Soviet Student/Universities Projects (MAI, KhAI, etc.)

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History aircraft structures in the USSR 1951-1965's.

Chapter 12. Planes other OKB, educational institutions and amateur aviakonstruktorov

Experimental aircraft "5" OKB MR Bisnovata

In mid-1940 - ies. become necessary to study the characteristics of aerodynamics and flight characteristics of aircraft at okolozvukovyh and supersonic speeds. Pilot installations are yet to be created and the most complete information could only give special flight tests of experimental aircraft. Implementation is one of those planes - "5" - he held in 1945-1948. under the guidance of MR Bisnovata.

The design of the aircraft and "5" - with the all-monoplane sredneraspolozhennym arrow (45 ╟ from 25% PJ) dvuhlonzheronnym wing. Options profiles chose on the basis of recommendations TsAGI: radically - TsAGI bis 12045 at the end - P2 (2 M); wingspan - 6.4 m. At the upper surface aerodynamic set two partitions on each console predotvraschavshie early end to the disruption of the flow of the wing. In order to study the distribution of pressure on the wing at high speeds right-console drenirovali in three sections.

An oval cross-section fuselage monocoque type, length 9.92 m He had the connector, providing rasstykovyvat machine for the installation tanks and for other purposes. The front portion of the fuselage with the pilot took germokabina katapultiruemym seating area. The torch fit in the cab car fuselage. For the wing, the fuselage on the sides, placed brake pads.

In the rear fuselage installed double-RD-2M-ZF (LS Dushkina designer), which is full traction at altitudes of more than 8000 m at 2000 kg, the land - 1610 kg. Stock working engine components (kerosene and nitric acid) and hydrogen peroxide (for the turbine power supply unit) has been calculated at dvuhminutnuyu engines work with full traction.

As originally envisaged that the plane "5" will be transported to an altitude aircraft carrier, landing device is made simple and easy. They consisted of podfyuzelyazhnoy landing skis, two podkrylnyh supporting arches and a small crutch in the rear fuselage.

Strelovidnoe of feathers aircraft. Horizontal of feathers found on the vertical tail on the cross pattern. The management of all aircraft rudders tough. Stabilizer managed, with the magnitude of 2.4 m. Control system had a number of unusual for that time innovations: in the event of loss of rudder effectiveness altitude in flight at high speeds could manage aircraft using stabilizer, podklyuchavshegosya airmen to handle administration; management system at any time can also connect flight irreversible swing.

An aircraft carrier used heavy bomber Pe-8 engines with AL-82FN. Under the law console his wing and fuselage between the gondola internal engine installed special pylons, which suspended aircraft "5". For tests on the aircraft "5" towed to a height of 7500 m. 7000 ...

To reduce the risk of flying new aircraft in the initial phase of testing conducted without engines, that is, in glider version, and on a single plan: loops, connected to the horizontal flight from overload 2 ... 3, braking to speed derailment, the increase in speed and execution defined evolution, at an altitude of 1500 m 2000 ... the task execution stopped. At the stage of landing aircraft studied particularly sustainability, manageability and quality of Flight at relatively low speeds.

For technical assignments plane "5" would have a maximum speed of 1200 km / h (M = 1,13) at an altitude of 12000 ... 13000 km. But specialists calculations showed that the plane may significantly exceed the required characteristics.

During the design of the aircraft and "5" large-scale models were built, equipped with an engine and autopilot.

A tentative testing of autopilot on one of the models held in the wind tunnel TsAGI T-104. Launches models provided a lot of information even before the plane "5" was released on flight tests. In particular, the aerodynamic drag was determined to speed corresponding to M = 1.45.

Flight testing has passed two aircraft "5" under the symbol "5-1" and "5-2". Lead pilot testing designated AK Pakhomova. It was first test flight in the glider version, and then - go to the flight using the rocket engine.

The first flight of the aircraft "5-1", was held on July 14, 1948 When secession from the aircraft carrier, he caught for emphasis on the farm suspension Pe-8 and damaged the wing mounted in the console, in part zaklinilo longitudinal control. No pilot still managed to land, albeit not on the airfield runway. The plane "5-1", having suffered major damage has been sent to the factory for repair.

In the process of reconstruction "5-1" has undergone some changes. To prevent a possible strike aircraft on the Pe-8 has been changed angle of attachment "5" on the aircraft carrier axis (from 0 to - ╟ 4). Management also made improvements to the system, which has since operated reliably. As such, "5-1" committed two more flight. Weight aircraft "5-1" in the course of testing in the glider reached 1565 kg version.

Analysis of the results of preliminary flight tests, as well as live-in the aircraft blowing wind tunnel TsAGI T-101 showed that the plane was "5-1" has unfavorable ratio between transverse and travel ustoychivostyami. This is partly caused the accident, "5-1" in the third flight, on September 5, 1948 The aircraft approached the runway with the heel, first touched land console one wing, and then hit another run at the end abruptly switched to the nose. Flying remained whole, but the plane was broken and not subject to rehabilitation.

What happened accident delayed the test. They continued until January 1949, when the aircraft was issued "5-2" (Figure 298). Structurally, it is almost no different from the "5-1", but it fulfilled a number of improvements. In particular, to improve the sustainability of increased travel and designing a vertical extension of feathers, causing the aircraft to increase the length of 11.2 m; podkrylnye arc replaced by special shock-absorbing crutches, pogloschavshimi energy impact at the time it touches the ground.

Fig. 298. The plane "5-2" in TsAGI to update

Flying a plane "5-2" served Test Pilot of GM Shiyanov. The first flight of a new machine on January 26, 1949, but due to the landing outside the runway ended accident. "5-2" was damaged and needed repairs. The main reason for the landing of the aircraft inaccurate "5-1" and "5-2" was to build a difficult calculation to land, especially in the first flight, due to the very small then LII runway.

During the repair of aircraft "5-2" went further developments (Figure 299). Landing leg installed parallel horizontal fuselage construction, making the aircraft more sustainable mileage and allow the tail to abandon crutches, and later in its place to place podfyuzelyazhny clavicle to increase the stability of the track.

After repairing the aircraft "5-2" GM Shiyanov fulfilled its second flight ended safely. Analysis of the results of the first and second flights showed that the desired ratio of transverse and travel ustochivostyami has still not been achieved. To improve it, the designers have found an original solution: install consoles in the so-called "flippers" that give effect a similar change in the cross-wing V (due to the fact that the wing was nerazemnym, change its transverse V constructively, it was impossible). "Troy" represented a downward at an angle of 45 ╟ profiled ending, uvelichivshie wingspan aircraft to 6.6 m. The lower edge of "flippers" Reinforced done, turning them into a kind of podkrylnye poles, which fell on the plane at the end of the journey.

Fig. 299. Plans aircraft modifications "5"

After all adaptations aircraft GM Shiyanov committed to the "5-2" six more flights, the last of which took place in June 1949, the Mass of the aircraft was 1710 kg and the maximum speed achieved in pikirovanii at an altitude of 5400 m, in line with M = 0775. The plane had a satisfactory quality of flight. Office through irreversible gidrousiliteley (boosters), little different from normal. All systems were structured and the aircraft prepared for the flight engines, but it has been decided to discontinue further work.

During the tests the aircraft "5" and its modifications for the first time in the Soviet Union have been investigated especially with the separation of aircraft swept wing of the aircraft carrier, but with practical experience gained dovodkah used to create new high-speed aircraft.

German aircraft design offices in the USSR

In late 1945, the Soviet government on the orders of Soviet troops in the occupied part of Germany was formed several aircraft design bureaus. They German specialists supervised by the Soviet authorities continued their defeat in the war interrupted work on the latest samples of aviation technology - jet aircraft engines avtopilotami. Developments in the field of aircraft have been concentrated in Dessau, on the basis of the former Design Centre firm Juncker, and in Galle, where engineers gathered firms "Si" and "Heinkel. But since the establishment of military equipment in Germany were allied violation of the agreements on the demilitarization of the country, in October 1946, to address the Council of Ministers of the USSR German specialists transported to the Soviet Union, where they continued their design activities. Samoletostroiteley (519 specialists and more than a thousand members of their families) placed at the state pilot plant ╧ 1, organized in 1946, based aviation plant ╧ 458. He was in Podbereze village, about 100 kilometres north of Moscow. The German specialists konstrukorskih divided into two offices. OKB-1 led by B. Baade, previously worked at the company "Juncker; head OKB-2 became an engineer G. Ressing, and his deputy - the Soviet designer AJ Berezniak.

In 1946, the Soviet Union brought samples of jet aircraft built by German constructor in Germany in 1945-1946 he was.: Attack EF-126, EF-131 bomber pilot and aircraft "346".

EF-126. One attack EF-126 (Fig. 300) was conceived as an aircraft development company Fizeler "Fi-103. History appearance last very unusual. When in Germany after the creation of V-2 missiles were removed from service cruise missiles V-1 with a pulsating air-jet engine (PuVRD) firm Argus "AS-014 (or FZG-76), the idea was to revamp the existing aircraft for manned aircraft Ordnance-Fi-103. The aircraft brought to the goal aircraft carrier, and then pilot, sending the car to a goal was to jump with a parachute. The chassis has been on the plane. In fact, it was suicide weapons, as well as chances to leave safely dive at high speed projectile from the pilot was very little. Interestingly, one of the sponsors of this idea was a woman - Test Pilot of the captain "Luftwaffe" Hanna Raich. By the end of the war have been built 175 SW-Fi, but none of them has been used in combat.

Fig. 300. The scheme EF-126 aircraft

The project designers firm Juncker "EF-126 was also to provide PuVRD but more powerful -" Yumo-226 "with the estimated 500 kgf thrust. This lightweight single aircraft, as Fi-103, would have a direct dvuhkilevoe wing and tail of feathers. Were also similar size and Fi-103 and EF-126. But the similarity ends. Flying on the EF-126 located in the bow of the fuselage. Ibid established small arms - two 20 - mm cannon. A modified form wing aircraft provided skis for landing. Rise anticipated exercise using powder and catapult missiles. According to the calculations, EF-126 to a speed of more than 700 km / h, the ceiling was 7200 m, range - 320 km.

The first copy EF-126 was assembled in Dessau in May 1946, he crashed on factory airfield during the second test flight in a tug of Ju-88 aircraft. By the fall, four more were ready machine. In September 1946, they dismantled, packed and sent to the USSR, in LII. There, in 1947, with the participation of German engineers from OKB-1 on two EF-126 complied with 12 flights, including 5 - with the inclusion of the engine. Because neither catapult or launch missiles in powder LII not available, take off implemented with the help of the plane-boat.

At the same time, the tests were conducted PuVRD "Yumo-226" on the bench and in flight conditions on the plane-laboratory Ju-88. Without tests at the plant showed that the real traction engine at 10% above design, and specific fuel consumption - 20% lower, but his credibility was low, often have been unable to start the engine in flight.

In autumn 1947, in connection with the ban on the stay of foreign specialists at the sites where the work went on secret subjects, the tests of German aircraft in LII was ordered to cease and British and German experts to restore> plant in Podbereze. In May 1948 the EF-126 transported to the airfield in suburban Moscow Warmth Mill, but due to lack of aircraft were not flying boat.

EF-131. The plane (Figure 301) was an experienced bomber development Ju-287. The first copy Ju-287V-l implemented by the end of the war 17 test flights. The peculiarity of the aircraft was swept-back wing (- ╟ 20). Constructor bomber - G. Vocce chose such an arrangement to avoid the disruption of the flow at the ends of the wing that is characteristic of conventional arrow wings.

At the very end of the war Firm Juncker "has begun the construction of the second instance - Ju-287V-2. Unlike the prototype, it does not have established four and six jet engines - three under each wing. The plane had a speed of 800 km / h and carry up to 4000 kg bombs. This unfinished aircraft and was used as a basis EF-131 bombers.

Fig. 301. Airplane EF-131 (a) and (b) scheme

While it is looking like Ju-287 EF-131 and the latter can not be considered a copy of a German bomber. Fuselage was entirely re-constructed and had great at 2.5 m length. Differ in size and the tail of feathers. Changed shape and design predkrylka providing automatic withdrawal of aircraft from zakriticheskogo angle of attack. Normal takeoff weight machines equaled 22955 kg, engine consisted of six TRD "Yumo-004V" for every 900 kg of propulsion, armament - tail machine gun turret (2x13 mm). To speed up the application run by the 7 launch rocket thrust of 1000 kg.

EF-131 aircraft was taken to the Soviet Union in August 1946, Factory flight testing machines scheduled to finish by August 1947, then planned to show the aircraft in flight on an aircraft Day parade in honor of aviation. However, the beginning of flights had to be postponed due to the fact that during the static tests revealed a lack of strength TsAGI fuselage. Construction works to enhance the first copy EF-131 took about two months. At the same time, the plant was the second flight assembly instance. She concluded by the end of the year.

First flight EF-131 LII in a May 23, 1947 German piloting an airplane pilot Paul Yulge - an experienced pilot plant ╧ 1. According to the pilot and aircraft observations from the ground have good performance. After landing at probezhke small aircraft accident occurred - Precipice bolt connecting traverse left reliance chassis; aircraft awkwardly on the left side and touched land one engine (from the group of three engine).

Fast finish bomber flight tests failed. During the flight surfaced defects ( "Shimmy" front wheel vibration in the tail of feathers), the removal of which lasted a long time. As a result, until October 1947 at the EF-131 has been implemented only seven flights a total length of 4.5 hours

In June of 1948 - ended preparations for a new series of tests EF-131 bombers, which were to take place at the airport in Warmth Stane. But they were not able to begin: June 21, 1948 order of the Minister of the aviation industry work for EF-126 aircraft and EF-131 were stopped. The decision to discontinue testing of German jet aircraft was due to the emergence of a new generation in the USSR TRD with the best, compared with the German engine characteristics: AM-TRDK AA-01 Construction Mikulina and construction TR-1 AM Lyul'ka. EF-131 aircraft with a "bunch" low "Yumo" under the wings and the EF-126 to unreliable and uneconomic PuVRD constituted already outdated machines.

Fig. 302. The scheme EF-132 aircraft

EF-132. Airplane EF-132 (Fig. 302), designed as a long-range bomber with the usual wing sweep. The core of the wing were placed six TRD "Yumo-012" with a thrust of 3000 kg. Estimated range aircraft from 4000 kg bombs was 3900 km, the maximum speed -950 km / h.

The development of this very promising project began in Dessau in 1946 under the leadership of B. Baade and continued after the deportation of German specialists. In 1947 on the orders of the Ministry of aviation industry has been transformed by domestic engines TRDK-AM-01. The topic was closed in summer 1948, at the stage of completion of the prototype bomber and a working design individual parts and accessories production.

EF-140. Bomber EF-140 (Fig. 303) was the first aircraft German aviakonstruktorov, designed and built in the USSR. It was a modification of EF-131 aircraft, which is to install the engines AA Mikulina AM-TRDK-01 and use more powerful weapons.

Because traction motors Mikulina (3300 kg) is significantly higher than the German cravings "Yumo-004" planes from shestimotornogo transformed into twin. Gondola fastened to the bottom of the wing. New power plant required substantial processing of aircraft fuel system.

At the EF-131 had only one gun turret in the rear fuselage, booking completely absent. The main aircraft thought to be protected by its speed. With the advent of jet fighters in service of this was clearly not enough. Therefore, the EF-140 set a pair of two-gun turret above and below the fuselage, entered the cabin reservation. The aircraft has increased from three to four. U port side at the front of the pilot's cockpit seat was to the right of it - place the navigator-scorer, behind the pilot, a person back, the shooter placed the top turret. Radioman (and at the same time he is the shooter lower turret) also sat face back behind the navigator. Armor plate protect the crew from shooting at the back and bottom. Bombs total weight of up to 4500 kg housed in a vast bombootseke in the central part of the fuselage.

Fig. 303. The scheme EF-140 aircraft

Development of EF-140 aircraft began in 1947 as a pioneering project OKB Baade. In 1948, after the inspection of the prototype, the work was approved by the Government. When built aircraft used a second set of EF-131, which greatly accelerated its production. In September 1948 the plane was fully prepared for testing.

Flight testing of EF-140 took place at the airport in Warmth Stane. The first flight took place on 30 September. It lasted about 20 minutes and passed without incident. But starting with the second flight (5 October) revealed shortcomings in the work of the engines. Because of the poor performance of so-called assault rifle fuel metering installed on AM-TKRD-01, regulate the traction engine manually proved very difficult: it spontaneously change turnover, flashing occurred and pumping aircraft in flight. After the seventh flight tests had to be suspended.

In 1949, after changing engines flights continued. May 24, the aircraft factory tests had been completed. Maximum speed was 904 km / h, the range - 2000 km.

State test EF-140 did not. Instead, in May 1948, DB-1 team was asked to deconstruct the aircraft to deep intelligence. This version was designated "140 - R."

To achieve the desired range (3600 km) and height (14100 m) on the plane to establish a new, more economical engines VC-1. In addition, the wing span increased from 19.4 to 21.9 metres and installed at the ends of the wing fuel tanks, adding to the total stock of 14000 litres of fuel.

The plane equipped two remote-controlled small plants with a pair of 23 mm cannon fire. Fire guns were using periscopes sight, remote control turelyami - electric. In the event that the top shooter gun installation would be killed or wounded, turrets can be connected to the sight and control system lower turret.

The aircraft "140 - R" equipped with equipment for day and night Intelligence (cameras, lighting bombs, etc.), which is placed in front of the cargo compartment in the rear fuselage.

In 1949, near the factory, in the village of Borki, was equipped test airfield because the military was against the arrival of German experts at the Air Force airfield in Warmth Stane. There, in Borkah, and the factory began testing "140 - R." Tested airplane pilot IE Fyodorov.

The first flight was made on October 12, 1949 October 20, a second plane took off. Both flights were suspended because of the strong vibrations wing. The plane returned to the plant.

Fig. 304. The aircraft "140 - B / R (a) and (b) scheme

In spring 1950, after the finalization of the design, test flights began again. Since the wing is not stopped shaking, after the second flight tests suspended. By studying the problems connected TsAGI experts. It was suggested that the source of vibrations were located at the ends of the wing tanks. July 18, 1950 government decision, all work on the aircraft "140 - R" were halted.

By the same decision, the tests were cancelled modified aircraft 140 - R "140 - B / R (Fig. 304), which could be applied and how intelligence, and as a bomber. EDO Baade received a specification for development of this machine in August 1948, In the same scheme and the same aircraft engines differ from the "140 - R" mostly domestic equipment. In connection with the fire control system improvements have reduced the crew to three people. According to estimate when Bombings load 1500 kg and 9400 litres of fuel stock range "140 - B / R" was to be 3000 km with a maximum speed of -866 km / h, practical ceiling - 12000 m.

At the time of issue of the decree on the closure topic aircraft was built and partially passed the test surface. That was the last established in the USSR plane with swept-back wing. After unsuccessful tests intelligence officers "140 - R" TsAGI experts concluded that the use of such undesirable in the wing aircraft.

"150". The latest work OKB-1 bomber was the creation of the front wing of the usual sweep - "150" (Figure 305). The fundamental difference aircraft "150" from the above machine was that it was not the development of German aircraft during the Second World War and was an entirely new design, developed with the achievements of aviation science and technology second half of 1940 - ies. In addition to its design specialists-German scientists have participated TsAGI, VIAM officers and some other organizations. The prototype aircraft, "150" project was bomber RB-2 (Fig. 306), developed at the initiative of Baade and his staff in 1948 has been calculated that the maximum speed of 30 - tonne machine with two TRD TR-3 was to be about 1000 km / h.

The project was considered in TsAGI. Overall, it approved, but to improve the stability and controllability aircraft recommend changes to the design of control systems and the tail of feathers. The modified version was designated "150". In 1949, the layout of the aircraft was manufactured, began production of working drawings.

Bomber "150" was a vysokoplan with swept wing, T-shaped two of feathers and turbojet engines on pylons under the wings. The crew - four men. Armament - a pair of three gun turret.

Fig. 305. Bomber '150 (a) and (b) scheme

Fuselage consisted of three parts. In the bow down germokabina on three people: the first pilot, the pilot of a second (or radar operator), and the shooter, using fire to the top of small installations turning periscopic sight. Bottom cabinets defended armor. In the rear was located another germokabina, which housed the shooter-radioman.

Fig. 306. Model airplane RB-2

The central part of the fuselage was taken bombootsekom, the size of which allowed to take up to 6000 kg bombs. There could also be installed additional fuel tanks.

Designing the wing - 35 ╟ from 1 / 4 Chords. It took construction boom with the panels, backed by domestic corrugation. In the center-wing fuel tanks were located. Airstrip Mechanization consisted of two sections flaps. Ailerons and handlebar height trehsektsionnuyu were designed as rudders directions - dvuhsektsionnuyu. Separation flaps and rudder surfaces on the section was done to improve combat survivability machine.

When designing the airplane "150" diskussirovalsya question of what the engine must be installed on the airplane. B. Baade advocated the use of powerful TRD construction AA Mikulina AM-03 kgf thrust 8000. SM Alexeyev, appointed in 1948, mostly plant designer, offered to use engines AM Lyul'ka AL-5, less powerful, but less empowering increase drag because of the smaller sizes. After preliminary research has been preferred the second option.

It is an unusual system of government was a plane. Her fulfilled on an irreversible pattern hydromechanical type. Pilot pens and deviation control pedals managed turning hydraulic cranes. As a result gidrosmes it came to one, then to the other side of hydraulic motors, changing the direction of their rotation. Through hydraulic motors and a gearbox shafts and transmissions rejected surface management.

As such analogies in the aircraft control system was not, she was thoroughly tested. They were held at a specially designed booth, and by plane Ju-388, applied at the factory as a flying laboratory.

The aircraft "150", was first built in the Soviet Union with aircraft engines on pylons. This layout allows on the one hand, to bring the aerodynamic wing to clean the surface and improve its load-bearing properties of the other - made more use engines as protivoflatternyh goods.

The new aircraft in the construction of "150", it was also the chassis cycle scheme. In 1949 it passed inspection at the pilot fighter SM Alexeyeva I-215. At the suggestion of Baade rear pillar chassis has been designed in such a way that its height can be reduced during takeoff, with the result of an increase of 3 ╟ wing angle of attack decreasing length run.

Among other technological innovations aircraft worth noting cellular design of fuel tanks as to prevent the rapid outflow of fuel at prostrele, T-shaped tail of feathers scheme, a new system of fire explosive action, the widespread use of details from a new aluminum alloy V-95.

Because of the novelty of the high-level design of the process of building the aircraft very long. If the establishment bombers EF-131 and EF-140 it is possible to use part of their prototypes, but now almost all have to make from scratch, often referring to the assistance of other plants. As a result, the first copy of aircraft assembly ended only in 1951 shortly second copy was ready designed for static tests for strength.

Due to the fact that the size of the airfield in Borkah not allowed to test such a heavy aircraft, such as "150" (his take-off weight - 38000 kg - was one and a half times more than the "140"), after the terrestrial samples bomber dismantled and moved to a new factory airfield equipped Luhovitsah, more than 200 km away. On transportation, assembly and pre-training left few months.

The aircraft "150" for the first time took off on October 5, 1952 end of the year and managed to hold eight flights. They yielded encouraging results. But snow began not allowed to finish the test before the end of the year.

In spring 1953, flights have continued. They served under the leadership of crew Ya.I. Bernikova. In April, during the 16 - the first flight, due to the inclusion of premature aircraft brakes locked wheels touched the runway and went yuzom. " But it cost relatively smoothly. After replacing damaged wheels started new flights.

The trouble occurred on a holiday - May 9, 1953 accessing the landing against the sun, Vernikov incorrectly calculated the trajectory too early and took a pen "by itself". The plane filled up, lost speed and fell on the runway with a height of 5 ... 10 m. None of the crew was injured, but as a result of the accident was broken chassis (with the rear fuselage reliance Breaks), damaged engines and the bottom surface of the fuselage.

Although the flight tests ended unsuccessfully performed flights demonstrated that the bomber "150" generally consistent with the technical requirements of the job, and some of them even exceeded. For example, the maximum speed of the land was at 60 km / h above planned.

Despite that, in MAP decided not to rebuild the damaged aircraft and stop the test. As in the time of development and the start of construction certainly good machine to 1953, "150" has not been much interest: the then successfully completed testing jet Tu-16 bomber, superior in all respects aircraft Baade.

Shortly thereafter, the SDB had been closed and German specialists allowed to return to their homeland. The last of them () 1954 g.

In 1958, based on the bomber "150" in the GDR created a jet passenger aircraft "152". In the series, he is not built.

"346". The history of this unusual aircraft, calculated to reach supersonic speeds in flight is. In 1944, German Research Institute planernyh flights (DFS) has developed a pilot project aircraft DFS-346 [; flight with a maximum speed corresponding to M = 2.5. To achieve this speed aircraft engines planned to install two firms' Walter '509-109 used on the rocket Me-163 fighter planes. DFS-346 airplane were to be lifted to a height of 10000 metres with the help of an aircraft carrier, and then he committed otsoedinyalsya independent flight.

The construction of the aircraft started a few months before the end of the war. In 1946 on the orders of the Soviet government team of German designers, under the leadership of G. Ressinga continued that work. September 29, 1946 the first copy of vykatili aircraft assembly plants aviation plant in Halle. After its ground tests dismantled and sent to the USSR.

The aircraft "346" (Figure 307) was a sweep-wing monoplane with a 45 ╟. Construction - metal, except leakproof pilot's cabin, which had a wooden frame.

Fig. 307. Scheme aircraft "346"

The aircraft was not usual, the speaker of the fuselage cabin lamp. To maximize the drag reduction pilot decided to locate in the supine position in the fuselage. In addition to reducing the transverse size fuselage, the layout allows pilots to carry large overload than with the usual pattern.

Pilot's compartment is separated from the main part of the fuselage bulkhead impermeable. Transparent lantern from the plexiglass put forward forward to pilot an aircraft may have arrived.

The plane had an emergency rescue system for the original pilot. Germokabina connected with the fuselage on the explosive bolts, and, if necessary, can be separated from the aircraft. To the rear of the cab was attached parachute, stabilizing its drop after separation. At an altitude of 3000 m speed system automatically included human lantern separated and pilot vybrasyvalsya along with a bed of the cab. At an altitude of 1500 m disclose the pilot's parachute.

System Rescue aircraft provided quitting, even if the pilot was unconscious. In this situation, office germokabiny done automatically - included elektrozapal explosive bolts.

The wing aircraft had permanent NACA profile with relative thickness of 12%. The design of the wing - odnolonzheronnaya, with a thick skin. At the rear edge and the two sections were located Flap aileron.

The chassis was made in the form of acid in the fuselage skis. Lack of conventional wheeled landing gear due to the fact that the plane should have been raised at the height of limbo-bearer of the aircraft.

On "346" two engines stood firm "Walter" 509-109 mounted on a common frame. Fuel tanks accommodate 552 litres of fuel and oxidizer 1100 litres. Because of the large fuel rocket engine this reserve enough only for a few minutes of flight.

In the USSR, for testing aircraft prepared very carefully. Due to the fact that the pilot was flown to manage the situation lies in LII conducted preliminary experiments to examine the features of such a pilot with the layout. For this was used serial German sailplane "Kranich, perekonstruirovanny reclining position under the pilot. On memories pilot test ML Gallaya, letavshego on that machine, horizontal situation has been very inconvenient for piloting. Nevertheless return to the normal landing and the pilot of the fuselage he do lantern cab to the "346" from becoming, as it has led to [almost completely rebuild the aircraft and, in addition, would increase aerodynamic drag.

Also in LII, conducted tests severed cockpit and katapultiruyuschego device. To this end, the cabin of the "346" with dummy pilot suspended under the fuselage V-25 bombers and dumped in flight. The tests were successful.

Fig. 308. The aircraft "346" live-in wind tunnel T-101 TsAGI

Aerodinamični studies in live-pipe TsAGI T-101 (Fig. 308) showed that at high angles of attack occurs intense disruption to the flow over the wing, quickly spreads over the entire surface, and it leads to a loss of stability. This is to be expected, since the entire scope profiles were the same type that is not desirable for sagittal wing. To address specified shortage on the upper wing surface of the second instance "346" installed four vertical ridge impeding the flow along peretekaniyu magnitude.

Model aircraft also has been tested in the USSR in the first high-speed wind tunnel T-106. It turned out that at okolozvukovyh speeds may lose effectiveness of controls. Therefore, it was recommended not to exceed M = 0.8.

Since the end of aerodynamic experiments copy delivered in 1946 from Germany, tested in static strength.

In the second half of 1948 in DB-2 has been completed building planernogo version of the aircraft - 346 - P (Fig. 309). He had a simplified design - without germokabiny, engine, fuel tanks. The use of ballast allowed to change a lot of apparatus. With "346 - P" simulated office equipment from the aircraft carrier, verified stability and control apparatus in various tsentrovkah, accumulate experience in piloting supine position and especially landing on the leg. Tested "346 - P" pilot-engineer Wolfgang Tsize who had 20 - years of experience flight.

In 1946-1949 he worked. to "346 - P" had been implemented four flights. Staff suspended by the holders of aircraft-W-29, which raised it to the specified height, and then coupling happened, Test Pilot of the planned land. The tests were successful, except in one case where Tsize not monitored the situation wing before separating from the aircraft carrier. As a result, "346 - P" perevernulsya through the wing, hard-pilot was able to equalize car.

In spring 1949, the plant donated to the test flight "346-1". It fully conforms to the draft, but rather than this engine has been installed replacement. Weight aircraft without fuel is equivalent to 3125 kg.

All summer spent on the preparation of "346-1" to the test at the airport in Warmth Stane. The first flight took place on September 30, 1949, under the wing of airplane suspended V-29 (Fig. 310), and raised to a height of 9700 m. After disconnecting from the media, which pilotirovali AA pilots Efimov and NA Zamyatin, B. Tsize flight began with the decline. At an altitude of 2500 meters ... 3000 he advanced from the fuselage and landing leg began landing. However, the expectation was inaccurately landing and the plane approached the airfield at speeds much higher estimated. When landing skis of a strike and the plane started to slide on the band on the fuselage. The system of tethered belts pilot proved unreliable - Tsize thrown forward, he hit his head on the frame lamp and lost consciousness. Injury was not very heavy, and after treatment in hospital B. Tsize returned to flight work.

Fig. 309. Planer "346 - P"

Fig. 310. The plane "346-1" under the wing of V-29

Damaged aircraft repaired. While V. Tsize was on the treatment, the tests "346-1" continued the pilot PI Kaz 'min. In the first flight of skis zafiksirovalas not released in the situation and in a moment it touches land. However, this time landing made by the snow and all ended well. Some time later, Kazmin committed a second flight. Landing was again unsuccessful, as the pilot landed before the start of the runway. The newly required repairs.

Despite the complexity of Landing, it was concluded that the aircraft flight characteristics generally satisfactory and can proceed to the main part of the programme: the inclusion of the flight engine. For this flight was a second copy - "346-3" with these engines.

Compiling "346-3" ended in May 1950, from the first instance, he characterized the amended horizontal form of feathers with a reduced thickness profile and greater sweep (Fig. 311, see Fig. 307). As a result of these activities permissible speed "346-3" increased to a level corresponding to M = 0.9.

Fig. 311. The plane "346-3" under the carrier Tu-4

Especially for tests "346-3" about 100 kilometres south-east of Moscow, near the city Luhovitsy, construction began on a new factory airfield. Construction work required for the manufacture of test equipment and transport aircraft to a new location took several months.

In early 1951, emerged from the trauma B. Tsize began training flights on the airframe "346 - P", and April 6, flew to the "346-3" without the engine. August 15, 1951 Tsize first met the flight at the "346" with the use of the engine. Because of the limitations on the maximum speed of only one camera was used engines with a maximum traction engine that was 1570 kg. The power plant has been included at an altitude of 7000 m after 1 minute 40 seconds after the separation from the aircraft carrier. LRE spent one and a half minutes, and then were made to schedule flight and landing.

Pilot aircraft occurred in very difficult circumstances. For travel to the working engine found strong lateral instability. I had to continually align Tsize aileron roll. The situation is further complicated because of the poor performance of the regulator heat in the cabin temperature reached 40 C ╟ and manage aircraft in such conditions was extremely difficult. According to V. Cancer, it was on the verge of fainting.

After installing ventilation valve in the cabin next flight (2 September) has been quite good. However, in the third flight with the inclusion of motor accident. It happened on 14 September. Cancer otsoedinilsya of aircraft-9300 m. By including the engine, pilot continued to gain height, and both grew faster. After two minutes of work LRE speed exceeded 900 km / h. Shortly thereafter Tsize reported on the radio that the plane lost control and crashes. On orders from the ground, he left the plane. Rescue system worked flawlessly. Office cubicles happened at an altitude of 6500 m, revealed a stabilizing parachute at an altitude of 3000 m katapultnoe device away from the pilot's cabin, he landed on the parachute.

The specialists involved in the study of the causes of the accident did not reach a unanimous agreement. According to one version, the aircraft hit the spin due to pilot error, according to the other, Tsize exceeded the maximum permissible speed and as a result of redistribution of pressure on the tail wing and lost control of the machine.

Due to the fact that by using less than half the maximum traction engine plane developed a speed of 900 km / h, it can be assumed that with the inclusion of both combustion chambers, it could exceed the speed of sound. No imperfection aerodynamic schemes are not allowed to hold such a test.

Development of the aircraft "346" was the most expensive pilot plant program ╧ 1. During the period from April 1946 to September 1951 it was about 55 million roubles.

"486". Based on the aircraft "346" in DB-2, led by former designer of the firm "Heinkel 3. Gunter in 1949 was drafted supersonic fighter-interceptor "486" on a "cantilever" with a small triangular wing elongation (Figure 312). As a power plant expected to apply multi liquid rocket engine. Take-off was made from the start carts, landing - on the animal.

For the preliminary tests and the lifting of the flying characteristics at speeds up to 500 km / h in 1950, the plant built wooden gliders "466" on the scheme emulates aircraft "486". It started blowing in the wind tunnel TsAGI live. But by this time it became apparent that the use of combat aircraft engines at inappropriate because the duration is too small. Therefore, in June 1951, MAP stopped funding topic. Shortly DB-2 was closed, its employees assigned to other divisions of the plant.

So, the attempted use of German specialists for the development of Soviet jets did not produce significant results. None of the aircraft are not designed to go in the series. One of the reasons for failure was the hopelessness of several design ideas underlying the concept of the aircraft. As time has shown, neither the wing-back sweep, no engines or PuVRD use as a power-plant did not find wide application in aviation.

However, the main reason for the low efficiency of the German specialists in the Soviet Union in 1947-1953 he was. was wrong organization for their participation in aircraft. Gathered inside a factory in Podbereze isolated from the rest of the world, they can only give lessons learned, but not acquire new knowledge. Because of the inherent Soviet leadership grant-eaters are not allowed either in TsAGI nor LII nor in any other scientific and engineering organization. As a result, their creativity and knowledge remained at the end of the Second World War.

Fig. 312. Scheme aircraft "486"

Airplanes and motoplanery MAI

BRO-9 aircraft with vibropredkrylkami. Extensive experience gained in establishing an aircraft with AI vibropredkrylkom Boldyrev, and numerous experimental work has been used in the creation of single ANT with vibrating predkrylkom based light airframe for the initial training BRO-9.

In 1954, AJ Vasilyev during manufacturing practices with a group of students has undertaken a project. The "student" aircraft was off mass of 175 kg manned version. Provision unmanned flights by remote control during the tests. Drive vibrating predkrylkov place of a pair of two engines, "Riedel" with a total capacity of air-cooled 20 hp (14.7 kW).

Ground tests have shown a lack of strength predkrylkov drive mechanism. In-flight aircraft is not tested.

IAC glider-15MP. To reduce the cost of training pilots-gliding and autonomous takeoff airframe without the use of the plane-boat MA Kuzakov in 1956 developed a new airframe modification of its serial MAK-15 - IAC-15MP.

IAC glider-15MP (Figure 313) was designed and manufactured in the MAI. He had two five star air-cooled engine VP-760 Construction VV Polyakov with a maximum capacity of 23 hp (16.9 kW) at 2350 rpm, the operational capacity (0.6 nominal) 14 hp (10 kW). Weight 24 kg dry engine, a working volume of 760 см3. Air screw - MG, wooden, 1.3 meters in diameter

Finalization of the airframe were minor. The engine attached to the motors, boiled steel thin-walled tubes. On the dashboard of the engine control devices installed. Closed cockpit bubble lamp, formed from a sheet of Plexi, without the carcass. In the back seat pilot placed the petrol tank, and filling his neck - under the lantern. Engine zakapotirovali carefully. On the air screw installed duralyuminovy cook. For a smooth pair of fuselage with a lantern made easy gargrot. The lower part of the fuselage fairing except gargrota was on the wheel. Thus, the aerodynamics of the airframe installation of the engine suffered little.
Fig. 313. IAC glider-15MP

Tests sailplane MAK-15MP held from August 20 to September 10, 1956 on a programme approved by the Central Committee DOSAAF; leading Test Pilot of AA Chebotarev. During the flight tests verified data in tow for the aircraft and to identify stability and control in a free flight with the working and non-working engine.

Glider taking off with the engine shut off for a tug on the Yak-12M aircraft at speeds of 55 ... 60 km / h. As for the tug, and the characteristics of free-flying glider pilot did not have. His airstrips data with a dead engine almost match the characteristics MAK-15 airframe. With motor running, as a takeoff or landing at, glider had good stability and control. The maximum rate -0.8 ... 1 m / s at a speed of 70 km / h. The maximum altitude of working engine - 2250 m. The engine in flight executed fairly easily. The maximum aerodynamic quality - 16.7.

Glider has generally successful, but required development and the elimination of some shortcomings engine.

MAK-15M glider with vibropredkrylkom. In 1956-1957 he worked. MAI in a laboratory in the department of design aircraft was designed and manufactured on the basis of serial motorized gliders MAK-15M vibropredkrylkom with AI Boldyrev.

Chief Designer sailplane MA Kuzakov, developed a system of vibrating predkrylkov AI Boldyrev, predkrylkov drive mechanism and the engine developed a V. Polyakov on the basis of their VP-760 engine capacity of 23 hp (16.9 kW).

Slat served two thirds of the magnitude of the wing. The engine installed in the zone docking center. The rest of the airframe MAK-15M remained unchanged. Pre experienced flying model performed BS Blinov in scale 1:5. Glider was made in the training and production workshops MAI and tested on the ground in the territory of the institute. Zameryalas impulses, and tested system vibropredkrylka drive. Thrust posed predkrylkom while working at the site, was about 50 kg (500 N).

For small fluctuations in the frequency of vibration encountered predkrylka drive. At calculation modes of vibration predkrylka declined, but the load on the drive were still high. Predkrylka proved unsatisfactory design using foam as a placeholder. For tests rib portion of vibration is out of order. Planer stood in the open air and was destroyed. From refused to conduct further tests.

They MAI MAI-58 and-62. In 1957-1958 he was. Students MAI, headed by AI Petsuhom, who was head of topics designed lightweight sport aircraft MAI-58 (Fig. 314). The sponsors of the draft were students graduated Pipko and S. D. Simonov. We students have participated B. Abramovich, N. Martirosov, Vladimir Voloshin, etc. All questions arising in the process of working on a new, quite original plane, the students advised ES Voight, ZA Melik-Sarkissian, VA Chairman.

Fig. 314. MAI Scheme-58 aircraft

MAI-58 - nizkoplan cantilever wing with a small extension of the type of "reverse gulls." In the wing bends very low key pillar in the undercarriage fairing. This, on the one hand, approached the wing to the runway and to ensure an increase in screen effects by reverse V-shaped center. On the other hand, the scheme allows aircraft to use large diameter screw air -1.76 m (only 2.4 times less than the magnitude of the wing). Good layout contributed, in addition, cylinder air-cooled engine with a top location of the screw shaft. Fuselage, which has a maximum width of 0.6 metres all, a continuation of a flat engine bonnet. Almost immediately following the pilot's cabin lantern moved in with the arrow clavicle tselnopovorotnym T-shaped stabilizer. Rule lines in the lower part was made in the form of the tail fuselage fairing and the tail wheel. It was located managed (along with the steering wheel turning-) wheel. The plane was built in 1958, mostly by students in the laboratory of the department of design and construction of aircraft.

There were manufactured motor design, produvochnye model and the model for testing. The plane had a small dimensions: wingspan - 4 m length of the aircraft - 4.05 m. Engine - chetyrehtsilindrovy "Walter-Minor" at PS 105 (77.2 kW). Chassis neubiraemoe, in the small radomes. For the first time it was used T-shape of feathers in combination with the keel and arrow with tselnopovorotnym stabilizer. Many years later they became widely used in the airframe and transport planes.

Prior to flight test case does not arrive, as well as aircraft, unfortunately, was not completely built.

Airplane MAI-58 - good example minimize lightweight aircraft that appears to be a large common in recent years (especially after the series aircraft built VD-5). In addition, the aircraft had good prospects for subsequent modifications (the take-off mass in the 500 kg). To do this, the designers opted for an aircraft engine, had a number of versions: 140, 160, 180 and 210 hp (103, 118, 134, 154.5 kW). These motors unified mounting nodes and a small increase masses differed only boost the application, direct fuel injection and an increase in the number of cylinders (up to six).

Light sport aircraft MAI-62 (Fig. 315) was designed and built in 1961-1962 he was. Authors construction - students V. Rytsarev, I. Avdoshin, V. Pushkin, O. Tyshchenko. Leading designer - AI Petsuh. The plane was developed jointly with aviasportklubom MAI. It was carried out through a "flying wing", with the arrow and the center console of diamond shape. Since designing the rear edge center has been the reverse, the maximum it was quite a big curve - 4 m. This led to the expectation of good airstrips characteristics from the influence of the proximity of land. U-62 aircraft MAI was quite original form wing in the plan, which, as recent investigations have shown, for a wide-ranging flight characteristics of an aircraft. Integrated circuit layout (an example of which is the MAI-62) is now universally recognized and is widely used.

Fig. 315. MAI-62 Airplane

To improve longitudinal stability airframe designers used arrow console, which ends at the helm installed height, which is considerably (up to 3.5 m) increased the horizontal shoulder of feathers.

In place of docking with the center-consoles were installed basic chassis supports, closed fairing. By the end hordam consoles plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis tilt steering fastened horizontal surface - handlebar height. At the rear edge of the console between the handlebar height and chassis were fairing aileron.

Vertical plane of feathers did not have. Longitudinal managing it as a normal aircraft. It was assumed that the improvement will contribute to the sustainability of the travel engine pylon, had, together with a large enough surface of the hood. Manageability provided steering track surface, which served as rudders height (deviation above and below) and can simultaneously urea (like flap like "Crocodile"). By clicking on the surface of the left pedal on the left steering console rasscheplyalis, increasing aerodynamic drag, and the plane razvorachivalsya left. In neutral steering pedals surface has been tightly compressed without violating the original profile rudders Heights.

The plane had neubiraemoe three chassis with a front wheel. In the bow of the center has hosted a closed cabin lantern pilot. The torch was transferred to the cabin combined pylon-hood engine propeller pushing dvuhlopastnym of duralumin. At the hub of Coca set screws. The plane had a clean aerodynamic forms, was made of wood with the use of duralumin, was relatively small size. Engine "Hirt, cylinder, air-cooled, 80 hp power (58.8 kW). The plane experienced AI Petsuh in 1965 and have been run podlety engine worked unstable, highly peregrevalsya, especially at low speeds, because there was no forced ventilation air flow propeller.

Fig. 316. Planer MAI-63

MAI-63M glider. In 1963, students MAI B. Pushkin, V. Rytsarev, G. Bespalov, E. Vasiliev and other under the guidance of AI Petsuha designed and built single-sailplane paritel MAI-63 tselnometallicheskoy construction of a "flying wing". He had shaped center console and arrow large elongation (Figure 316), the estimated maximum aerodynamic quality - 35 at a speed reduction 0.61 m / s respectively. Tests at podletov runs and held AI Petsuh in aerosportklube in Alfereve MAI in 1964

In 1965 MAI-63 was modified glider in the MAI-63M. Over at the center pylon, boiled steel pipes, installed VP-760 engine. Tests conducted at the airport sailplane aerokluba DOSAAF in Chertanove AI Petsuh. The engine worked fragile. Not glider flew: podlety and were run.

They HAI

KhAI-17. The first post-war flying aircraft Kharkiv aviation institute became HAI-17. In 1957 a group of students, which decided on its own to design and build a small sports plane, organized the club, which led VV Reshetnikov. In work on the draft aircraft provided assistance to students associate professor L. Arson. Chief Designer O.K. Antonov supported enthusiasts. The company, which he guided, highlighted the production area, where the aircraft was built and HAI-17 (Fig. 317).

KhAI-17 - single cantilever nizkoplan. Motorcycle engine F-61K capacity of 30 hp (22 kW) located outside the cab driver and was fitted with a screw air chetyrehlopastnym variable step. The waste part of the fuselage beam construction. Chassis three.

In spring 1959, HAI-17 was raised in the air VV Reshetnikov. The tests showed that with the mass flight 352 148 2300 m.

The work of students going tradition 1930 - ies. Proved very necessary. The Council instructed the Institute associate professor PV Dybskomu organize HAI Student Design Bureau (SDB). Under the leadership of V. Reshetnikova - the first chief and chief designer SKB - were designed "Regulations" and "Charter" SKB HAI. In May 1959, the first in Ukraine SKB began its work. Ten students, participants in the design and construction of an aircraft HAI-17, received the Medal for the best scientific work student USSR. "

KhAI-18. In 1960, under the leadership of V. Reshetnikova in SKB HAI was started designing a double training aircraft HAI-18. Outwardly HAI-18 resemblance to its predecessor HAI-17. This cantilever with a low-wing monoplane large extent, pushing propeller and tricycle landing gear. Base material - wood. Places student and instructor stationed on each other. Managing double. It was assumed that with the motor cycle engine power of 50 hp (36.8 kW) HAI-18 will be the speed of 210 km / h ceiling 4250 metres and the mass flight of about 500 kg.

In 1962, a detailed project designed HAI-18 was handed over to one of aviazavodov, but has not been built.

In the work on the project, students participated Gaydachuk V., A. Kurilin, V. Leibow, S. Reshetnikova, L. Starikov, etc. They also began to manufacture aircraft at the aircraft, but due to lack of engine, it was decided to redesign existing aircraft under M-332 engine.

Fig. 317. Airplane HAI-17 (a) and (b) scheme

KhAI-19 - the second plane, built in the SKB (Figure 318). Designing and building it had been implemented for three months in 1961, Chief Designer - Head SKB VV Reshetnikov. We students have participated B. Zaslavsky, Gotenkov S., A. Sazonkin, V. Lyushnin, S. Reshetnikova, etc. The first test flight at HAI-19 fulfilled VV Reshetnikov.

Fig. 318. Airplane HAI-19 (a) and (b) scheme

After several successful flights in 1962-1963 he was. aircraft shown at the Exhibition of excellence Ukrainian SSR.

KhAI-19 - single cantilever nizkoplan tselno-wood construction. With its construction aggregates used crashed HAI-17.

Truss fuselage with a rounded upper fairing. Wing - odnolonzheronnoe with plywood boots - zakrylkami equipped with a slot type. Sheathing wing linen. Motorcycle engine M-16K equipped with a pressure regulator and an air chetyrehlopastnym propeller. Chassis managed to bow three-wheel. Track chassis 1.2 m base - 1.7 m.

KhAI-20 - next work SKB HAI. The aircraft was designed in 1963 Major designers and managers work - VP Lyushnin and VV Reshetnikov. Above the creation of aircraft operated Gaydachuk V., A. Gontar, A. Olefer, L. Starikov, G. Chub, A. Pilnyak, S. Reshetnikova, etc.

Based HAI-20 aircraft (Figure 319) was taken as a double draft HAI-18, which was redesigned in single engine F-332.

KhAI-20 - cantilever with a low-wing monoplane, pushing propeller and tricycle nose landing gear. The basic material - wood, used as plastic and metal.

Semi-fuselage design. In the front part - the pilot's cabin with removable lantern. And center fuselage is a single entity.

A wing consists of a trapezoidal shape and center consoles. Removable odnolonzheronnoy console design with a torque working styles and polotnyanoy plywood sheathing. These constructions are the same for the tail of feathers and all steering surface. Dvuhlonzheronny center, fully painted plywood. Flap gap located at the center and consoles. Ailerons with aerodynamic compensation.

The aircraft installed aviation engine M-332 (CSSR), chetyrehtsilindrovy, cylinder, air-cooled, 140 hp maximum power (103 kW). Engine secured to the fuselage in the vicinity of the carcass center. Vint pushing, the metal changed step, the reverse.

The Office of mixed aircraft. Rucka management and pedals are connected with the steering traction surfaces and cables. Office zakrylkami wire. Pedals through three additional traction and turning associated with the nasal backbone chassis.

Fig. 319. Airplane HAI-20 (a) and (b) scheme

In autumn 1967, HAI-20 has a cycle factory tests. The first plane lifted into the air, one of its founders G. Chub. The test flight took place at an altitude of up to 300 metres, confirmed the estimates. Overall raid on the HAI-20 was 15 h.


The plane "RIIGA-1. One of the first student works Riga Institute of Civil Aviation was an easy flight "RIIGA-1 (Fig. 320), which he built in 1961-1964. Muhamedovym students F., G. Ivanov, A. and V. Lesikovym Prishlyukom.

Developed a draft sketch F. Mukhamedov. Advise students and assist them in the institute faculty member DP Osokin. The plane was made on the scheme midwing. His feature was used in the construction of finished units and units of serial gliders. This has resulted in a relatively easy way to create a production environment institute easy, reliable and well-done design.

The plane had a wing odnolonzheronnoe wooden wing with plywood sheathing, with intertseptorami and hanging gap zakrylkami to improve take-off and landing characteristics. The tail of feathers as usual pattern with a wooden tselnopovorotnym keel, obtyanuto linens. Chassis tricycle with a rear pillar, without depreciation. Front pyramid-shaped poles, steel pipes. Fuselage lattice, hromansilevyh of welded pipes, had semicircular wooden gargrot. In the middle of the fuselage, for the pilot's cabin, installed fuel tank at 22 litres. Sheathing linen (min), tight on longitudinal wooden stringers. They not only kept sheeting, but also faired attached to the fuselage.

Cockpit pilots closed equipped with a complement of navigational aids and appliances control the operation of the engine. The torch of organic glass thickness of 3 mm.

Amateur designers calculated under his car several types of domestic motorcycle engines - M-61K, F-62 and K-750 output of 26 ... 30 hp (19 ... 22 kW). To enhance performance, they screw gear reducer with the number 2.3. The maximum number of revolutions per minute is reduced to 2100. Corpus cast gears, shafts of steel vytocheny ZOGSA brands.

Air screw diameter of 1.6 m and 0.7 m relative step is made of ash. Thrust on the ground - 70 kgs (700 N).

ANT shown in 1965, at student exhibitions held ground test: run, poddety, but no flights were made primarily because of the bans on flights amateur designs. During one of the runs in 1966 were damaged chassis.

While working on this first in the Construction RIIGA formed initiative group of students. She was supported by faculty (KD Mirtovym, VE Kastorskim, DP Osokinym etc.). In 1964, it was established RIIGA Student Design Bureau. In SKB were built aircraft, autogyros, live-copy aircraft Ilya Muromets "aids and air cushion.

ANT "Dushanbe." Interestingly, the authors aircraft RIIGA-1 "Mukhamedov F. and G. Ivanov before income to the institute, as schoolchildren senior classes, he built in 1958-1960. seat in the city of Dushanbe. ANT was named Dushanbe. " Built and designed it was in the House of urban pioneers. But Muhamedovym F. and G. B. Ivanov built its Pashkov, Vladimir Kozhin, N. Alekseev.

Sketch project and the construction of the aircraft were developed F. Muhamedovym. Starting aviakonstruktoram helped pilot and designer-planerist N. Lavrinenko.

ANT "Dushanbe (Fig. 321) performed on the classical scheme tselnoderevyannaya construction. Basic materials: aviation pine and plywood. Chassis tricycle, truss. The cockpit is equipped with pilot's navigational equipment. Technologically ANT all units have been implemented strictly and accurately (affected by the experience and qualifications of its builders-avtomodelistov).

Fig. 320. The plane "RIIGA-1 (a) and (b) scheme

Fig. 321. ANT "Dushanbe"

The power plant - chetyrehtsilindrovy piston engine cooling air "Tsundap" power - 50 hp (36.8 kW). Two Air screw, wood, 1.2 m in diameter, developed static cravings 90 ... 100 kgs (900 ... 1000 N).

Tests conducted N. Lavrinenko. It was performed several flights. Razgonyalas light quickly, easily gained altitude steadily flew at a speed of 150 ... 160 km / h. The tests were stopped because of problems in the engine and aircraft accident in turn at low altitude.

Glider "RIIGA-2 (Record). Designed and built in SKB RIIGA he was in 1963-1965. for training flights, as well as for setting the record for the flight range of piston aircraft category 2 on the International Classification of sport aircraft (flight mass of 500 kg ... 1000) (Figure 322).

The authors of the draft sketch and design - F. Mukhamedov, G. and B. Ivanov Prishlyuk - for the foundation took aerobatic sailplane A DB-13 OK Antonova. It was designed and constructed a new mid-section of fuselage with the pilot and cabin located in the bow of the piston-engine M-332 power 105 hp (77.2 kW).

Fig. 322. The scheme sailplane "RIIGA-2"

Fig. 323. The plane "RIIGA-3 (a) and (b) scheme

When takeoff weight of 950 kg and 600 kg weight of the fuel design sailplane flight was about 5500 km. It was produced live demonstration model. The tests were not conducted.

Tourist plane "RIIGA-3 (Fig. 323). Designed and built in 1965-1967 he was. The authors sketch the project and construction - students 5 - and 6 - of course F. Mukhamedov, Schavinsky R., M. Zarutsky.

It was one of the first attempts at creating student KB aircraft Touring class. The plane was spacious and comfortable cabin chetyrehmestnuyu twinned shturvalnoe management. We used units, units and the installation of the serial Czechoslovak aircraft Aero-145. Engine cooling air M-332 power 140 hp (102.9 kW). Estimated range 900000 m, cruising speed of 180 km / h.

The plane was built, but not before testing it brought.

Voronezh Aircraft students aviatehnikuma

In 1965, the Voronezh Aircraft College students under the direction of V. Dushutina began construction of the aircraft "Wnuk October." In amateur CB "Friendship" was attended by students 2 - rate N. Korovin, V. Stavnicky, V. Plutahin, A. et al Lyukov

The plane "Wnuk October (Fig. 324) - single cantilever monoplane - another version of" Heavenly flea A. Mine.

Dvuhlonzheronnoe front wing and rear odnolonzheronnoe - tselnometallicheskoy construction polotnyanoy plating. Engine motorcycle K-61 hp power 28 (20.6 kW).

Managing aircraft proceeded motorcycle handlebars rotation around a vertical axis: the left - right, and his movement itself - from themselves. Flying housed at the motorcycle seat and was protected Motorcyclists wind glass.

Fig. 324. Scheme aircraft Wnuk October "

The construction of the aircraft lasted three years. November 7, 1968 aircraft ready "Wnuk October" was taken at the demonstration. Details of test no.

They aviakonstruktorov amateur

The plane "Valery Chkalov. EI Zelik - in the past zatochnik Rostov plant "Red metallers" - its first flight began building along with GG CDs in 1948

About this work, designers motivated "Komsomolskaya Pravda" on September 8, 1950 in the article "winged dream" reported the following: "This story took place very recently, the place of her actions - Rostov-on-Don, the characters - two deaf boy. History could would seem incredible if it were not for letters and documents to prove that everything happened - significantly. Two years ago, Eduard Ivanovich Zelik and Georgiy Shilov decided to build the present aircraft. Guys have started the construction of the aircraft. Initially, the young designers have made the fuselage, tail and wings then of feathers. stop was for the motor. Eduardo After a long search and Georgie was able razdobyt somewhere in the city landfill has long served his motor age of the aircraft Po-2. lot of time with him smuggled guys, and finally, the motor alive. Gordym name Valery Chkalov "has been named this remarkable machine. The aircraft flew a lot.

Fig. 325. G. E. Shilov and Zelik from aircraft Valery Chkalov "

In fact, this was the first and so far only case in which designers and test pilots-two were self-deaf aircraft. It was the first post-war aircraft in the country, built by enthusiasts. "

The aircraft flew well in a double version of the engine with M-11 and a standard screw air. "Valery Chkalov (Fig. 325) - braced vysokoplan. The wing had three wires from the bottom and top of the fuselage was installed rack, consisting of four pipes, which fastened to the upper wing bracing. For beginners aviakonstruktorov establishment of the aircraft was an outstanding achievement.

Subsequently E.I. Zelik airsleigh built, the boat and two cars, one of which served particularly long. There was even a helicopter of its own design.

Portfolio YA.A. Artemchuka. Yakov Artemchuk, provoevav pulemetchikom entire war, in 1947 demobilizovalsya fit to combatant service. In 1953 a resident of Zhitomir J. Artemchuk built his first plane, which resembles the construction of a future aircraft zlatoustovsky "The Kid". It was the single vysokoplan with podkosnym wing and the classic of feathers.

Unfortunately, the lack of any aerial skills led to the failure of the aircraft in the first test flight. Tested aircraft designer himself. Master of all hands, Ya built airsleigh Artemchuk, a car-amphibians, vetroelektrostantsiyu, avtozhir, and in 1970-1980 he was. Several aircraft, which have good performance. In this work he helped sons Basil and Nicholas.

Airplane MG Lyakhova (Figure 326). Sculptor Education, MG Lyakhov built in 1961 for the first nine months of its aircraft, which he called "Vintolet."

The wing aircraft, which in the form of disk, expected to make a folding-type fans. And individual sectors were invested in each other. Moreover, in terms of disk wing was designed to secure low landing speed and sustainability of the flight at high angles of attack.

In the central part of the disk was made annular channel, which revolved two coaxial air screw. Screws using a chain transfer cited in the movement of two motorcycle engines M-72 air cooling.

Wing wooden structure with polotnyanoy plating. Polotno permeates composition, which MG Lyakhov developed independently. The composition consisted of aviamasla, varnishes, solvent and stearina.

Aileron served central sectors rotary wing, the tail of feathers cross pattern.

Flight aircraft weight 300 kg with a length of 6 m. Width with folded wings disk 2 m. So folded wing Vintolet "can move on the highway as the car that three-chassis with a front wheel. Wheels motorcycle, brake.

Fig. 326. Airplane M. Lyakhova (a) and (b) scheme

TsAGI specialists who are interested in the work of MG Lyakhova, advised air turning the screws do. In this case, the screws installed in a horizontal plane in the ring channel, with the power of the motors could provide "Vintoletu" vertical take-off and landing.

Airplane V. Bogomolov. In the city of Grozny V. Bogomolov built in 1961, one of the smallest aircraft in the world (Figure 327). The plane had landing gear with the tail wheel. At the front wing motors located 6 hp motor power pulling air with a propeller. Wingspan 3.5 m, 2.3 m length of the aircraft, the mass construction of 29 kg. Mnogoschelevoe wing, which ensured the creation of a large lift force at high angles of attack. During the flight pilot lying that reduced the resistance by allowing dispense with the fuselage and to the smallest size of aircraft. The tail of feathers V-shaped, its helm served simultaneously as ailerons, rudders direction and altitude. The Office has one handle.

Fig. 327. Airplane V. Bogomolov

The plane experienced designer himself, using the hill slope to disperse. V. Bogomolov tore from the ground and flying at avietke kilometers at an altitude of more than 2 m. The plane was stable in flight. The minimum speed was only 40 km / h because of multislot wing.

The plane "Leningradets." Built Tatsiturnovym V., and L. L. Kostin Sekirinym. Q fabrication drawings they started in April 1961, a year after the machine was ready for testing. After jogging and some dodelok Lew Costin performed its first podlet. First flight circled Valery Tatsiturnov fulfilled.

"Leningrad" (Figure 328) - podkosny vysokoplan single. Mixed fuselage design, painted plywood thickness of 1 mm 2 .... In the bow of the fuselage had a metal farm, formed hromansilevymi 20 mm diameter pipes. Podmotornaya frame mounted from the same pipe diameter of 25 mm.

Fig. 328. The plane "Leningradets (a) and (b) scheme

Kiel, and gargrot forkil entirely filled with foam plastic and silk cloth. Cab zasteklena plexiglass.

Wing dvuhlonzheronnoe, mostly wooden structure. Fermennye rib thick strips of pine 10 ... 15 mm. Duralyuminovyh wing struts of the pipe diameter of 34 mm. Ending wing from foam.

Structures stabilizer, rudder height and direction - are the same as in the wings. All of curvature of feathers, as well as socks rudders entirely filled with foam plastic and silk cloth.

The chassis of the usual pattern, with a tail wheel. The main pillar of oil-pneumatic shock absorption. Coles size 135 ... 350 mm, without brakes. Fluency orientiruyuscheesya rear wheel is equipped with a rubber additional depreciation. Air screw wooden, FLIR, a diameter of 1600 mm, a relative step - 0.6.

The aircraft was quite a few long-duration flights. One took place at an altitude of 2000 m. During the testing was reached the highest speed - 160 km / h.

"Leningradets" flew about 20 h. It flew pilots, instructors and pilots aerokluba Aeroflot. "Even in this form, as it is, without fixes, I dare put it on the world record" - speaking of "Leningradtse" master of sports V. Shakulin.

In late October 1962 at the airport DOSAAF under Lenin hail-AA Baluyev implemented an extensive programme of tests, flying four hours. With the new air screw AA Baluyev served to "Leningradtse" aerobatics figures higher.

Unfortunately, no permission to re-establish the world's cords or authorization for further flights had been received. In one of the flight because of violations airmen technology piloting aircraft crashed.

They M. Artyomov. The first flight M. Artemova (without names), was built in 1962 in the village of Sartas Turkmen SSR. At manufacturing fuselage has been used an old cupboard, and were adapted to the chassis wheel of the motorcycle. Svobodonesuschy single monoplane A. Artyomov tore from the ground to disperse from the mountain and flying only about 50 m. The next flight of Sputnik could already fly several kilo-meters. Subsequently, M. Artemov built several new aircraft with excellent performance and technical data.

The plane "Zhuverda." In Silute (Lithuanian SSR) in 1961 aviakonstruktorov amateur team under the leadership of the pilot-instructor aerokluba B. Kensgayla mikrosamolet decided to create, on the basis of some units serial airframe A-2.

The designers found it possible to use the aircraft for the future of the motorcycle engine dvuhtsilindrovy M-72 output of 22 hp (16.2 kW). For optimal operation of the engine with an air screw diameter of 1.7 m were installed on engine gearbox, limiting the maximum number of revolutions per minute until 2700.

"Zhuverda" - single podkosny vysokoplan wooden structure with plywood sheathing and linens. The plane had a reinforced rear beam with a triangular cross-section of feathers vertical and horizontal reinforced podkosami and cable wires. The chassis of the aircraft pyramid of steel pipes. Supports chassis to depreciation, the wheels of a bike "Vyatka". The waste reliance wheel, the wheel of cast-soft rubber.

PetrolTank 20 litres capacity has been installed in the center. The fuel to the engine filed by gravity.

The cockpit aircraft closed with a door on the right side. On the dashboard establish basic flight instruments and tachometer.

The plane was set up for six months. Stroili its winter and spring and summer of 1961, "Zhuverda" (translated from the Lithuanian - gull) committed their first flights. The aircraft flew a lot. The plane had good stability and control and for a pretty large low-speed vertical planes -2.5 m / s.

Glider "Lithuanian pioneer." In late 1962, and S. P. Laurenchikas Norejko, students Kaunas Polytechnic Institute, built a glider for self-learning and soaring flights of autonomous take-off. The basic construction was adopted serial KAI-12 airframe. He worked in the city Panevezhisa glider club. For sailplane was used dvuhtsilindrovy engine of the motorcycle "Irbit capacity of 30 hp (22 kW) with pushing air propeller mounted on a frame above the center-underframe. The main fuel tank capacity of 1.4 litres was in the fuselage on the engine. In the bow of the airframe installed additional reliance on the wheel. The engine gearbox had to reduce the number of revolutions per minute to 2000. 1.4 m diameter propeller

In late August 1964 glider "Lithuanian pioneer" performed its first flight. Flights were conducted in the zone of the airfield at a height of 30 m in a single form. Then P. S. Noreiko Laurenchikas and flew together. Flying and other pilots. He was executed in flight from Panevezhisa Shyaduvu to a distance of 40 km from the three plantations. Back from Shyaduvu in Panevezys, flight was carried out at an altitude of 700 m without landing. In 1964, "Lithuanian pioneer" flew 3 h, constituting more than 20 flights. Glider was simple in administration, had the vertical velocity of 2 m / s and long run (the two pilots) 200 m.

Baluevyh works. Flying Agafonovich Anatoly Baluyev, master of sports of the USSR, member team for Higher aerobatics in 1962, studied more than 36 types of aircraft and helicopters.

In 1964, in Yaroslavl A. Baluyev organized aviakonstruktorov enthusiastic group, which has built two light aircraft. The group included AI Tarakanov, AP Petukhov, I. Savatenkov, V. Baluyev, V. Golovkov, etc.

Ibid was built one of the first of our trike. VN designed trike Efremov. Based on the project took the device with a flexible scheme Rogallo wing of flights which were reported in the foreign press. Carcas apparatus made of wooden pipes on the following technologies: long wooden piles along raspilili into two halves, each half hollowed inside, and then skleili. As a result got thick wooden pipe. At collected from pipes carcass hauled prorezinennuyu tissue. Success flexible wing deltavidnoy forms in the plan. Under the wing set mototelezhku axle with the pilot's seat and air-cooled engine of the motorcycle "Izh-PLANETA capacity of 15 hp (11 kW) with pushing air screw. The aircraft called the "Achilles'.

In 1964, the glider has suffered A. Baluev. Has been run. During the height Kuiluu at 7 ... 8 m discovered that winged "Achilles' heel was its fifth. Poor design of a place - a small frame stiffness caused by the lack of masts and the insufficient number of cable stretch. In sharp increase in flight loads distorted by heavy frame, lost the management apparatus of provisaniya ropes, and then dropped from the loss of speed. Trike not restored. Mototelezhka set on the ski chassis was used as airsleigh winter, the maximum speed was about 100 km / h.

Fig. 329. The plane "The Kid"

Second light apparatus on the scheme was designed trike vysokoplana wooden structure. The papers involved VN Efremov students and senior classes AT. Baluyev and VP Kondratiev, later author of several sports planes.

The plane "The Kid". Mikrosamolet "The Kid" (Figure 329) designed and constructed under the direction of Zlatoust Chapter Komarova aviamodelistami Palace of Pioneers. On the design and construction of the aircraft lasted about two years. In March 1964, "The Kid" zlatoustovskogo transported to the ice pond, on April 12 was the first plane flight. Until January 1968 "The Kid" has committed several hundred flights a total length of 235 h. In good condition airplane passed Regional Museum in the city.

Welcome address the creators of "The Kid" is sent by General Designer OK Antonov. "Without rebates - Oleg wrote - you can say that the creation of such an aircraft - a large creative fortunate not only for you but also for any designer!"

"The Kid" - single podkosny vysokoplan. The design of the aircraft tselnoderevyannaya, lining of thin plywood and linens.

Especially for "The Kid" was designed and constructed two-piston engine LC-2. MG had a wooden screw diameter of 1.4 m.

- Truss fuselage was braced. All part of his nose to the pilot's cabin inclusive lined plywood. In a cabin set rate, height, turning and sliding, variometer. Wiring of levers to control the rudders - cable, and by the aileron - mixed.

The chassis of a "kid" ski. The flights were carried out only in winter with snow cover zlatoustovskogo pond.

Razemnoe wing in the center with a constant in size and width of the pie smooth curves. Profiles - Clark-Y - had a relative thickness of 11.7%. Construction odnolonzheronnaya wing. Wing fastened to the top of the fuselage pylon of the steel pipes. Kiel made at the same time with the tail part of the fuselage. Fixing stabilizer to the fuselage allow adjustment of the angle of installation.

In "The Kid" committed flights longer than 1 h with the wind speed up to 10 m / s. Estimated 3800 m ceiling, but at such an altitude flights have not been implemented. Maximum speed - 180 km / h - met with steep planning, clear of the land speed of 60 km / h speed horizontal flight 130 km / h.

The plane "Aist". In the House of Pioneers city Lysva Perm region in 1964 was organized by young Gliding Club. Vladimir Vyugov organized circle, returning from service in the Navy. A young gliding, otremontirovavshih old sailplane BRO-9 and flyed whole year on it, the idea was born to create a plane of its own design.

The plane was designed and built under the guidance of VK Vyugova. Under the wing odnolonzheronnoe wing of the wooden construction of the airframe BRO-9 fuselage was designed with the tail of feathers and tricycle landing gear with a tail wheel. The front chassis-reliance spring depreciation, took the wheel of a bike "Vyatka". Wing fastened on the fuselage on the anvil of the six longitudinal steel pipes and wooden beams box section.

The cockpit airplane open, with a slight wind glass. Fuselage wooden constructions in the upper part had gargrot oval cross section. Normal pattern of feathers aircraft reinforced podkosami.

Aircraft cabin, which was named "Aist" (Figure 330), equipped pointer speed, altimeter, variometrom, compass, tachometer, indicator trehstrelochnym control operation of the engine and a voltmeter. It was a place for the radio station. The aircraft installed five air-cooled engine VP-760 Construction VV Polyakova power of 25 hp (18.4 kW).

Fig. 330. The plane "Aist"

May 2, 1966 "Aist" made his first flight. His experienced L. Benkovsky. The plane had good stability and control. The total duration was more than three hours.

In 1967, "Aist" exhibited in Moscow at the VDNKh USSR. The plane enjoyed great popularity among visitors.

The plane "Bloch" Yevgeny Kuznetsov (Nizhny Tagil). His first flight E. Kuznetsov (with V. Yakimovym) built for two years. The plane had a wingspan of 12 m length and 6 m Chassis three. Cab closed. It remained only to install the engine, but in the fire burned aircraft. The next flight - "Bloch" - under the direction of E. Kuznetsova was built on the urban stations Nizhnetagilskoy young technicians for a year and a half.

Since November 7, 1967 plane was several hundred flights as a wheel, and with the ski chassis.

"Bloch" - podkosny vysokoplan (Figure 331) with a single open room. The wing struts of the airframe and BRO-11 aircraft of feathers Hvostovoe wooden constructions obtyanuto linens. The amount of stabilizer 2.4 m, a horizontal area of feathers 1.5 m2.

Fig. 331. The plane "Bloch"

Truss fuselage duralyuminovyh of thin-walled pipe diameter of 25 mm, rounded up by wires of steel wire diameter of 1.5 mm. Upholstering linen fuselage. Front and rear cabin wall made of duralumin, served by power fuselage frames. Connection management mainly cable, a thirst for aileron - rigid.

Chassis dvuhopornoe, pyramidal, with transverse belt; depreciation rack homemade steel. Managed crutch. Dvuhtsilindrovy engine of its own design using parts of the motorcycle engine "Izh-Jupiter" big bang, 30 hp power (22.5 kW), speed - 3000 per minute, weight - 35 kg. Capot duralyuminovy engine. Podmotornaya welded frame construction, truss, made of seamless steel pipes.

Collapsible mikrosamolet consisted of the fuselage, split wing of feathers. Transportation were dismantled in a position for a car "Moskvich".

Build (or deconstruction) aircraft carried out within 30 minutes.

Airplane MP Kolchina. Aeromodellers House of Culture in the village of Staro Parfino Russian region of Novgorod Region under the leadership of MP Kolchina built aircraft. The first four machines created by young craftsmen, adamantly did not want to fly, and only the fifth rose in the air.

Over the last fittings MP Kolchin 1960-1965 he worked. The plane, known as the "Sparrow", made on the scheme vysokoplana trike. In 1966, the aircraft experienced AA Baluyev and made it a few flights. The design of the aircraft mix - metal and wood, siding mostly linen. Construction of a wooden wing airframe BRO-11. Normal aircraft fuselage design with traditional tail of feathers. The chassis consists of a wheel (skis in the winter) and rear pillars in the form of crutches.

The aircraft, weight 195 kg, was installed capacity of 18 hp engine (13.3 kW) with pulling air screw. The plane had committed more than 10 flights, the longest of which lasted 40 minutes. At least the dashboard of flight instruments: vysotometr, symbol of speed and compass pointer heel and sliding.

The plane "Sparrow" constantly improved. It had been in different engines. Tricycle landing gear is made from the tail and backbone pyramidal front mountings. Dvuhtsilindrovym version of the engine air cooling capacity of K-750 hp 28 is shown in Fig. 332.

Fig. 332. Airplane MP Kolchina

R. Bekshty works. In the city of Siauliai Romas Bekshta created quite a number of original aircraft. Many technical solutions he implemented in the actual construction. His first in a series of devices work performed under the scheme "duck", became in 1947 glider RB-4 with an engine capacity of 4 hp (2.9 kW). Opportunities project has not been implemented.

In 1965-1966 he worked. a group of students from Kaunas Polytechnic Institute, under the leadership of Robert Bekshta engineers designed and built a single glider training.

Airplane LF Maetnyaka. Before the war, LF Maetnyak flew in the club, was an instructor planernogo sport and even then dreamed of building his plane.

The aircraft "dream" LF Maetnyak began building as far back as 1937 in the House of the pioneers of Pyatigorsk. In 1939, the plane was built, the fuselage remained tight finish, but try not had his designer, he was called into the army.

At the front after severe injuries he had three months to leave air service. After the war Maetnyak whom not only worked: painter and designer, engineer and motogonschikom in a circus. But with his dream LF Maetnyak never parted.

In 1964, LF Maetnyak began building the aircraft, later known as the UL-100, and in 1968 it tested for the first time. But these flights did not were podlety a few meters. The engine of its own design capacity of 60 hp (441.1 kW) did not provide necessary for the normal flight traction. Engine output had increased.

STR-100 - double cantilever monoplane wooden construction with a capacity of 85 hp engine (62.5 kW). LF Engine Maetnyak made himself by taking three of the aviation cylinder engine AI-14. The modified aircraft UL-100 was off mass 260 kg. Wing-back scheme for its "gull" was of the magnitude of 10 m.


Creating waving to the aircraft's wing was and remains a dream of many aviakonstruktorov motivated. From Leonardo da Vinci to O. Lilientalya fly like the idea of birds never left mankind.

Problems mashuschego wing were passionate about the famous German aerodynamics A. Lippisch and General Designer OK Antonov. In EDO O.K. Antonova in 1952 AY Manotskovym based record airframe A-9 was designed and built airframe "Kashuk (Fig. 333), the incumbent spring mashuschie wings. The amplitude of oscillation over the wing, in view of its elastic deformations exceed 4 hours

Fig. 333. The scheme airframe with waving wing Kashuk "AY Manotskova

An analysis of the test results showed that the elastic suspension increases the aerodynamic wing provides naivygodneyshuyu quality and speed planning. This especially beneficial for flights at maximum range.

Many researchers abroad dealing with mashuschego wing. American scientist Paul B. Makridis, whose muskulolet flew through the English Channel in 1979, has nearly 20 years working on a project maholeta.

A good incentive to work for inventors and designers maholetov Kramer Award is designed for the successful flight across English Channel on a wing apparatus with the waving of any kind, even without a pilot on board, manned automatically. A summary of work on maholetam in the USSR from 1951 1965 g.

Above the problem mashuschego flight worked long-fighter pilot, a participant Great Patriotic War DV Ilyin from suburban Moscow town Tayninka. He created several models maholetov. In 1958, he received a certificate for copyright maholet and then built the same maholet with muscular drive.

Staff had two flexible wing, backed tubular frame. They fastened on the back pilot. Drive mashuschih pilot wings exercised hands with the two levers.

At the same time, its built-muskulolet Serebryakov Zyabrikov of Sestroretsk Leningrad region.

In 1959, for the first time in the Soviet Union built a flying bicycle VA Boytsov of Soviet Havana. Normal bicycle was equipped with an easy-wing and tail of feathers.

At the same time experiencing a ornithopter Condor painter and sculptor MG Lyakhov. Ornithopter had the power frame, which fastened the seat pilot, low-piston engine and chassis with a bow tricycle wheel.

In 1958 in Cite Test Pilot of SA Toptygin experienced muskulolet "Ikar-1 (Fig. 334), monoplane with normal tail wings of feathers and waving. In the center of mass under the wing of the pilot was located, which is using traction and leverage resulted in the movement of the wing mashuschee enshrined tilt at the center.

Wingspan "Ikara-1" - 10.7 m, the area - 13 m2 extension -10; mass construction of 28 kg.

Fig. 334. Ornithopter "Ikar-1"

SA Toptygin improved their administration and in 1959 experienced muskulolet "Ikar-2", which he took off for the first time at an altitude of more than 1 m above the ground. Staff, as well as the previous one, had a flexible wing. Mashuschie surface in vzmahe changed the angle installation along magnitude. Mass apparatus increased by 4 kg. Extension has been increased to 12. Wingspan was 11.5 m.

And in 1962 SA Toptygin experienced muskulolet "Ikar-3" with the increased up to 15 m2 area of the wing. Kinematic scheme has been improved drive mashuschego wing. At the ends of wing joints fastened by means of flexible console with the scope of the 2.5 m, had increased by half angle of deviation compared to the central part mashuschego wing.

Some designers amateur built aircraft motor with waving wings.

In 1963, at the airport tested Tuszynski maholet SHA-1 AV Shiukova and VM Andreyev. To drive mashuschego wing maholet had engine of the motorcycle Java-350, "which was estimated to provide apparatus takeoff weight of 400 kg. Ornithopter SHA-1 experienced member of the USSR on Higher aerobatics master of sports AA Baluev.

This was not the first famous aviator construction, aviation specialist Vozduhoflota former chief of the Moscow Military District, krasvoenleta AV Shiukova. A first maholet with muscular drive he built back in 1908 in Tbilisi, as a grammar school pupil.

DV Ilyin of the Moscow region in 1960 after maholeta with muscular motor drive built maholet motorcycle driven by the engine. At the same time, maholet engine designed and built NG Podsadnik from Moscow.

Renowned pilot, designer, inventor I. Vinogradov, the author of several popular light aircraft and in 1950 - ies. Paper birds Aerodynamics-pariteley ", a well-known aviakonstruktoram enthusiasts and builders are under the acronym maholetov IN.

Vinogradov has received more than a dozen copyright certificates for inventions in the area of aircraft with waving wings (to the flexible wing, Schneider turbines, etc.).

In 1962, I.N. Vinogradov developed the project with a double maholeta 150 hp engine power (110.3 kW) and the hydraulically driven mashuschego wing. For maholeta be used five air-cooled engine M-11.

Under the leadership of I. Vinogradova in Riga in SKB RIIGA he was in 1965-1966. drafted maholeta "Mahotsiklet with 5 hp engine power (3.7 kW). Wing "Mahotsikleta" performed two sections. It had a feather ending. Wing span was 6.8 meters, wing area - 10.4 m2. The basis of design "Mahotsikleta" moped was "Riga-5. For stability in the moped set to run two strongholds side wheel. Moped engine has been boosted to 5 hp (3.7 kW). Works for the creation of "Mahotsikleta not been completed. At a design copyright certificate was issued.

In 1962-1965 he worked. at one of the chairs MAI student NV Voloshin organized experimental work on mashuschego flight. Panel to study mashuschy flight, which included Tsygankov B., and A. A. Mokrous Abrosimov, has developed a working maholeta MK-1 and the draft maholeta based on the airframe with a standard 24 hp engine power On the basis of experimental data on a model designed OREM-4 motor pumps ornithopter muscular type with a capacity of 3 hp motor

The calculation confirmed the feasibility of the airframe at the end mashuschih wings, which are included in the motion, muscular force pilot. Develop muskuloletov wing waving from a quarter century been a resident of Riga OK Germanis. He had no special education and built their maholety, relying on intuition. First maholet OG Germanis built in 1961, then he was in 1965-1986. maholeta built modification (without substantial changes). Construction maholeta made of wood and blue synthetic film (such as polyethylene), the fuselage rectangular shape. Pilot located horizontally and with the help of instruments resulted in mashuschee wing of the movement, enshrined in the power tilt fuselage frames. Of feathers consisted only of tselnopovorotnogo stabilizer.

Ornithopter was built in the urban apartment. Mass construction maholeta 32 kg. Before the test was not brought maholet.

And there you have it.

please,does anyone know the MAI-56 and MAI-68 ?.


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Incredible pictures,

thank you my dear Redstar very much.


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It is the experimental glider Gremyatsky-MAI "Diskoplan" designed by Anatoly Gremyatsky and build by the MAI's students in 1968. The glider was flown by its designer in 1969, both with landing gear with wheels or skids.
A powered version was also studied but not built (I am wondering if more information on that powered version are available ::) ).
Also from Aerosvet International 01,

here is the MAI Grach-4 hig-wing pusher agricultural aircraft project,with very strange


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The Grach-4 is very interesting and the first time I have seen a tailless configuration for an agricultural aircraft.

The article appears to continue on a following page. I would appreciate it if you could post the rest of the article.


Hi Richard N,

the next page is related to Yugoslavia YU-AG aircraft,and I will send it in its topic.
I would appreciate it if one of our Russian readers could translate the text from the Grach-4 illustration into English. I am very interested in what is being noted about the unusual multi segment elevator.




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The red circled part says....

Trimmer Rudder


Trimmer Elevator
The second image:

1 - Jet
2 - Supply pipe
3 - Bracket
4 - Tank (Chemicals)
5 - Control devices
6 - Control lever system
7 - Control lever system
8 - The wing drive system
9 - Pump
10 - Filter
11 - An emergency drain for chemicals

I'm not a native speaker so this may be subject to some corrections!
From reply post #2 :

The plane "RIIGA-1. One of the first student works Riga Institute of Civil Aviation was an easy flight " RIIGA-1 (Fig. 320), which he built in 1961-1964.

This type is described in the Krilya Rodiny magazine issue 1966 (05) as part of a two page article.


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I have more MAI-407 material here:

MAI-407 multi-purpose four-seat twin engine airplane has been designed according to AP—23 Aviation Rule requirements, analog of European CS—23 and American FAR—23.

In addition, while designing the following features were put to airplane concept:
  • spacious cabin allowing to house a crew and passengers dressed in winter clothes but herewith all the rest is achievement of maximum aerodynamic efficiency: a cantilever wing, retractable landing gear, etc.;
  • boarding and deboarding comfort: four car-type doors, the cabin floor height demanding neither step-ladders nor footboard;
  • ability to operate from unprepared runway as well as to have ski or float-type landing gear mounted;
  • proven, including testing in Russia, engine with a qualified dealer accompaniment;
  • efficient ventilation and heating systems.
MAI-407 airplane application may be promising in the following fields:
  • air transportation;
  • initial training and professional selection of pilot personnel;
  • oil and gas pipeline, power lines, forest tract, water reservoirs, etc. air patrol;
  • aerial photographing, instrument monitoring;
  • air tourism.
An important feature is an ability of a multi-purpose single-type airplane employment for all the above tasks. This is provided by a reasonable combination of conflicting factors:
  • maximum cruise and minimum landing speeds;
  • easy flying and sufficient maneuverability;
  • long range and ability of landing on unprepared runways.
Besides the afore-said, there are other distinguishing features:
  • operation by cheap and available (e.g., automotive) fuels and lubricants;
  • fuel consumption compared with that of a car;
  • manufacturability and series-production worthiness;
  • competitive cost.

The standard crew and passenger seating is side-by-side in two rows. The cabin height is 1220 mm, crew and passenger seating area width is 1275 mm, which provides comfortable conditions of housing the people dressed in winter clothes. Seat pitch is 1060 mm. This allows to have the backs of the front seat row reclined 25˚ with no damage for those passengers who take seats in the back row. The backs of an aft row can also recline 25˚ that allows long flight duration tolerance with no painful tiredness.

The cabin has ventilation and heating systems efficient within the whole range of operating conditions (-25...+40˚C). The luggage section is located behind the backs of the 2nd row seats.

A vertical tail includes a fin integrated with a fuselage, and a rudder.

A horizontal tail comprises a cantilever stabilizer and an elevator. Both stabilizer and an elevator are made one-piece tailplane by span, which lowers the weight and improves efficiency.

Airplane have a tricycle retractable landing gear with a nose wheel. Large diameter wheels (445 mm) are applied. Landing gear have gas-liquid shock-absorbers. In nose leg compressing the wheel travels into an open well for its retraction that allowed to decrease a landing height of the cabin floor from the ground and herewith employ a wheel of a large diameter. The airplane has an ability of a float-type and ski landing gear mounted.

A power plant includes two ROTAX 912S piston engines closed in engine nacelles and located on the wing symmetrically to the fuselage. The main fuel tanks are in the center-wing section. Additional (ferry) fuel tanks are possible to install in the outer wing plane.

The airplane is of a double control. A pilot's seat is on the left.

The control consists of mini-handles and pedal posts.

For airplane control convenience the pilots' seats have an adjustment ability.

The airplane is fitted with a full set of up-to-date navigation equipment to provide for instrument flight rule requirements.

Author of design: N. Goryunov, V. Demin, V. Luchak, S. Svinin

Head of project: V. Demin.

Senior Design Engineer: V. Luchak.

The beginning of designing: 2008
The end of designimg: 2010

The prospective supplier of the plane — REMZ-Avia company.
Total wing area, sq. m2 14.3
Wing span, m 11.4
Wing aspect ratio 9.1
Wing profile GA(W)-1
Fuselage height, m 1.48
Fuselage width, m 1.28
Fuselage length, m 7.75
Parking height, m 2.73
Landing gear base, m 2.12
Wheel track, m 1.90
Wheels, mm Ø445x160
Engine number, pcs 2
Engine type Rotax 912S, 100 h. p.
Max takeoff weight, kg 1250
Useful load, kg 325
Passenger capacity, man 3
Crew, man 1
Maximum speed of level flight, km/h 290
Maximum cruising speed, km/h 270
Maximum rate-of-climb, m/s 6
Maximum cruising altitude, m up to 3000
Maximum payload range, km 1500
Take-off run, m 150
Take-off distance, m 400
Landing run, m 180
Landing distance, m 400


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here is a MAI project called Maholeta or Maholet,I spoke about it before,and a Model to test it,also there
is a project of medium transport aircraft.

Техника молодежи 2015-09


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"Makholyet" seems to be a coined word for a flapping-wing aircraft — as opposed to "samolyet" (aircraft) or "vertolyet" (helicopter).
Skyblazer said:
"Makholyet" seems to be a coined word for a flapping-wing aircraft — as opposed to "samolyet" (aircraft) or "vertolyet" (helicopter).

Thank you Skyblazer.
From kryl'ya Rodine 8/2005,

here is a MAI B2M light aircraft drawing.


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the aircraft which we spoke about it before called MAI-405;,22411.0.html


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The caption on the experimental pusher 405 design, above, reads MAL-405 (МАЛ 405) - are we sure this is a Moscow Aviation Institute design?

(I can't access the URL - its unavailable)
Cy-27 said:
The caption on the experimental pusher 405 design, above, reads MAL-405 (МАЛ 405) - are we sure this is a Moscow Aviation Institute design?

Very true, this! Can't believe it slipped my attention. However, when you read the text, it talks about a technical proposal for an "experimental aircraft for long-haul non-stop flight without refueling" designed at Moscow Aviation Institute. Powered by D-11 diesel aviation engines, [it would be] capable of circumnavigating the globe at the equator in less than 12 days." So my opinion is that "MAL-405" was probably a typo for MAI-405, a designation which fits nicely in the institute's numbering system.

The text can be found on pages 205/206 of the Russian children's book I perceive the world: Aviation and Aeronautics by Stanislav N. Zigunenko:
Skyblazer, many thanks for the alternate source for the article context.
VTOL aircraft, KAI- Kazanskij Aviatsionnij Institut ( Kazan Aviation Institute).
Experimental VTOL aircraft, designed by KAI students. Intended as fast airport-to-city centre transport.


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Also several MAI students VTOL concepts


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Thanks Vladimir, though I'm sure we already have these projects in some other topic (likely on Soviet VTOL projects).

here is a strange two MAI aircraft projects,the first was M500-210,it was a double deck
canard four turbofans airliner,developed from M500-200,and the second was DFS,a twin
fuselage four turbofan engines airliner.

Studiendepartment Fahrzeugtechnik und Flugzeugbau
Recherche zu patentierten Flugzeugkonfigurationen
Verfasser: Stephan Müller


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Is there more information available about the Lyakhov "Vintolet" presented in Hesham's post #2,

Thanks in advance!


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My dear Retrofit,

here is a more Info about it;

[quotePlane MG Lyakhov (Fig. 326). Sculptor by training, MG Lyakhov built in 1961 for the first nine months of his plane, which he called "Vintolet".

Plane MG Lyakhov (Fig. 326). Sculptor by training, MG Lyakhov built in 1961 for the first nine months of his plane, which he called "Vintolet".

Aircraft wing having a disc shape in plan, intended to make the fan by folding type. Moreover, some sectors have been nested. Furthermore, in terms of disk wing was to provide lower landing speed and stability of the flight at high angles of attack.

In the central part of the disk was formed an annular channel, which rotate two coaxial propellers. Screws using a chain drive is driven by a two-cycle engines M-72 air-cooled.

Wing wooden construction with fabric covering. Cloth impregnated with a composition that MG Lyakhov developed independently. The composition consisted of aviation oil, linseed oil, solvent and stearin.

Ailerons were central rotary wing sectors, empennage cruciate scheme.

Flight aircraft weight 300 kg, length of 6 m. The width of the folded wing disc 2 m. With folded wings "Vintolet" could move along the highway, the car, tricycle landing gear with the front wheel. Motorcycle wheels and brake.


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