between the turbojet engines. The design resulted in a delta wing with a relatively small area and low aspect ratio overall. The bulk of the lift was to be created by the fuselage by compression lift. As such, this aerodynamic configuration would have made it efficient for high-speed hypersonic travel but would have complicated low-speed operations and landing. Controls of the Tu-2000A/B was to be made by small elevons on the wing and a simple rudder on the tail fin. The base engine was to house an adjustable oblique-cut combustion chamber and with multiple-fuel supply systems.

The fuselage-bow of the Tu-2000 was house the cockpit with a seating for two and with the remainder housing fuel tanks containing liquid hydrogen. The nose-piece contained a detachable cab/lid which was to house a detachable parachute for escape from the cockpit. The cockpit itself was to contain a separate electronic-equipment compartment to which the nose landing gear also retracted. For the supply of the liquid propellant oxidizer, there was to be an oxygen tank rear fuselage and this single tank system was to be used by all engines. It was thought that such an aircraft would be able to deliver a payload of 6-10 tonnes into orbits of 200-400 km.


(images removed as they just duplicate previously posted in this thread; Tu-2000 was never intended to be 'hypersonic long-range heavy bomber')
an official Tupolev's artist impression of Tu-2000 back from early 90s


  • tu-2000-1a.jpg
    246.9 KB · Views: 669

Similar threads

Top Bottom