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History of aircraft design in USSR 1951-65 / Chapter 10: Yakovlev

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Here you go, Hesham:


Teaching and training aircraft




Yak-18
family


Yak-18 (Fig. 223, 224) - two aircraft for the initial training, replaced UT-2 in the Air Force, Civil Aviation and aeroklubah.

This is the first domestic flight training metal construction with a retractable landing gear. Made by UT-2, the latest versions of its borrowed nosing individual cylinders, heads and closed cabin, other features of continuity - lattice frame fuselage and wing dvuhlonzheronnoe with internal bracing. Included training pilots demands in the new stage of development of military and passenger aircraft. Cars cadets and instructors - a standard type of fighter. The composition of the equipment allows to operate day and night in ordinary weather. Large planting shield on the center and the main pillar retractable landing gear helped cadets to acquire the necessary skills.

Assignments for design Yak-18 lead engineer KV Sinelytsikov received from the chief designer AS Yakovlev December 10, 1945 Stroilis two experienced aircraft: engine M-11FM power 140 hp and with a motor-11FR M-1 capacity of 160 hp Both modifications of the engine - Construction IA Muzhilova. They were finished respectively 19 and April 30, 1946 and passed factory tests 6-29 May 1946 (first flight May 6) and May 15 - June 6, 1946 (first flight May 17). The second aircraft has become a major. Lead engineer for flight tests SV Rogow, Test Pilot of GS Klimushkin.

EDO Yak-18 offered in two versions:

aerobatic plane with a mass of 970 kg flight;
aircraft for the initial training of flight mass increased to 1060 kg through radio, aircraft negotiating device (SPU), a generator and a landing lamp.

Both double. The transition from one option to another is possible in the airport environment. Flight tests were conducted in the academic version (except tests for aerobatics). The airplane received much appreciated pilots, but there was need for further debugging V112A/12 air screws.

June 7, 1946 Yak-18-2 flew in GK Research Institute of the Air Force, where he was public testing until September 12 (lead engineer MD Yaskov leading Test Pilot of Kholopov BC). In the process of testing was an engine of the regular replacement of the much increased vibration. In addition, poor working screw was replaced by experienced screw VISH-327EV GM-149 Construction Zaslavsky and С.Ш. Bas-Dubova. At the same time, were finishing construction of the aircraft. Shakes balanced screws have been removed.

Automatic screw VISH-327EV-149 because of a lack of an engine to drive the regulator used as a permanent revolutions twostep (small step - at takeoff and climb-in, a big step - in horizontal flight and aerobatics for Extra).

It was noted that the technique piloting the Yak-18 is simple and accessible to pilots below average skills. He has better stability and control for all flight and on the flight technical data and equipment has a clear advantage over training aircraft Po-2 and UT-2. Thus, the speed of the Yak-18 is significantly higher than for mass-produced aircraft Po-2 (100 km / h) and UT-2 (80 km / h), the availability of radio, ISPs and brake wheels, nose landing gear, planting panel, air launch engine allows acquire skills in the use of modern equipment combat aircraft.

Caring for airframe Yak-18 over the previous plane facilitated by the availability of metal plating center and wing and fuselage wing skeleton.

Test version of the Yak-18 flight with 970 kg weight has not received the approval of the Air Force because of the small stock of fuel (35 kg) and the lack of radio equipment.

Following state trials and followed the removal of a number of defects monitoring tests (16-27 November 1946) for initial flight training was adopted by the Air Force. Provision further improving aircraft and military testing.

According to government regulation of the March 21, 1947 serial production Yak-18 was deployed in the Soviet Union at three plants: № 135 in Kharkov, № 272 in Leningrad and in Semenovke № 116 (Arsen'ev). In addition, the Yak-18 was established in China to free Soviet license. The first flight of the Chinese Yak-18 (CJ-5) and July 1954, cited as the birth of aircraft to China (until then had only foreign aircraft repair).

In the process of serial production conducted improving the design, power-plant equipment and Yak-18. In 1948, tested and was implemented in a series of air screw VISH-501. In this connection, the vertical velocity of the land has become more at 0.5 m / s, run length decreased by 80 metres, reduced takeoff distance of 180 m and a maximum flight range became greater by 75 km. At the same time (late 1948) has been replaced by motor-11FR M-1 to M-11FR. In the design of the new engine substantial changes were made based on the operating experience: improved finned cylinders, modified collapse, configuration Cylinder heads, lubrication system, etc. The engine M-11FR was put to the motors with improved depreciation. This was removed elevated shaking and vibration, which occurred on the aircraft first editions.

EDO all ended in a series of fine-tuning and maintenance (by the Kharkov aircraft) for only a year and a half after the government tests experimental engine. This was followed by further improvements proposed by the command of the Air Force, in particular, the new equipment installed.

In 1950-1970 he worked. for a family of planes Yak-18 studied the entire Air Force aircrew, and DTF aeroklubov DOSAAF (1). These aircraft were delivered to East Germany, Poland, Hungary, Austria, Bulgaria and many other countries.

(1) In the study of local lore Saratov Museum stored Yak-18 plane in which Yuri Gagarin conducted its first autonomous flight.



Yak-18 was used as a sports plane. It set nine world records and official union records 14 (Table 1). The first post-Soviet world records achieved on the Yak-18 pilots-athletes YA.D. Forostenko Bodryaginoy and AI. Record Bodryaginoy seen as a particularly difficult Blerio Louis FAI medal, established in 1936 to record the speed, altitude and flight range of light aircraft for the first two categories. AI Bodryagina - the first Soviet pilot, awarded the medal.

Both Table 1
World records set at the Yak-18 Type record Figures record Data Pilot
Category 2 (since 1951 - X-1-in, flight mass of 500 ... 1000 kg)
The speed km / h:
closed at 1000 km route 223560 06.09.49 YA.D. Forostenko
"100 km 262771 16.09.49 AI Bodryagina
Category C-1-c (1000 ... 1750 kg)
The speed km / h:
closed at 2000 km route 209664 16.09.51 VM Panchenko
"1000 km 237.856 30.09.51 MG Drigo
"500 km 251823 11.10.51 NN Kuznetsov
Height, 5521 08.05.54 m SI Zamychkin
6311 18.06.54 VI Shumilov
Range closed-circuit route km 1245.335 11.09.54 V. Gromov
2004.668 25.09.54 YA.D. Forostenko


In setting the record flight range over 2000 km flight mass was 1283 kg, and was the largest for the Yak-18. A record height of 6311 m was achieved in flight mass 1009.8 kg.



Yak-18 - with one-nizkoplan svobodnonesuschim wing, retractable landing gear and nose wheel tail.
A wing consists of the construction of a metal rectangular and trapezoidal wing center consoles. Powertrain frame formed by two center-speed and dial ribs, metal plating. Center-mounted to the fuselage four bolts. Powertrain frame consoles formed two crew, a set of diagonal ribs and tapes-raschalok. Socks consoles - from duralyuminovogo sheet linen lining. Consoli fastened to the center four bolts. Profiles wing Clarke YH - the same as in the first piston and jet fighter aircraft Yak. The relative thickness profile of the wing root 14.5%, at the ends - 9%, narrowing wing - 2. Ailerons - slotted type, with axial compensation, and they have a metal frame and linen sheeting. Planting shield - the type Schrenk, a center for the entire scale.

The skeleton is a boiled fuselage of steel pipes spatial farm rectangular section formed by the two upper and two lower altitude, interconnected frames, realnost system and one pair of tape-raschalok. Betonski opaži collected from the fuselage duralyuminovyh profiles and blue linens.

Cars pilot instructor and uchleta have lantern from plexiglass, seudoeuclídea roofs and sliding on the part of ball bearings, otodvigaemye back on the rails and sending recorded on the three clauses. In the rear cabin provides for the installation of a cap for the blind flight. Seats pilots adjustable height.

The tail of feathers - metal, podkosno raschalochnogo-type lining linen, a symmetrical profile. Rule fitted with a height trimmers controlled from the cab.

Takeoff-landing device include:

aluminium chassis back in the center console type with pnevmopodemnikami. The chassis is oil-pneumatic wheels depreciation and 500x150 mm (diameter x width profile) weighing 13.2 kg of dvuhkolodochnymi with pneumatic brakes and Wallace polubalonnogo type. The chassis is not fully retracted - depreciation rack and part pneumatics go beyond center-mounted in the bottom, special emphasis brace locks allow the situation to make emergency landing on the wheels kept in the chassis;
orientiruyuscheesya rear wheel 200x80 mm with a weight of 1.4 kg of oil-pneumatic shock absorber. Hanging on the rear wheel strengthened poluvilke and has automatic detensioner wheel locked in the flight line at the height of rejecting the helm up in the range of 17 ... 25 °;
planting shield with a pneumatic system and the recovery of its release.

Managing aircraft - a double, nevyklyuchayuscheesya, from the front and rear cabin. Office rudder and trimmers - trosovoe, driving height - mixed, aileron - with the help of traction, planting panel and chassis - pneumatic. The instructor has the opportunity to correct errors cadets during heavy braking wheels, preventing nosing aircraft. For this instructor presses the button on the handle and manage stravlivaet air that came to a braking WABCO.

The aircraft installed five air-cooled engine M-11FR. Compared with earlier serial options M-11 power-11F engines M-1 and M-11FR increased from 125 to 160 hp

On the engine installed: screw variable step (VISH), air compressor, vacuum pump, generator, shielded ignition system and the system of air launch. At M-11FR for the use of all the advantages and improvements VISH operation were set speed regulator R-2 and K-bespoplavkovy 11BP carburetor, as well as increased prokachka oil.

The engine hood is locked in quick five-caps (number of cylinders) with protrusions Asymmetrical forms of cylinder heads. In front drive bonnet - five openings for the entrance of air, cooling the engine. In winter, two lower holes and one upper damper closed. Ferrule Coca removable screw closed. Filing of compressed air to run the engine and ignition mixture - of a button.

The engine is equipped with screw-aeromehanicheskim automaton W-501D-81 construction GI Kuzmina and GM Zaslavsky. The peculiarity aeromehanicheskogo screws - Automatic installation of blades to the desired angle depending on the speed flight and the speed shaft engine. Vint MDHC and diameter of 2.3 m, blades of pine and delta-pressed wood. Dry weight of the engine aggregates 195 kg, 30 kg weight screws.

Benzosistema has two tank with a capacity of 75 litres in the center. Maximum gasoline - 110 kg in weight unit 0735 kg per litre.

Butyric system consists of maslobaka capacity of 22 litres, maslonasosa, netted filter at the output of the engine and oil pipeline. Maslobak filter and set fire to the bulkhead.

Flight and navigational instruments and devices work Prop control group (mostly the same in the front and back of the cab) set in the three panels. The plane has a radio transmitter acceptance RSI-6 and radiopolukompas (PKK) since radiootmetchikom RPKO-10M. Range of two-way radio with the land - 120 km at altitudes of 10 m. Reach RPKO driven from the station -150 ... 200 km along the channel and the PKK on channel 50 km RPKO-10M. Antenna radio station - horizontal, dvuhluchevaya, with a beech mast mounted on the rear part of a fixed lamp behind an instructor. Initially, the antenna was bezmachtovoy (see Fig. 224). Framework RPKO-10M antenna placed in a special hatch at the front of the upper fuselage gargrota.

The medium vnutrisamoletnoy link airplane handsfree device is put buttons on the levers of normal gas in both booths.

The sources of energy in the plane are mounted on the engine generator GS-10-350M power of 350 W and a battery 12 A-10. On-board Power Plant performed on Single scheme. The voltage on the network 26 V. To verify on the ground radios and other electricity consumers by connecting the battery airfield.

Equipment for night flights: landing headlights, air navigation lights and cabin lamps for lighting and appliances booths. Compasses and remote administration receiver PKK have lamp fixtures.



Yak-18 skiing. Army ski chassis was created at the request of the Air Force for the winter operation of the aircraft. In December 1947, has been satisfactorily ground and flight testing Yak-18 № 01135001 ski.

Construction workers skis: Coluber wood with metal edging, which installed a welded wild boar and a rubber arm Rope depreciation. Wild boar fixed to the half-reliance chassis with the same nut shplintom that wheel. The waste ski installed on crutches through the half-bracket weld and fastened with the same shaped bushing bolt, and that the wheel. Massa working skis 19.75 kg tail - 2.0 kg. Mass of the aircraft when the wheels of skis growing at 13.7 kg.

In March 1949 in HK NII Air Force control for the first time passed the test serial Yak-18 landing gear on ski (Fig. 225). Tests confirmed satisfactory performance data, but dropped the maximum speed of 31 km / h and a maximum range - at 220 km. Independent journalist snow can be a side-wind, not more than 4 meters per second. Contributed to the worsening of manoeuvrability, and that the tail of skis - unmanageable.



Yak-18 engine with the M-12 (Fig. 226). On the orders of MAP from May 18, 1948 for a single copy Yak-18 in Kharkiv, in September 1949, was an engine MA FA M-12 power 190 hp Earlier, M-12, according to VB Shavrova, was set LI Sutuginym at UT-1. He was also to the Yak-6 aircraft and Yak-8, but was not ready in time.

At Yak-18 engine M-12 for the first time in the family Yak-18 is applied round the hood completely covering the engine (instead of individual head fairings cylinders). Work on the aircraft stopped at the beginning of 1951 in connection with the advent of more powerful AI-14R engine (260 hp). It was first applied to the Yak-12R, and then at the Yak-Yak-12M and 18A.



Yak-18 pilot with a three-chassis (Figure 227). The same Yak-18 to M-12, but three inner chassis that in the terminology of those years meant chassis on the front pillar.

Flight tests were conducted in November 1950 in EDO AS Yakovleva (lead engineer VA Shavrin leading Test Pilot of F.L. Abramov). 14 flights have been met. It has become an excellent overview of the cab at the steering, during takeoff and landing. Kapotirovaniya possibility was eliminated during heavy braking. Technique perform takeoff and landing closer to jet aircraft, but has already had three chassis.



Yak-18 with weapons. They Bombings armament used in the Korean War.



Yak-18U with a retractable tricycle landing gear (Fig. 228, 229). One of the main options for serial Yak-18 with the following major differences:

the chassis has a front wheel the size of 400x150 mm, the front pillar is retracted back, the main pillars - forward, in the center socks. When cleaning the aircraft landing gear centering little changed. Instead, the tail wheel - tail reliance fuselage. Is the installation of skis without removing the wheel axles, but not to test skis;
modified design center, the bow of the fuselage and motoramy resulting from the change in scheme chassis;
changes in the design of the engine bonnet (controlled blinds at the entrance, etc.), as well as in the system: oily (oil liquefaction gasoline), air, engine controls. Each fuel tank capacity reduced from 75 to 63 litres.
Both the cockpit widened by 60 mm by reducing the width of panels and their approximation to the starboard fuselage. Between booths installed bulkhead with fortochkoy.

In experimental aircraft Yak-18U was converted serial Yak-18 production plant 1162509 № № 116. The aircraft factory test took place from September 1 to December 3, 1951 (leading engineer AA Sinitsin, the leading Test Pilot of F.L. Abramov). It was noted significant improvement taxiways and landing aircraft properties compared to the Yak-18, including a review of improvements at the taxi cab and the early run, braking on the Run has become more effective, the possibility has been eliminated kapotirovaniya during heavy braking. From January 24 to February 29, 1952 experienced Yak-18U control test took place in the CC NII Air Force. After eliminating defects Yak-18U was launched into serial production at the plant № 116.



Yak-18T 1951 (1) (Fig. 230). The first of two planes to the symbol Yak-18 T was a training version of the Yak-18U with equipment blind landing CAP-48, consisting of a radar ARK-5 with pole antenna (instead RPKO-10M), altimeter low altitude RV-2 with the transmission and reception antennas under the fuselage; marker receiver MRP-48 with vnutrifyuzelyazhnoy antenna; remote giromagnitnogo compass DGMK-3. The battery has been installed in the center of the generator, on the ground right fuel tank (so fuel dropped to 63 litres). In addition to planting headlights was installed rulezhnaya headlights.

(1) Yak mark the second time T-18 was used in 1967 for chetyrehmestnogo aircraft.

Tests (factory - from September 1, 1951, the NII HK Air Force - with a January 24, 1952) was held converted serial Yak-18 plane № 06135084 already ekspluatirovavshiysya in the Air Force. It was noted that the equipment Yak-18 T permits to operate in adverse weather (except for icing conditions), and provides education and training Air Force crew and the calculation of call for the landing system CAP-48.

Flight weight increased to 1204 kg. Because of this and other reasons, all flight data were worse than the Yak-18U. Even more suffered from a lack of engine power (in this context, the figures were forbidden to perform aerobatics). Small fuel is not allowed to make long shuttle flights in adverse weather. This significantly reduced the value of the aircraft.

Yak-18 T did not go in the series, but set it on certain types of equipment have been tested, approved and subsequently applied to the mass-produced Yak-18A aircraft.



Yak-18A (Fig. 231, 232) - one of the major mass-produced versions of the Yak-18. Created in 1956

As early as December 1946, summing up the monitoring test Yak-18, the Air Force proposed to improve the performance and the performance of the tactical aircraft in its further modification to provide for the installation of a more powerful engine (200 hp). This requirement could be implemented only after 10 years, when, under the leadership of chief designer AG Ivchenko AI engine has been created-14 P. Replacing the M-11FR (capacity 160 hp) for AI-14R (260 hp) breathed new life into the Yak-18. Ceased slow but steady decline in the flying characteristics of the aircraft.

Engine star, devyatitsilindrovy, air-cooled, with the gearbox and rear. Air screw - experienced hydraulic MDHC VISH V 530D-35-2.4 m in diameter, made of pine and delta-wood with a blade vesloobraznoy forms.

Capot engine - of the two covers, top and bottom, with the regulation of airflow for cooling the cylinders. Maslosistema - with the increased volume maslobaka and cooling radiator. Instead of individual exhaust pipe of each cylinder exhaust manifold set of two distinct parts, remove the exhaust gases under the plane.

In addition, the Yak-18A, in contrast to the Yak-18U found more modern equipment, improved performance of the aircraft: increased height lamp cabin, the length of the handle control plane, it reduces the efforts of the wing at the expense of their more aerodynamic compensation (it has improved the quality of Flight aircraft), a heated cabin.

The new version of the Yak-18, first called a "modified Yak-18U," then Yak-20 (second with this name), and only towards the end of 1957, approved the name Yak-18A (perhaps similar to the Yak-12A, which appeared in Volume same 1957).

Work on modifying Yak-18U performed under a lead engineer AA Sinitsyna.

The first plane experienced Yak-18A aircraft was serial Yak-18U № 1161311 built factory № 116 in February 1956 and the last control tests in HK NII Air Force in May 1956,

Factory test Yak-18A was held in October of 1956 (Test Pilot of F.L. Abramov), the state - from 26 February to 22 March 1957 (GV lead engineer Puzanov, Test Pilot of VK Podolny ). The plane was recommended for introduction in serial production for the Air Force flight school.

A second copy experienced Yak-18A became converted serial aircraft Yak-18U № 1161003, which have established giroinduktsionny compass HEC-1 marker and the receiver MRP-48P. This gave the opportunity to fly in adverse weather and make the blind landing. Thus, significantly expanded the range of use of aircraft. Performed on the second copy of experienced Revised contributed to the improvement of operational reliability and simplify its aircraft maintenance.

Factory test flight took place on 22 May - June 10, 1957, control tests in HK NII Air Force - July 6 -2 August 1957 In March 1958, passed the test Yak-18A on ski chassis (Figure 233).

On sustainability, manageability and Technology piloting the Yak-18A little different from the Yak-18U. The most notable differences external 18A of the Yak-Yak-18U: Round engine hood, the front shutters enlarged diameter; clavicle elongated forward; shtyrevaya radio antenna and radar - general, a lamp and bent over backwards.

In the process of serial production made further improvements in the aircraft. Maximum permissible speed pikirovaniya was increased from 310 to 340 km / h. Two were installed 12 battery - A-10, R-800 radio station, the receiver marker MRP-56P.

In the second half of 1957, the serial planes began arriving in the College of Civil Aviation and Air Force, with the resource-warranty duration of 400 hours, or two years of service on a calendar date.

By early 1963, a technical resource (depreciation lifetime) has been increased to 2000 flying hours. After tests and studies conducted in 1964, was appointed a technical resource 3000 flight hours and 15 years of service.

In December 1975, when the park has developed a set of machines and resource exploitation has been removed from the Air Force, in the summer were able to DOSAAF 11 aircraft. These aircraft DOSAAF extended the resource until 3500 flight hours and 19 years. Single copies Yak-18A flew more than 4000 hours and operated for 20 years. They Yak-18A served before the start of 1980 - ies. July 16, 1980 released on the order of DOSAAF pereobuchenii instructors at the Yak-52.

Thus, the exploitation of primary trainer aircraft Yak-18 family lasted about 30 years - before the full depreciation (Table 2). To replace them came four aircraft Yak-18 T, which was established in 1967 and built in the series since 1973, and then double Yak-52 (1974) and Yak-54 (1993 y.). Based on the Yak-18A were established single sport-flight aircraft Yak-18P (1957-1959's.), Yak-18PM (1965), Yak-18PS (1970).




Yak-20 and Yak-22



Yak-20 (Fig. 234, 235). Double (the seat beside) for initial flight training and sports. Nizkoplan metal construction with the nose landing gear. It was conceived as an easy, cheap to manufacture and easy to operate for aeroklubov aircraft, capable of performing simple aerobatics figures and ordinary day in the summer weather.

The engine M-10 (AI-10) AG Ivchenko - experienced, factory built № 478. In 1948, M-10 satisfactorily passed 200 - hour public bench testing. Engine five, star, air-cooled, with the experienced dvuhlopastnym aeromehanicheskim propeller-515 V-34 D 2 m in diameter and weighing 16 kg. The rated power of the engine 80 hp

Wing - trapezoidal wing of the two consoles, connecting with the fuselage. Profiles - Clark YH fairly thick at the root of 14% and 8% at the end, narrowing 2.12. At wing and aileron gap set at 45 ° biased Flap. The first plane, in addition, have fixed easily predkrylki done on the recommendations of TsAGI. Predkrylki allow it to be used as a training aircraft. Wing odnolonzheronnoe working with the metal shell of socks before plating polotnyanoy wing and the rest of the wing. The skeleton consists of a wing, the front beams, ribs and stringers.

The skeleton of the fuselage - spatial rectangular section of the farm side, cradles and realnost. Sheathing ahead of the metal, then - linen. Of feathers - with two pairs of wire and two raschalok podkosami. The torch consists of a visor and sliding parts. Equipment deployed in the cabin on the common for the instructor and student dashboard.

Table 2
Batch production of training aircraft Yak-18 family of God Plant № 116 Semenovka (Arsen'ev) Plant № 135 (Kharkiv) Plant № 272 Leningrad) plant in Nanchane Total (China)
Yakovlev Yak-18-18A-18U Yak Yak-18 Yak-18 CJ-5 CJ-6 ***
1947 - - - 1 5 - - 6
1948 26 - - 128145 - - 299
1949 257 - - 279151 - - 687
1950 312 - - - - - - 312
1951 500 - - - - - - 500
1952 657 - - - - - - 657
1953 603 - - - - - - 603
1954 630 20 - - - 379 (1954 and 1958) - 650 +379
1955 58300 - - - - 358
1956 - 340 - - - - 340
1957 - 300 61 - - - 361
1958 - - 350 - - - 350
1959 - - 351 - - - - 351
1960 - - 161 - - - - 161
1961 - - 120 - - - - 120
1962 - 1996 - - - - - - More than 2200 * 2200 * More
Total 3043 ** 960 1043 408301379 Over 2200 Over 8334
* Issue continues.
** Total produced in the USSR (according to official figures) 3752 copies. Yak-18 (OKB on documents - 4830 copies.).
*** Yak-18A.

Chassis pyramid, with a rubber Rope depreciation. The main pillar of braking wheels size 500x150. Tail wheel sizes 200x80; rejecting the helm height down reliance on the wheel freely oriented, rejecting an upward - becomes manageable from the pedals along with driving directions. The possibility of replacing the wheels of skis.

Office driving height, aileron, rudder, brakes wheels (pneumatic system valves) - coaxial trosovoe management trimmers (trosovoe) and zakrylkami (from pnevmotsilindra) - single, only from the left seat. Compressed air is also the launch engine.

Fuel is in two wing tanks with a capacity of 35 litres. Exhaust system of two reservoirs: right (combining two cylinder) and the left (three cylinder). Capot engine - of the two covers, top and bottom. In front of the bonnet shutters installed in the form of two discs: a standstill with five holes to open the cooling air and rotating with the same holes. The number of cooling air is regulated by turning the rotating disk.

The first experimental airplane Yak-20-01 was issued on October 14, 1949 and passed the test with the factory on October 18, 1949 to January 20, 1950 (leading engineer S. Rogow, a leading airman Klimushkin GS).

The plane, with a good lateral stability at high angles of attack, if predkrylkov became even more safe and easy flight. However, after the production tests predkrylki were removed and no longer planted. Without them, and it was on the second plane.

It was noted that the location next to the student's instructor promotes positive resolution of issues arising in the process of coaching and equipment are displayed, with the personal pilot. Takeoff-landing aircraft properties provide pupil profiles digesting normal take-off and landing. The Office of aircraft downtime at all speeds, aircraft in flight forgives mistakes. Figure aerobatics: league, coups, military turns, loops Nesterova - performed during normal flight technique.

As a result, the state trials (15 February - April 1, 1950) in which all the characteristics of the aircraft, except for maximum speed and duration of the flight, were worse than at the factory, it was concluded that the quality of their flight, as well as the nedovedennosti power plant (overheated oil in the air, heads, cylinders hypothermia in planning), and a number of other shortcomings Yak-20 aircraft does not meet the requirements for initial training aircraft, while the pilots overflew SN Anokhin, ML Gallay, GM Shiyanov praised the Yak-20-01 and felt that it is responsible for their purpose.

Yak-20-01 have decided to improve. Have been made more than 50 changes.

Built Yak-20-02 (lead engineer Levkoeva NV) twice passed control tests: from 5 May to September 28, 1950 and the first half of 1951, Flight weight increased to 747 kg.

The most notable differences external aircraft "02" and "01": Shoulder shutters instead of discs, "gills" on the top cover bonnet to cool cylinders heads, a rounded clavicle.

From 5 to August 22, 1951 Yak-20-02 was held repeated government testing and received the following assessment: "... the test was unsatisfactory and could not be recommended as initial training for pilots because of the complexity of implementation takeoff, the flight in a circle, in aerobatics and the landing zone (compared with the initial training aircraft serial Po-2 and Yak-18), as well as for educational purposes because of a small sports ambulance and inability to perform aerobatics figures. " Among the weaknesses identified: a small engine power, the lack of radios, a small range of speeds, especially between the speed climb and the entrance to spin speeds.



Yak-22 - Draft single light aircraft, on the scheme reminiscent Yak-20. The aerodynamic calculation took place in March and April 1950, under the M-4s engine propeller with a diameter of 1.8 m. Engine: Takeoff 60 hp at 2280 rpm, 50 hp nominal at 2060 rpm. Calculated data aircraft: 5.9 m length of the aircraft, wingspan 7.4 m, 9.0 m 2 area of the wing, flying mass of 400 kg, the unit load on the wing 44.5 kgs/m2 burden on the power (nominal) 8 kgf / HP, the maximum speed of 174 km / h, landing - 65 km / h, set time 5.6 min 1000 m, 3960 m practical ceiling, the range of 405 km, 115 m run, run 80 hours Profiles wing Clarke YH.




The Yak-200, Yak-210 and Yak-220


Yak-200 and Yak-210 (Fig. 236 ... 239). Sports trainings bombers (UTB or Yak-UTB) for the training of pilots and navigators bombing aircraft. Metal sredneplany with a retractable tricycle landing gear, the two piston engines AL-21 chief designer AD Shvetsova.

The first training scrimmage bomber with two ASH-21 aircraft was OKB P.O. Dry UTB-2 - a lightweight at 4 tons and perekomponovanny option piston bomber Tu-2. FC-2 was constructed in 1946 and in 1947-1948 he was. issued in series (176 cars were built), and was used to train crews TU-2.

In 1948, and was tested in a year began to flow on arming jet bomber Il-28 OKB SV Ilyushin. Already in 1950 a version of its training Il-28U. At the same time, has been given the task to create oriented Il-28 piston inexpensive UTB, which could be held initial training, or jump to it after the Yak-18 (similar to how future fighter pilots mastered UTI Yak-11 after the Yak - 18).

Required simple in design and operation of aircraft in flight simple, allowing for correction of gross errors cadets, as well as equipped with a full complement of sophisticated equipment.

Designing aircraft Yak-UTB began in February 1951, called The plane Yak-26 (this name immediately was lifted).

According to the TTT Air Force Yak-UTB developed in two versions:

teaching and training aircraft Yak-200 training for pilots in the Air Force schools. The crew of two people:-cadet pilot and instructor-pilot, a number of seats in the upper cabin (pilot). Forward (navigation) cabin - without seats and equipment;
navigation Yak-210 aircraft for training navigators in schools and training Air Force pilots and navigators in the ranks parts. The crew of three people: an instructor-pilot's cabin at the top, ahead of the cadets-navigator and instructor-navigator behind the cabin in the bow. In appended to the congestion of the fourth member of the crew - pilot-cadets.

Review of jobs cadets and cadet-pilot-navigator - as a pilot and navigator in the Il-28. Equipment for pilot and navigation booths located mainly in the same way as the Il-28.

When creating aircraft Yak-200 and Yak-210 is very useful experience in the design of passenger aircraft Yak-16 with two engines AL-21 (1947 y.). They have same power and the installation of a similar layout aerodynamic wing.

According to the airframe design of the chassis, power plant management and the Yak-200 and Yak-210 is no different.

Odnolonzheronnoe wing, with two longitudinal walls and running a metal shell, consists of a rectangular wing center and two trapezoidal consoles. Clark YH wing profile, the relative thickness of center-15 and 8% at the end of the wing. The wing is equipped with aileron gap with polotnyanoy plating, zakrylkami at center with a metal shell and to the console with zakrylkami polotnyanoy plating. By the end of the tubular center at the farm and the main engines are enshrined reliance chassis. Gondola engines are only fairing. This design allowed attachment of the chassis is very strong, which is particularly important for training aircraft. Thanks to a rectangular center-left and right engines gondola interchangeable.

Fuselage - metallic Collins - consists of three parts: the bow, middle and tail linked together around bolts. The skeleton - of a set of frames and stringers. Metal of feathers, linen lining rudders.

The chassis with a front wheel (unlike UTB-2 POSukhoy). The front pillar is retracted back into the fuselage, the main pillars - forward in the gondola engines. The wheels kept in the act of charging the situation to enable the aircraft landing with landing gear retracted. To prevent the rear fuselage when boarding such an additional rear wheel foot size 300x125 mm, half-hidden in the fuselage (later withdrawn). The size of 700x250 mm main wheels, front - 580x240 mm.

Managing aircraft duplicate, mixed. Implemented with the help of two wheel, fortified in one shaft, and two pairs of pedals which are interconnected by a rigid drive train. In the middle of the fuselage wiring rigid management, in the rear and wing - dvuhprovodnaya steel belts. Office trimmer aileron and rudder direction trimmer - electric, trimmers helm height - electrical, mechanical duplicate. Pneumatic system provides cleaning and the production of the chassis, running the engines, brake-management, we wheels, front brake supports zakrylkami, lantern.

AL-21 - star, 7 - four-cylinder air-cooled engine with direct fuel injection, with one-drive centrifugal compressor and planetary gearbox. Power take-off with 700 hp, 570 hp nominal Air screw VISH MG-20A-111V diameter of 2.9 m. The fuel tank is located at the bottom in the middle of the fuselage. 750 litre fuel capacity, weight 555 kg of fuel (petrol B-89, y = 0.74 kg / l).

Equipment Yak-200: two electric generator GOS-3000 engines and battery at 12 SAM-25, command-connected VHF radio RSIU-ZM, handsfree device SPU-5, the defendant SRO identification, remote giromagnitny compass DGMK-3, two oxygen device KP-18 etc.

For radio and blind landing installed: automatic radio serial ARK-5, marker receiver MRP-48P, radio altimeters RV-2.

Differences Yak-210 due to his appointment only: the forward fuselage is part of navigation cabin, a full complement of devices equipped for the education and training navigators.

In transshipment option Yak-210 bombs armed with a total mass of 300 kg, suspended for six simultaneous holder under center (6x50 kg or 3x100 kg). For reference bombing of shots in any weather radar installed panoramic sight PSBN-M (by reducing reserve fuel on the 220 kg) with antenna in radioprozrachnom fairing under the fuselage, synchronous optical sight OPB-6SR, AP-5 autopilot, the camera AFA-BA-40 Scheduled shooting from the optical axis inclination from 0 to 15 ° ago photographed the results bombing (by reducing reserve fuel at 15 kg).

The total mass of equipment on the Yak-200 (Yak-210) 390 kg (860,5), including: electrical equipment - 148,5 kg (215,0), radio - 154,0 kg (460,0), flight - navigational equipment - 49,0 kg (62,0), other equipment - 38,5 kg (123,5).

The most notable differences external Yak-210: podfyuzelyazhny fairing sight antennas and T-shaped antenna over the whole fuselage.

It was built on a pilot aircraft Yak-200 and Yak-210. Their first flights were held on April 10 and August 1, 1953 Factory tests conducted: Leading Test Pilot of F.L. Abramov (both fixed-wing aircraft), navigators LII K.B. Makarev and SD Dzyuba (Yak-210), leading engineers VA Fence (Yak-200) and LA Masha (Yak-210).

Flight data Yak-200 flight with the mass 4600 kg were better defined. In imitation of the refusal of one of the engines of aircraft could freely continue to horizontal flight, and even produce a set altitude. Flight data Yak-210 differed little from the Yak-200, except flight range.

State test Yak-200 were conducted from July 29 to September 10, 1953 It was noted that due to its performance and data volume tactical aircraft equipment virtually the same TTT Air Force, is simple and convenient in use, but it can not be recommended for adoption of a to the complex technology pilot, the flight of insecurity in one engine, poor longitudinal stability, great changes efforts to steer the helm of heights when giving gas.

In accordance with the requirements of the Air Force Yak-200 in the 1953-1955's. shop, factory control test took place in October and December in 1953, re-state test - in January-February 1954, again and again repair factory control testing - in April-May 1955;

For tests in flight in 1955 was 4812 kg mass, the mass of the empty airplane - 4035 kg, a full load - 777 kg.

It was completed and tested in flight lot of changes on the airframe, propulsion systems, equipment. Last provide for a smooth flight, without explosions, smooth increase efforts at the helm helm of height. Significantly improved characteristics of sustainability in all three axes and manageability. Sharply reduced the amplitude of oscillation of feathers and hatch. Were shown complete flight safety in the event of failure of one engine, it is sustained flight on one engine and light retention in the straight-flight aircraft, as well as caring for the second circle with one working engine.

External changes: a ridge in front of the keel, moved forward on the upper 0.6 m shtyrevaya antenna. In 1955 was increased to 350 mm length of the fuselage by inserting between 7 and 7 frames and installed vertically front pillar chassis, raised to 100 mm wing, the fuselage gargrot increased, decreased by 1 30 'transverse V-wing, etc.

Some refinement, in which a Yak-200 were used and the Yak-210 (including the installation of ridge). In addition, the Yak-210 changed the form fairing with oval antennas on the aft.

All substantive comments were taken into account air force, but planes never hit the flight schools, though on the basis of the retests Yak-200 GK Research Institute of the Air Force has recommended the adoption and launching into serial production. It was recognized that the technique is suitable for the pilot's flight training and training pilots. Perhaps the Air Force considered sufficient use of jet 17 - tonne training bombers Il-28U who provided rapid retraining pilots from Tu-2 to IL-28. Government Decision of March 28, 1956 were halted work on the Yak-200 and Yak-210 and set design jet training aircraft.



Yak-220. Unrealized draft aircraft with two engines AL-21, for the transport of troops, with two eight-member crew. Designing conducted in October, 1953 - March 1954, the main differences from the Yak-200 and Yak-210: high location perekomponovanny wing and the fuselage of the passenger cabin.




UTB jet projects

In late 1950, was executed sketch draft UTB jet with two TRD RD-500 kgf thrust for 1590 in two versions: a double vyvoznom and trehmestnom scrimmage. By major geometric data plane was like a Yak-23 fighter aircraft. Wingspan 14 m, 34 m 2 area, take-off weight of 7200 kg, the estimated maximum speed of 880 km / h. The project was not implemented.

In mid-1952, in the performance of the aerodynamic calculation Yak-UTB with two ASH-21 has been sampled and the option to substitute ASH-21 for two TRD RD-45. Take-off weight of 4600 kg aircraft. The estimated maximum speed of 636 9000 m.




Yak-30, Yak-32 and their modifications


Yak-30 (Fig. 240, 241). Two jet initial training with a TRD RU19 OKB SK-300 Tumanskiy.

AS Yakovlev twice made proposals on the development of jet training aircraft: in 1952 - based on the Yak-17UTI and in 1955 - based on the Yak-23UTI with a reduced version of TRD AM-5. Ultimately, has been given the task of establishing an entirely new aircraft design and with a specially designed motor.

Because of the lack TRD deadline for the submission of official testing the aircraft, had not yet took symbol gradually moved: fourth quarter 1957, first quarter of 1958, third quarter 1960, ordering TRD Evolution: R5-300-based AM-5, traction is not specified; R5-45 or U-1 NG Construction Metshvarishvili, traction 1000 kgs, and, finally, RU19-300, traction 900 kgs. Changing requirements for the aircraft: a maximum speed of 700 km / h, then 600 km / h, landing - 150, 130 and 140 ... 150 km / h; duration 1.5, 2 and 1.5 h again, but with an outboard tanks - 2.5; 3 and again 2.5 hours; run 550 ... 600, 500 and 500 ... 600 m. Take-off weight of 3000 kg and 2300.

Sketch aircraft project was carried out in February-March 1957, and considered the Air Force on July 17, 1957 In November the same year in the wind tunnel TsAGI T-106M, under the leadership of GS Byushgensa tested models. U aircraft appeared name - Yak-104, replacements in 1960 at the Yak-30. Prior to this designation Yak-30 was used twice: in 1948 for the fighter jet with RD-500 and in 1959 for a draft sketch supersonic aircraft with two TRD VK-13.

In 1960, two experienced were built aircraft. Leading engineers LI Lees and VP Vlasov.

Yak-30 - with the all-nizkoplan trapezoidal wings of feathers and odnokilevym middle stabilizer location. Dvuhlonzheronnoe wing, and two of the center console profile Clark YH variable thickness relative - from 14% in the axis of the aircraft to 7% by the end nervyure. The wing is equipped with aileron and zakrylkami.

Fuselage - Collins of stringers, frames and metal plating works. The cross section - close to the oval, rolling in the rear of the oval. At the top of the fuselage otkidyvayuschiysya gargrot installed within which laid electrocables and traction control. Power equipment located in the bow of the fuselage, the approach to them is provided through the top flip cover. Cab leakproof, ventilation type, boost - from the engine compressor, katapultnye chairs set one after another. The rear seat is above 160 mm at the front to improve the review of the instructor. Port for the first time in our country can be made through the glazing without discharge lamp with the pull of soft shutter to protect individuals. Chassis - drawing on the front, retractable forward in the bow portion of the fuselage. The main pillar in the center removed in the direction of the axis of the aircraft. Supports - trike type of brake wheel suspension. The main wheels - brake, 570x140 mm front - orientiruyuscheesya, 400x150 mm. The wheels are removed completely closed and red. Cleaning and the issue - compressed air. In addition, air management system serves brakes wheels, red, as well as the sealing of the cab and parked in a dangerous situation. Managing dual plane, rudder and aileron height - rigid, driving directions - trosovoe, trimmers rudders height - wire.

Turbojet with axial compressor RU19-300 (or TRD № 29) set in the middle of the fuselage is attached to the fuselage two nodes and easily closed the hood, the rear part of which lined titanium sheets. Air has two entries in the root portion of the wing-protected mesh with the side windows from the ingress of subjects. Missing exhaust pipe. Installation of the engine recalls redannuyu scheme first jet fighters, and is easy and simple. Bottom of the fuselage behind the nozzle painted in two layers: the inner lining duralyuminovaya, the outside - steel.

Fuel normal - 500 kg, the maximum - 700 kg. Capacity tanks - 870 litres, including soft fyuzelyazhnogo tank - 845 litres and a welding tank negative overload (or - spending batter) - 25 litres. In the inverted flight kerosene fed to the engine under pressure air to the batter from the compressor motor. Раскрутка rotor engine starter-generator produced working in starternom mode launch - from the airfield DC or from the on-board battery.

Sources electricity - generator GDS-ST-600B power of 6000 W starternom mode and the battery 15 STSS-25 or 20 BC-30 A capacity of 30 o h. The aircraft were set for the time the latest flight and navigational instruments and equipment, including connected VHF Radio Collins, an automated radio ARC-9, marker receiver MRP-56P for blind landing, giroinertsialny compass HEC-1 and the magnetic-KI 13, handsfree device SPU-7. The plane had oxygen equipment, fire fighting system, landing headlamps. Ahead on the starboard cabin - Consolidated shtyrevaya radio antenna and radar (on the first plane appeared not immediately). At kit instruments and instrument layout of the board are approaching the so-fighter aircraft on the aircraft. The equipment provides a simple and flights in adverse weather, day and night.

Factory tests were conducted on the two airplanes ( "30" and "50") from May 20, 1960 to March 1961 Leading Test Pilot of VG Mukhin its first flight in Yak-30 met the July 2, 1960 Tests conducted as pilots VP Smirnov and VM Volkov. Pilots detour from LII: SN Anokhin, VM Gwinn, AP Bogorodsky. Leading designer - KV Rykov. Only 82 have been implemented a total length of the flight 43 hours 36 minutes. The tests were conducted over a wide range of ambient air temperatures: from - 30 to + 35 ° C, and any difficulties in the operation of engine and aircraft have not risen. Assessing all the items on the programme of tests - positive. The overall conclusion: "The excellent performance of the aircraft, modern equipment and the possibility of exploitation of groundwater at airfields in grass coated allow recommend Yak-30 as a learning and training aircraft."

Yak-30 aircraft competed with: Czechoslovak L-29 "Dolphin" and the Polish TS-11 "Spark" - for the right to become standard training in the Air Force training plane Warsaw Pact countries.

In fact, an equal traction engine plane was heavier Czechoslovak Yak-30 is 40%. Polish aircraft was even heavier. This is predetermined and measurable superiority Yak-30 flying in all characteristics. Moreover, it improved engine gave substantial savings in fuel massive operation, a small mass of the aircraft provided much less labour in the manufacture. Cost is Yak-30 was twice smaller than L-29, and two and a half times less than the TS-11.

August 30, 1960 on state tests was transferred first Yak-30, and soon a second. Only those tests involved four aircraft (in June 1961, two more were built Yak-30 - boarded the "80" and the board "90"). For comments NII Air Force for the flight circled flight with a maximum weight of the aircraft were enhanced console wing. In flight tests on the strength achieved overload indicator at 9.1 speed 575 km / h, and the residual deformation remained within acceptable limits. In addition, comments on the NII Air Force reserve was increased resistance to overloading, refined control, cabin, chassis, equipment installed at turbolizers wing for a shake warning at a speed of 10 ... 15 km / h above the minimum; shtyrevaya antenna extended to mid - fuselage. A vibration of the tail Coca acoustic loads.

At Yak-30 was demonstrated to the entire set of simple shapes and complex aerobatics, figures in the vertical plane have been implemented without losing altitude. At Yak-30 (board "90") has successfully tested katapultnye installation, supported quitting the aircraft safely through windows.

State test ended August 14, 1961 According to the Research Institute of the Air Force Yak-30 had been recommended for the adoption. The second plane (Yak-30 "50") in September 1961, were set official world records for speed and height of light jet aircraft category C-1-d (flight mass of 1750 ... 3000 kg).

The speed on the base of 15 meters ... 25 - 767308 km / h, September 22, 1961, VP Smirnov and NI Samokhodkin; flight mass of 2160 kg, 850 kg traction TRD. A record exceeded 750340 km / h on May 19, 1960, which established the L. Zekavitsa plane "Matisa" 451 - MM (Yugoslavia).

For comparison: in the same category ML Popovich June 10, 1964 established at the L-29 world speed record on a closed route 100 km - 607200 km / h.

The height of 16128 m, September 25, 1961, VP Smirnov; flight mass of 2000 kg and 1050 kg traction TRD. Exceeded installed shortly before this record G. Karestiano 15247 m in the Italian jet TCB Macchi MB 326.

In November 1961, after the removal of comments on the comparative obletam LII pilots and OKB tested positive view of the new and improving Yak-30, the most important of which were the following:

review of the rear cabin is better than the Yak-18 and MiG-15 UTI;
at Yak-30 № 3 ( "80") were set sight ASP-ZN, fotokinopulemet FKP-2 - 2 and two containers with rockets (or two bombs on 50 ... 100 kg). To handle administration had control button reset button and firing bombs;
under center was set brake shield. Issue panel is made for the entire range of flight speeds at altitudes from 200 m to 5000 while the engine is running at maximum capacity and the mode of small gas. Poster worked efficiently, it does not release edited balancing aircraft.

In February 1982 he was transferred to rehearse and plant № 116 drawings and technical documentation for serial production Yak-30 aircraft.

In the opinion of February 7, 1962, compiled TsAGI, TsIAMom and LII after comparative overflights, it was noted that the Yak-30 is fully communicated and surpasses other planes in flight, operational and economic characteristics. At the new plant in Tyumen was launched in a series of RU19-300 engine, developed under the leadership of JI Guseva.

Yak-30 prepared for shipment at the Paris exhibition. But before that NS Khrushchev was made a political decision: as-built jet trainer aircraft training in Czechoslovakia, it was decided to maintain its aircraft, the plane he decided to choose the Czechoslovak. Since then held since August 1961, in the two months over the comparative three aircraft-competitors were formality.

Yak-30 was never launched a series. RU19-300 engine used on the An-24, and then at An-26 as an additional engine power to raise the aircraft on takeoff, it has been successfully applied so far.



Yak-30M (Yak-30KP - command post). The plane escort for the transfer of radio station management teams on board the plane-target.

November 24, 1961 GKAT decided on refurbishing two Yak-30 aircraft in flying command post for the second phase of state trials (drone taking off and landing) aircraft target Yak-25RV-P. They were completed with a positive assessment. Later Yak-30M used in the performance of work with the military-aircraft targets Yak-25RV-I, IL-28 and TU-16.

At Yak-30M front cabin has been transformed into the cabin operator. It was installed teamwork VHF radio transmitter with the DWP-Zs, antenna-feeder device - on the front edge of the stabilizer. Transmitting power 14.5 W, the duration of 2.5 hours of continuous operation, the range of 100 km and at an altitude of 10000 ... 15000 m. In aircraft radio equipment Radio Collins was replaced by RSIU-5, shtyrevaya antenna is installed in front of the cab.

Of the four, two built Yak-30 aircraft stored in the DB, a display at the Air Force Museum in Monine, lost in a crash September 8, 1965



Yak-30V - sketch draft aircraft vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) with two extra lifting TRD RU19-300 on the ground rear cabin. It was started in late 1960, but soon stopped by the development of the Yak-36 aircraft. Above the project worked LM Schechter and VG Tsvelev.



Yak-32 (see Fig. 240) - single-jet aerobatic sports plane on the basis of the Yak-30 (Yak-104), originally known as the Yak-104SP. It served for the development of the technology operation in a circle, on a route for training in adverse weather, day and night, as well as the testing of equipment and perform complex moves higher aerobatics. Leader works KV Sinelytsikov, lead engineer VP Vlasov.

The main differences from the Yak-30: removed the rear cabin, increased to 45 kg of fuel in the tank for the expenditure longer reverse aerobatics, an engine for the inverted flight, with restrictions on height (3000 m) to work at maximum capacity.

The first plane Yak-32 (board "32") was built by order of the Government dated February 4, 1959 ahead of the given time frame of four and a half months - October 13, 1960

GKAT On the orders dated 4 January 1961, in June of that same year, two more aircraft built Yak-32 ( "60" and "70"). Name of the Yak-32 has been used in 1959 for the project sketch with the two supersonic fotorazvedchika TRD VK-13.

From January 17 to July 27, 1961, two Yak-32 aircraft were joint (OKB and LII) test versions of scrimmage ( "32") and pilotazhnom or sports ( "60").

Test version easier to 555 kg: less fuel at 425 kg and the mass of the empty airplane less than 130 kg, including the weight of the removable equipment at less than 25 kg, 7.9 kg of which - by replacing American Radio Collins "for the local. At pilotazhnom variant increased wing space and no Flap.

The joint tests conducted leading Test Pilot of VP Smirnov test pilots-VG Mukhin, YV Petrov, AP Bogorodsky, SN pilots overflew Anokhin, VM Volkov, AL Kolosov, GM Kurkay, I. Grigoriev. Principal Engineer of Tests YB Wiskowski.

The plane was in flight simple, sustainable speed and overloading, with a spacious cabin and excellent overview on the steering and in the air. Served all pieces of direct and inverse aerobatics and complex multi complexes. We obtain a maximum speed of 663 3000 m. The overall conclusion: the aircraft "can be recommended as the Pilot sport-model aircraft for aeroklubov DOSAAF." State test planned for the second quarter of 1961, did not actually take place.

At Yak-32 were installed three registered FAI world records for light jets. The first flight altitude record was set during the first test aircraft ( "32") in the category C-1-d (flight mass of 1750 ... 3000 kg). Two speed records were set in 1965 in the category C-1-c (1000 ... 1750 kg).

The height of 14283 m, February 22, 1961, VG Mukhin; flight mass of 2136 kg, 800 kg traction TRD.

The rate closed at 100 km route - 724430 km / h, January 14, 1965, GG Korchuganova; flight mass of 1740 kg, 900 kg traction TRD.

The speed on the base 15 kilometres ... 25 - 755 km / h, February 19, 1965, PM Shihin; flight mass of 1698 kg, 900 kg traction TRD.

Two aircraft Yak-32 stored in the DB.



Yak-32SH - project light attack. In 1961 the Central airport were demonstrated potential for the application of the Yak-32 as a light attack. The plane with two podkrylnymi holders weapons was shown on the ground with its diverse razlozhennym armament.

By calculating the traction engine 1100 kg, 725 kg of fuel, takeoff weight of 2580 kg or 2900, with mass weapons and 300 respectively to 716 kg. Maximum speed is 685 5000 m. Options suspensions: guns aft-9 (2x150 kg), missiles of different types (from 2x116 to 2x234 kg kg) bombs AB-250 (2x275 kg) or ZB-360 (2x358 kg).



Yak-32P - sport-pilot aircraft. Retrieved on the orders of MAP August 5, 1971 with an experienced TRD RU19P-300 traction 900 kgs. In maslosistema engine has been modified to provide greater length inverted flight.

In addition, there were the following differences from the original Yak-32: negermetizirovannaya cabin with a speed boost from the head; connected Radio Landysh-5 ", the ARC-15 radio (weight 17 kg), giromagnitny compass SMC-1A. Marker receiver, the ARC and SMC-15-1A (total weight 40 kg) were implemented as a removable equipment for use only in the dispenser flights, flights on the route, as well as adverse weather.

In 1972 Yak-32P has been monitoring the factory testing. The tests took place at takeoff weight of 1880 kg, 84 kg installing control recording equipment. Summer evaluation of the aircraft is as high as the Yak-32. Tests conducted pilots YI Mitikov, OA Bulygin. Principal Engineer of the aircraft IA Re.
 

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Combat aircraft




The Yak-25
fighter-interceptor and its modifications


In the history of the domestic aviation can be found aerial cruisers, fighter escort, distinguished and significant long-range flight time. The main task before them was protecting bombers from enemy fighters. At the end of 1940 - ies. a new term - barrazhiruyuschy interceptor, the main problem, unlike his predecessors, became an extended (barrazhiruyuschy) flight route in the area of combat aircraft likely opponent. In early 1950 - ies. AA Mikulin proposed, and S. Yakovlev has supported the idea of establishing a minor TRD with the axial compressor 2000 kgf thrust. The appearance of the engine helped initiate the drafting barrazhiruyuschego interceptor.

In August 1951, came out on the establishment of a government aircraft "120", or the Yak-2AM-5. Subsequently, the abbreviation "AM" unnecessary, the machine after adopting a designation received Yak-25 (Fig. 242).

The aircraft "120" was preceded interceptor Yak-50 and its further development - project Yak-60. Aerodynamic model of the Yak-60, and became the basis for arranging the future Yak-25, and the tanks have taken the place of suspended TRD.

The plane was designed under the radar "Falcon" (RP-6) with the estimated target range of 30 km. The station antenna with a diameter of more than one metre komponovalas very successful in the fuselage interceptor freed from TRD. But it is very late, instead of the sight Sokol had to install less powerful sight Emerald (RP-1) associated with the optical sight ASP-ZN.

In a double cabin aircraft, secure frontal bronesteklom thick broneplitami 105 mm and a thickness of 6 mm to 10, including bronezagolovnik, one after another airman stationed sight and radar operator. Weaponry consisted of two guns N-37L with the total 100 ammunition cartridges (trans-shipment of 200 pcs.). The composition of the equipment consisted of serial radio RSIU-3, an automated radio ARK-5, handsfree device SPU-2R, marker-radio MRP-48, AP-28 autopilot.

December 12, 1951 have been approved layouts interceptor and its intelligence version of the 125. The first flight of the aircraft (Test Pilot of V. Volkov, a leading engineer Leonov MI) was held on June 19, 1952 and January 21, 1953 adopted a report on the results of production tests. In the same year, the aircraft entered the state tests in the Air Force NII.

According to the results of state tests aircraft have adopted and launched into serial production in the Saratov Aviation Plant № 292. Operation of the first mass-produced cars allowed quite quickly identify severe defect - fairing ice compressor TRD AM-5A, amounted thickness of 20 mm and a length of 200 mm with high humidity (over 90%) and outside air temperature of up to O - 5 °. Industry promptly finalized the installation of power by deleting prerequisite to flight accidents for that reason.

Past tests of serial control Yak-25 showed that his flight mass compared to the project increased from 8850 to 9450 kg and a maximum range of account fell from 3380 to 2730 km. And revealed a tendency to self-sustaining aircraft exit at large angles of attack with little turnover pens because longitudinal instability (aerodynamic spoons), with the coefficient of lift force more than 0.6. This has caused a disaster. After that, in the pilot's instruction made appropriate additions. Generally Yak-25 plane was considered fairly reliable, a significant portion of flight accidents were connected with the refusal of low-lying TRD, zasasyvavshih rulezhkah on takeoff and much debris.

The aircraft represented the cantilever monoplane located with the medium-wing and bicycle chassis.

Dvuhlonzheronnoe wing with a sweep angle of 45 ° from the foci had the transverse angle = V - 5 ° and nabiralos TsAGI profiles of the P-12s at the root TsAGI and SR-11 parts in the end. At naveshivalis wing aileron (deviation angles from 25 to - 25 °) with aerodynamic and weight compensation and Flap (corners refusing to 25 takeoff, landing at 50 °) with a fixed axis of rotation. At zakontsovkah wing fairing wing towers located chassis.

Fuselage (1.45 m diameter) - Collins with the skin. In the bow of the radar located sight for him - a double cabin crew compartments of the pillars of the chassis, fuel tanks and various equipment. In the rear brake pads were (1 m2 area, deviation angle 50 °) with hydraulic drive.

Consisted of feathers of the tail stabilizer sagittal driving with a height of the keel and rudder. Horizontal of feathers with the angle of 45 ° sweep area of 4665 m2 nabiralos profiles NACA-000010M. Rule height snabzhalsya trimmers and deviated from - 20 to + 33 °. The vertical sweep of feathers with a 55 ° angle from symmetric profiles nabiralos NACA with relative thickness of 9% from the root to 8% from ending. Rule axial direction with compensation snabzhalsya trimmer and varied angles of ± 26 °.

Chassis - cycling type with a base 5329 m and managed a front wheel size 600x155 mm. Rear reliance had two brake wheel size 800x225 mm, and foil - size 310x135 mm.

Yak-25 radar with the Emerald adopted in accordance with the decision of the Government on September 8, 1953 According to the document should have been to build a second copy of the Yak-25 engines with AM-9 with a rich, two N-37 guns and rockets ( 32 ARS-57, or 4 TRS-190 - against overloading instead suspended Stinger fuel tank). In setting the envisaged achieving maximum speed 1150 km / h at an altitude of 5000 m and 10000 times climb m - 2 minutes, the ceiling is not practical below 16500 m and length of the flight up to 4 h with an outboard fuel tank (previously it would not exceed 3 hours 40 min and 3 h 10 min without additional tank, and AS Yakovlev has promised to bring the duration of serial machines, ranging from 51 - and until 4 pm In addition, the experimental car "120" assumed install radar Sokol.



Yak-25M (Fig. 243, 244). In 1953 created upgraded with interceptor radar Sokol involving optical sight ASP-5N, and TRD AM-9A, with cravings for takeoff 3250 kgs. And because of the larger diameter engines decreased square root and external flaps. Guns NR-37L replaced by two NR-23-calibre 23 mm, and at the bottom of the fuselage made two niches for rockets TRS-190 and ARS-57, refined the fuselage frames from 9 - go to 17 - year. In 1955, state testing completed advanced interceptor with the same name, which was equipped with radar Sokol, but had TRD AM-5A. This machine has gone into serial production, and has become the mass of the entire family of the Yak-25.



Yak-25R (Figure 245). According to the Government from August 10, 1951 based interceptor was built in 1953 and handed over to the fall in factory tests fotorazvedchik Yak-25R (the "125"). The lead car was on the engineer NG Kolpakov and Test Pilot of F.L. Abramov. Instead, the radar operator in the crew car entered the navigator, which is set in the cabin window lookout for a review of the lower hemisphere and sight-sight OPB-1R. In the bow of the aircraft, which was earlier radars, airborne placed AFA-33 with removable lens with a focal distances 50, 75 and 100 mm at shaking installation and AFA-39M for promising shooting of removable lens with a focal length of 50 mm and 75.

Instead of Guns N-37L has been installed an HP-23 on the right side of the fuselage (80 ammunition cartridges). Simplified armoured crew, leaving bronespinku pilot, and two rear broneschitok bronezagolovnika. The composition of the equipment introduced machine-rate AK-2 in case of failure of one of the engines. Fuelling reached a take-off weight 9755 kg, mainly at the expense of additional fuel mass was 3800 kg. This range is increased to 3110 km.

From December 25, 1953 to February 16, 1954 Yak-25R passed state tests. During the tests found that at an altitude of 6000 m at a speed of 800 km / h happened loss longitudinal stability aircraft (aerodynamic "spoon" just in a different mode), which require refinement stabilizer. But the most serious defect was the lack of review of the navigator bottom of the hemisphere through the front window of sight. At serial aircraft cabin navigator had to be postponed in the bow portion of the fuselage.



Yak-25MR (see Fig. 245). It was built specifically for the aviation fleet in accordance with the decision of the Government on May 10, 1954 According to the build this aircraft was similar to the Pilot Yak-25R, but was intended for photo-radar and marine intelligence purposes. At one car left the N-37L cannon, and were placed in the bow of the station SPRS-1 "Curse" and fotoustanovku FA-RL-1 with AFA-33/75 for prospective and planned surveys. The defendant SRO replaced at zaproschik respondent SRZO-1. In connection with this radioprozrachny nose fairing was replaced by a metal cap with a radio for SPRS-1 and 500-mm elongated fuselage. At the same time, removed the brake pads, and in niche left at the site of one of them placed the emergency and rescue boat LAS-5M. Radio equipment remained the same except for the replacement of the device at the negotiating SPU-5 and the installation of radio stations connected RSB 1-70M. Tests Yak-25MR never completed because of the unreliable radar SPRS-1.



Yak-25B (B 125) (see Fig. 245). Experienced fast easy bomber was built on August 25, 1954 in the bow of the fuselage, which was previously a radar sight, the navigator's cabin placed with the corresponding equipment. Because of the accident, occurred during production tests, EDO Yak-115 stand-25B Air Force for public trials on May 10, 1955, however, by that time, the pace of development of aviation technology have been so rapid that the new machine fairly quickly outdated morally and remained in an experienced copy. Initially being supersonic aircraft.



Yak-25K. Thus marked several different options interceptors with air-to-air missiles. The first of these was the aircraft, equipped with guided missiles RS-2-U, navodyaschimisya radioluchu on goal. Several such machines based at the aerodrome under Krasnovodsky where to test elements of their operational use. One machine with a radar "Diamond" and one with "Emerald-2" and used for the development of the missile tests samonavodyaschihsya 7L-K and K-75.



Yak-25RR. Radiation intelligence officer, is widely used to collect air samples in areas adjacent to the nuclear polygon, and enterprises engaged processing radioactive materials.



Yak-25MSH (Figure 246). Removed from service aircraft partly in radio peredelyvalis target Yak-25MSH providing automatic takeoff, flight into the zone and managed aircraft with MiG-15 UTI landing. Yak-25MSH manning automatic control system composed of discrete devices MGPU-1 radio, automatic cleaning system chassis, refined autopilot AP-28MYA, altimeter RV-2, beacon SVB-5 and recording equipment missteps. Ended in February 1960, tests showed that the plane was on its parameters significantly exceeded the target, based on the MiG-15, MiG-17 and IL-28. Duration Yak-25MSH reached two hours, it can be applied at altitudes of 600 to 13000 m, building up to a maximum speed of 1070 km / h. The plane was used for target-testing of aircraft air defense complexes based aircraft Su-9, Tu-28 and MiG-21P.

Replacement weapons Yak-25 were used as flying all sorts of laboratories. They refined guidance system of cruise missiles P-35, P-6, and their modifications, tested katapultnye chairs and various equipment.

Yak-25 is the first domestic barrazhiruyuschim interceptor and operated in air defense before the end of 1960 - ies. When it came to replace the Tu-128.



Yak-25RV-1 (Fig. 247). On this plane, and to this day goes much talk and rumors, it is not clear why he was still. Yak-25RV created in accordance with the decision of the Government on April 16, 1958 document was so important that it stood just two neck: "Top Secret" and "special importance". The draft of the decree required to develop a single high-altitude interception of intelligence for the development of the intelligence with subsonic velocities based on the Yak-25R direct wing, two engines R11-300 with the following data: the ceiling 20000 ... 21000 m, the maximum speed at an altitude of 15 000 m - 900 km / h at an altitude of 20000 m - 800 km / h at an altitude flight range -2500 m 20000 km, at an altitude of 13000 ... 14000 m - 5000 km. Provide for the installation of HP-23 gun with 50 rounds of ammunition and ammunition camera AFA-40 for a planned shooting. In addition, prior to June 1958 and the Ministry of Defence GKAT obyazyvalis submit to the government proposals on the use of Yak-25RV to combat drifting balloons, as well as in the radio version of the target aircraft.

The first car built in option-purpose aircraft. Factory tests took place between March and August 1959 (Test Pilot of Vladimir Smirnov). 13 29 1959 g. VP Smirnov found at the Yak-25RV under the symbol "RV" two world records altitude - 20456 m with a cargo of 1000 kg and 20174 m with a cargo of 2000 kg.

Yak-25RV can be considered a completely new machine - compared to the Yak-25R it changed the entire layout. Double cabin crew transformed into single room. Instead sagittal wing installed directly without mechanization. Engines AM-9 replaced at the high-R11V-300. Reliance wing steel chassis go against the direction of flight. Adjustable stabilizer done, and the management of aileron, rudder mechanism Heights and turning nose wheel - with the help of gidrousiliteley. Removed the brake pads, with the board in the right place to set the fuselage cannon NR-23.

The members comprised the radio phone-RSIU ZM (RSIU-4M), an automated radio ARC-54M, defendants SRO-2 and ODS-57M.

From May to August 1961 Yak-25RV-in option 1-purpose aircraft passed state tests in the Air Force Scientific Research Institute (Test Pilot of Belyasnik PN).

The plane was convenient to use. But because of the lack of lighting equipment, gondola system, as well as the radio neukomplektovannosti it can be used only in ordinary weather. Airplane-purpose could not perform horizontal flight at altitudes of 12000 ... 16000 m retracted chassis because of excessive traction motors on the regime of small gas and speed restrictions on the head. Turn off the same one TRD to achieve this goal, it was not because of lack of oxygen fuel. Otherwise, to start the engine had stopped to decline to 6000 m.

Machine and studied in LII. In particular, in 1960-1961 he was. Test Pilot of BV Ladles tested for strength, and AA Shcherbakov - at the spin. In the same period, the Yak-25RV-1 used as targets in the interception of aircraft development of the Su-9 and MiG-21P.



Yak-25RV-II (Fig. 248). In May 1962, state testing began Yak-25RV-II in the radio version of the target funds intended for the development of the jet and intercept subsonic weapons purposes. Compared with the predecessor aircraft Yak-25RV-II equipped in accordance with the requirements of the customer: added a marker MRP-56P-radio, autopilot AP-28IR, radio RV-2, recording equipment passage MAK-3, lighting and other equipment.

The presenters at the car at that stage was an engineer VA Segodnyaev, test pilots-II Foresters and VV Yatsun. Flight characteristics of the aircraft was lower than that of Yak-25RV-1, the ceiling fell by 1.5 ... 2%, and the practical range - 10 to 15% .... As a result, decided to use the Yak-25RV-II as a manned (and after making a resource - Unmanned) target.

Based on the high-altitude aircraft designed projects radiation intelligence Yak-25RR and aircraft for combat automatic 25ASH Yak-air balloons. There were attempts to bring the aircraft range to 5000 km, but they have remained on paper. Facts Yak-25RV use as a high-altitude intelligence is not known. Yak-25RV-II serially produced at the plant in Ulan-Ude.

Among the laboratories were flying Yak-25 with the radar "Sokol-2K" used to test guided missiles K-7 and K-8. At two Yak-25M receiving mark SM-6, planned missile tests K-6, but in connection with the termination of the development of the missile interceptors former finalized for the solution of other problems.

At least two Yak-25 simulators were for sea-based cruise missiles P-6 and P-35. At Yak-25 to test administered stabilizer and icer device TRD RD-9, and R11-300, with the studied air planes before stopping device planted.

One machine is used for research and remote control systems automaton travel sustainability aircraft. Several laboratories have been tested flying katapultnye chairs.

At Yak-25RV (see Fig. 247) examined the critical phenomena associated with the dynamics and handling aircraft due to defects in individual outer surface and bounce on-board systems functional.




Yak-26 Bomber



Since the inception of the Yak-25 interceptor took very little time and require more modern military front supersonic vehicles: interceptor, intelligence and the bomber. The reason for their development has become a government of 30 1955 g.

The first was received in EDO symbol "121" and in the series - Yak-27. Second, intelligence-fighter - "122", the future Yak-27R, and the third bomber - "123", or the Yak-26. All are calculated under the engines RD-9.

According future assignments Yak-26 (see Fig. 245) had a speed 1400 km / h, climb to an altitude of up to 16700 m and fly to a distance of 2200 km. Normal load wondered Bombings 1200 kg, which is consistent with the mass of nuclear weapon, and the maximum - 3000 kg. The basis of the front light Yak-26 bomber with two RD-9AK aircraft became "B 125. When looking like its predecessor Yak-26 (Fig. 249) differed modified fuselage geometry of the bow, enabling not only reduce frontal resistance, but also the navigator improve working conditions, including a review.

Changed and the wing. The previous sweep 45 ° for greater achievements had to reduce its speed relative to the thickness of 4.2 ... 5.2%, depending on the section. Improved aerodynamics while continuing traction engines and slightly increased flight mass allowed to bring up to a maximum speed of 1230 km / h at an altitude of 10600 m, which corresponds to M = 1.15. Thus, the Yak-26 was the first supersonic bomber domestic, the truth has yet experienced.

Armament aircraft consisted of svobodnopadayuschih bombs (fire from 250 to 1500 kg) in the following combinations: one for 1200 or 1500 kg kg 2x500, 8x100 kg, 2x500 and 2x250 kg, 8x250 kg. Under the wing assumed suspension rockets ARS-240, the cumulative KARS-212, -160, -57 and turbojet TRS-82, -212, -132.

Assignments predpisyvalas installation stern artillery gun installation AM-23 calibre 23 mm tube and 100 rounds of ammunition. It should be noted that for the shooting of guns not intended nor radar or optical sight. The only way to monitor the rear semi was at periscope pilot. At the stern there is a lot of conflicting installation information. The first guns first appeared on the second prototype, and then in the first. Serial packaged Yak-26 aircraft guns ranging from № 0103.

The composition consisted of equipment connected RSB 1-70M and teamwork RSIU-4 radios, automatic radio ARK-5, marker-radio MRP-48P, sighting radar system PSBN-MA involving optical sight OPB-11P, and the AP-40 autopilot. For the Yak-26 was developed radiodalnomernaya station "Lotus".

A pilot and the navigator survived previous katapultnye chairs with shutter. The first flight was on the Yak-26 was completed in spring of 1956 (Test Pilot of VM Volkov). The issue of the release of an experimental batch bombers had been settled even before the tests. According to the Government from January 5, 1956 plant № 30 required to build within three months of 10 cars. Two of them were required to install engines RD-9F, with the rate should be increased to 1350 ... 1400 km / h. After nearly three months, on 28 March 1956, has reached another ordinance, which required an Yak-26 with the RD-9F in control tests in the third quarter of 1956

In June 1956, completed factory testing phase next month and presented the first copy Minaviaprom bombers in the Air Force NII. State test, which took place from 27 July to 28 August the same year, were not completed. Out of 110 scheduled flights fulfilled only 27. This was revealed poor handling and stability characteristics of overloading and speed at takeoff and landing, a great effort because of the friction in the management of aircraft valezhka wing and the loss of efficiency at high speeds, inadequate margin between the rate of climb and the speed limits on flatteru.

The Commission for the joint test Yak-26 plane was forced to August 28, 1956 to suspend the testing program for the second phase, and demanded to install a new wing for the ten aircraft Yak-26 pilot lot before revising its effectiveness at the experimental machine.

At the end of 1956 the first prototype installed reinforced wing, adjustable stabilizer and augmented engines RD-9F, finalized lamp entrance hatch, and the navigator katapultnye chairs. On the front edge of the console, he has "teeth", playing the role of the vortex generator.

This is a well-known technical solution, on the one hand, improved aerodynamic characteristics of the wing, preventing access to the critical angles of attack, but on the other hand, increased aerodynamic drag. But opportunities for the development of the new wing of the SDB because of a lack of time was not. Since October 3, 1957 at the opening of experienced aircraft began bombing weapons tests by dumping bombs on subsonic (900 km / h) and supersonic speeds (1300 km / h).

In 1957, fired a second car with an experienced similar adjustments, the same RD-9F and radiodalnomernoy station Lotus involving sight OPB-11. At the Air Force plane in the NII investigated reverse wing.

By the end of 1957, completed factory testing of experimental machines, which confirmed the basic characteristics of account. The maximum speed reached the top repartition 1400 km / h, the ceiling - 16800 m with a maximum range - 2400 km. State test conducted on three planes, including the first serial.

Accidents related to the design and manufacturing defects, constantly accompanied on flights of Yak-26. The plane Yak-26 was never adopted by the arms. His performance specifications are no longer meet the requirements of the customer, and in 1958, all work on it stopped. The experience of the first supersonic bomber subsequently useful in the design Yak-28.




Yak-27 family


Yak-27. According to government regulation, interceptor created on the basis of the Yak-25M, was to reach a maximum speed of up to 1300 km / h at an altitude of 10000 m, raised to the height of 2.5 min, a practical ceiling 16000 ... 17000 m and fly to a distance of 2000 km, with the aeronautical fuel. On the plane needed to install two 30 mm cannon fire with the general LAU 200 cartridges and 24 rockets ARS-57 turbojet or two shells TRS-190. In December 1955, the machine should provide for joint trials with the customer.

In fact, double-interceptor fighter Yak-27 with a gun armament and RD-3250 kgf thrust 9AK at forcing regime was built in 1956 in May of that same year concluded its factory test (Test Pilot of V. Volkov, engineer Test Solovyov BB). Flight characteristics Yak-27 basically consistent with the exception of the specified maximum speed, not prevyshavshey 1235 km / h (M = 1,15). Options chassis left, as the Yak-25.

In the bow of a modified fuselage placed radar sight Sokol-M "(" Falcon-2). The aircraft was placed standard flight and navigational equipment and the connected, in particular radio station RSIU-4, automatic radiokompasom ARK-5, zaproschikom respondent SRZO-2 and MRP-marker-radio 48P.

During the tests revealed Yak-27 reverse wing associated with a lack of rigidity wing. To eliminate reverse wing withdrew from the console Flap, and aileron moved closer to the center.



Yak-27K (see Fig. 245). The emergence of interceptor Yak-27 coincided with the creation of the first domestic samonavodyaschihsya missiles. In competition, which involved missiles K-7, K-9 and K-8, the latter has won. In accordance with the order of MAP from May 16, 1957 № 0201 first flight was completed under a system of K-8.

Flight testing of K-8 began in January 1958, the second interceptor edited Yak-27K with radar Sokol-2K. " He characterized reinforced wing and adjustable stabilizer. The aircraft were installed engines RD-9F. It was expected that the maximum speed of the aircraft with missiles will not exceed 1260 km / h. But flight tests yielded much on 10 16200 1260 km length and up to 2.5 hours of flight In one of the flights of Yak-27K disaster occurred, interceptor hit the area longitudinal instability. Tests of missiles K-8 were continued on other machines, and successfully completed in April 1959,



Yak-27V (see Fig. 245). In mid-1950 - ies. aviakonstruktory trying to raise the ceiling value of practical aircraft were set on additional engines. In accordance with the orders of MAP of 11 and 27 July 1956 in the tail part of the first pilot Yak-27 auxiliary power installation installed S-155 and RD-modified TRD 9AKE. The composition of auxiliary power unit Yak-27V interceptor rocket engine design of a part of LS Dushkina with turbonasosnym unit (TNA). As fuel rocket engine used in kerosene and oxidizer - nitric acid. To drive TNA intended hydrogen peroxide. Crew cut, leaving one pilot. Lifted some of the equipment, braking parachute, thus facilitating the car. Changed the angle to install stabilizer + 4 at - 2 °.

For the safety of pilots introduced in his space suit equipment SI-3, as foreseen assignments achieving a maximum speed of 2000 km / h, the actual ceiling 25000 m. LRE was working at maximum capacity at an altitude of 20000 m for at least three minutes.

November 16, 1956 Test Pilot of OKB-115 VG Mukhin fulfilled by air, having received index Yak-27V (symbol occurs Yak-27RS), the first flight checklist without engines. Lead engineer has been testing VA Zabora. During flight testing was reached maximum speed of 1900 km / h and 23500 m at the height of the estimated 24000 m. Experts believed that this is not the limit value and ceiling can be raised to 26000 m.

But to complete flight tests of Yak-27V not possible because of the disaster on December 4, 1956 Test pilot GA Tinyakov died.

In 1957, the plant began № 292 serial production has not yet passed state tests interceptors. In 1957, ten were issued Yak-27 with RD-9F. Eight of them have finalized wing dirywio off to the root nervyure aileron and rejected socks trailing down parts.

In early 1959, in accordance with the proposal MAP all work on the Yak-27V, and indeed on other aircraft with a combined power plant, ceased.



Yak-27R (Fig. 250, 251) - intelligence, built on the Yak-27 fighter. Pilot machine produced in 1957

In accordance with the technical requirements of tactical aircraft with RD-9F had a speed 1400 km / h, climb to an altitude of 17000 m and stay in the air up to three hours. Provided for the installation of 23 mm cannon fire ammunition with 50 rounds of ammunition. But to realize this was not possible.

On the orders of MAP from December 20, 1956 at the Yak-27 has established and managed finalized wing stabilizer. The first test flight of the factory and held Test Pilot of VG Mukhin, in the State Scientific Research Institute of the Air Force tests were conducted on the first two serial Yak-27R in the period September-October 1958

During the tests on the machine № 01 exceeded the maximum speed, resulting in a reverse wing leading to the overloading of the estimated above. Consequently, the deformed wing. The second plane, the benchmark for the plant N 115, finalized mezhlonzheronnuyu part of the wing, replacing the root nervyuroy between 21 and nervyuroy duralyuminovuyu steel plating to 4 mm thick. In addition, more stringent set ending, uvelichivshie wingspan at 0.7 m, as well as more severe protivoflatternye goods.

Wing (similar wing bomber Yak-26) - sredneraspolozhennoe, dvuhlonzheronnoe sweep with 45 ° of the foci. Nabiralos profiles of the P-53 TsAGI relative thickness of 4.2% in beads and TsAGI S-12S relative thickness of 5.2% from the projection on the front edge of the wing and 5% at the ends. At wing and aileron naveshivalis Flap with weight and aerodynamic compensation shifted to the axis of the fuselage. The left elerone was before trimming, and on the right - otgibayuschayasya plate ( "knife"). The wing had transverse V - 5 ° angle and installing + 1 °.

Fuselage - Collins round section. At the navigator lamp installed receiver air pressure CVP-7. Between booths located pilot and navigator with fotooborudovaniem compartment, but for the pilot's cabin - fuel tanks.

Deliveries of feathers perestavnogo stabilizer consisted of driving with a height of the keel and rudder. Changing the angle of feathers has installed electric horizontal traverse mechanism reshuffle, which was a front stabilizer to the hub mounting clavicle. Rule height and direction were aerodynamic and weighing compensation. At the bottom half before sending rudder trim, but at the top - "knife".

The chassis - the type of cycling. Front primary reliance on the wheel size 600x155 mm and the rear pillar with double wheels braking size 880x230 mm in getting back on niche fyuzelyazhnye flight. Management was too front wheel to the mechanism of release and cleaning flaps. When issued flaps turn angles do not exceed 12 °, and when removed - 45 °. Reliance wing also go to the wheels back on the flight to the special fairing, which were inside the cylinders with compressed air and protivoflatternye goods.

The power plant consisted of two TRD RD-9F located in the gondola engines under the wing. Fuel volume of 4665 litres (3880 kg) were soft in the five fuselage tanks. Since 14 - Series provides for the installation of suspended two wing tanks with a capacity of 1500 litres.

The composition consisted of radio equipment: Teamwork VHF RSIU-4V (or RSIU-5V) and connected KB 1 RSB-70 with the US-9DM receiver, as well as artillery R-108; handsfree device SPU-2 (or ISPs-7), ABC radio -5, protection station tail "Siren-2", the defendant SRO-2, marker-radio MRP-56L, radio RV-U.

High equipment included a set of oxygen equipment RUC-1M and upper-compensating costumes crew MCC-2M.

Weaponry consisted of a gun NR-23, located on the right board, with 150 rounds of ammunition and lowers kollimatornogo sight PKI. In the blister was sight-sight PV-2. AFA-42 airborne fastened on shaking installation AKAFU-ZZM.

Aileron control system and the height of the steering wheel - an irreversible booster with a spring mechanism downloads. Office trimmers - electromechanical. Office stabilizer - a hydraulic, in an emergency - with the help of the air system. Office rudder - a direct, mechanical.

Antiobledenitelnaya system consisted of air-thermal system for heating the front edges of the wing and shells vozduhozabornogo device (DDT). Hot air selected from one of the stages of the compressor.

The presenters at the car on the public stage tests were engineer OV Yamschikova, test pilots-PN Belyasnik and PF Kabrelev, navigators Test-VI Volkov and IP Failures. BM pilots overflew Adrianov and SA Mikoyan.

Tests have shown that the characteristics of the aircraft Yak-27R is not relevant to those in the ruling government. Not satisfied customer and landing characteristics. The stiffness of the wing is not consistent with the standards of strength in 1953, was required to increase the speed of the start of a critical reverse wing.

The act on the results of state tests indicated that the flight had been achieved speed corresponding to M = 1.37 at an altitude of 9500 m, and the overloading of 4 metres at an altitude of 4000, with the airframe strains were detected. They also stated that "the aircraft in the entire speed range obsledovannom horizontal flight, climb and planning resistant." Spoon "is observed at M = 0.92 ... 0.97 and joins deviation stabilizer and rudder heights."

In 1958, he was released from Yak-27R bombopritselom LSO-3, AP-28 autopilot and remote astrokompasom DAK-I designed for the development of the intelligence equipment Yak-28 aircraft.

Passed the test Yak-27R with the ski-wheeled chassis and intelligence Yak-27RN. In early 1961 the planned modernisation of the Yak-27R for intelligence night and altimeters. However, all work in this direction stopped in connection with a prospective design aircraft Yak-28R.

In accordance with an order from the government on July 2, 1958 Yak-27R launched into serial production in the Saratov Aviation Plant.




Yak-28 bomber family


Development of lung front bomber "129" was launched in accordance with the decree of March 28, 1956 The aircraft had a maximum speed of 1500 ... 1600 km / h, with a range of 1200 kg bombs -2200 ... 2400 km, practical ceiling -- 16000 ... 17000 m run -1000 m, mileage - 1100 m Bombings strain - up to 3000 kg.

An experienced aircraft with engines R11A-300 built in 1957, using elements of the airframe serial Yak-26. It seemed that the plane was "129" different from the Yak-26 only power plant and high-wing, which gave an opportunity to significantly increase bombootseka. Modifications to the aircraft planned to install stern gun installation. But there is no place it succeeded due to the design of the machine.

March 5, 1958 Test Pilot of VM Volkov and navigator Test-NM Shipowski carried by the pilot car first flight. Factory tests were led by leading engineer VN Pavlova. The aircraft was basically in line with the requirements presented to it. However, the maximum value in the range of 400 km has been given below, there were insufficient resistance machines at high angles of attack and the fall in recruitment efficiency wing height of the instrument speed 900 km / h.

Customer demand prior to the transfer of public vehicles to test faults install tested katapultnye chairs, allowing rescue crew in flight at speeds of up to 2000 km / h, operate aircraft with ground airfields, radar bombing sight LSO-3, followed by the replacement of his sight Initiative -2 or radiodalnomernoy station Lotus, as well as radio RV-17, radio RSIU-5, handsfree device SPU-7, an automatic radio ARC-54 and other equipment. In connection with the termination of release NR-23 guns were required to replace their fixed-AO 9 (GSH-23) with 75 pods ... 100 rounds of ammunition.

Finalization of cars long, and only on September 14, 1959 began public testing (commission headed by L. Zholudev). The lead engineer on the car were SI Blatov, Test Pilot of FM Sobolewski and navigator Test-AM Halyavin.

Even during flight tests have become embedded in serial production under the symbol Yak-28 engines with R11AF-300 with a constant degree forsazha. Five were released Yak-28 with a radio navigation system near RSBN-2 "Body" and 37 aircraft - Yak-28B-3 with the LSO (Figure 252). Almost all Yak-28B transferred to the customer military training. At the same time guaranteeing maximum speed limits in 1600 ... 1700 km / h, practical ceiling - 14000 ... 15000 m, range tanks without suspended until 1550 km.

In August and November 1959, was scheduled to install the Yak-28 world records following: fly a vicious 1000 - km route at a speed of 1200 ... 1300 km / h, and on a route length of 2000 km show the average speed of at least 1000 km / h. But those dreams have not been fulfilled.



Yak-28L (Fig. 253, see Fig. 252) - the first bomber changed. During a joint test (from September 14, 1959 to May 31, 1960), a government commission decision-thirds of experienced car engines with R11AF-300 modified by replacing the LSO-3 and OPB-11 at radiodalnomernuyu station Lotus (DBS-X) . The station Lotus placed in the cabin of the navigator, worked together with the outside of the two radio stations and allowed to carry out bombings sighting bombs FAB-1500 at speeds up to 1500 km / h.

The composition of the equipment introduced exchange rate system COP-3, replaced zaproschik respondent SRZO-2 on the SRO-2M, instead of AP-28BR autopilot and radar Auto ARC-54I set of AP-28-1 and the ARC-10, withdrew coherent radio RSB-1 70ZH, leaving command RSIU-5.

Increased the capacity of the fuel system and improvements to the installation of power by replacing diffusers vozduhozabornyh devices on the elliptical.

Armament bomber Yak-28L initially consisted of a HP-23 guns and bombs svobodnopadayuschih fire from 100 to 1500 kg. In 1964, the HP-23 to replace Cannon GSH-23L, tentatively tested at Yak-28L № 0902.

Only four months left to refine the machine. Flight test aircraft carried out during the period from September 30, 1960 to January 14, 1961 for the leading car at the stage of production tests were engineers Leonov and YV Petrov, V. pilots Volkov and VG Mukhin, the navigator NM Shipowski, but on the state tests - SI engineers Blatov and AI Lobanov, pilots SG Dedukh, LM Jars and VE Khomyakov.

The main disadvantage of the car was degenerate in connection with the installation of the station Lotus review front of the semi cab navigator. We had to change the cabin windows, but eliminate this defect and failed. There have also been bombs inconvenience in the harness. Nevertheless, November 27, 1961-28L aircraft Yak was adopted by the Air Force.

Trehlonzheronnoe highest wing aircraft technology center there had been, executed as a unit with the fuselage, and two console recruited from the profiles of variable thickness TsAGI P-43 and P-S12 TsAGI. Angle swept wing of the tricks - 45 °, the installation - 2 ° angle of transverse V equal - 6 ° on the front lonzheronu. On the front edge of the wing, the wing area is a projection aerodynamic - "tooth", and on the console between the fuselage and engine gondola - aerodynamic walls. The wing is equipped with a sliding zakrylkami and aileron with weight and aerodynamic compensation, and on the left there is elerone trim.

Aircraft fuselage - Collins all-round section rolling in the rear of the oval. In front of the fuselage cabin located navigator and pilot compartment of the front chassis supports, in the middle part - center, bombootsek, fuel tanks and landing gear compartment back support, in the rear fuselage - various equipment and braking parachute compartment. In the cab there gargrot changes to forkil. In traction control are fairing helm, pipes and various electrical communication.

Of feathers consists of the keel to the rudder and located it with a stabilizer perestavnogo helm Heights. Dvuhlonzheronny clavicle angle is 54 ° sweep through tricks and rudder direction - the weight and aerodynamic compensation. Stabilizer 55 ° sweep through tricks consists of dvuhlonzheronnyh consoles connected transverse beam, tilt connected to the rear fin, and ensuring lonzheronu changing its angle of the installation.

The main airframe structural materials are aluminum alloys D16TV and V95TV.

Chassis - cycling type consists of a front and rear of two towers, in retractable fyuzelyazhnye subdivision, and odnokolesnyh wing pylons, in the fairing on the retractable zakontsovkah consoles. The front pillar with braking wheels CT-82 / 2 - managed, allowing turn at ± 40 ° angles. The rear wheels braking reliance completed CT-61 / 3. The wheels of the main pillars to the size 660x200 mm and fitted protivoyuzovym device, and the reliance - nitrogen hydraulic shock absorbers. Wing reliance have combined nitrogen hydraulic shock absorbers and springs with the wheel size 310x135 mm. Track wing pillars of 10.72 m, 7.76 mm base chassis. To reduce mileage used braking parachute PT5510-58 from the dome area of 19 m2.

The power plant consists of two 300-R11AF2 TRD (at the first machines - R11AF-300) located in the gondola under the wing of the console. At the entrance of frontal DDT each gondola engine has controlling central body (cone). Every engine is fitted with devices autonomous launch, oxygen recharge, as well as the gondola system. Fuel - aviation kerosene TS-1 or T-1 - located in six fuselage tanks with a capacity of 5275 litres overall and two suspended (under the wing of the console) tanks of 1050 litres of volume.

The system of governance in the roll and pitch channels - a booster, in the channel yaw - a tough mechanical traction. There autopilot AK-28K-1 and AK-rate machine 2K.

The hydraulic system is divided into primary and duplicates. She manages handlebar height, aileron and the situation stabilizer and the central body DDT. In addition, through its management occurs doors rocket engine nozzle, and the issuance of cleaning flaps and landing gear, opening and closing valves bombolyuka.

The air system is divided into primary and salvage. Principal provides the mechanism for turning the front pillar chassis, wheels braking system, as well as the release of the brake parachute. Emergency system except carry functions designed for the issuance of flaps and landing gear.

Armament consists of fire bombs ranging from 100 to 3000 kg. Bombs fire up to 500 kg are mounted on the cassette holder ASM-226, and over 500 kg - to balochnom holder DB-4. Bombootsek thermal control system is designed to spetsboepripasov. To create interference by enemy radar device "Automat-2I, for the shooting of metallized glass - reflector of radio waves.



Yak-28I (Fig. 254, see Fig. 252). Almost simultaneously with the Yak-28L bomber passed the test Yak-28I Coupled with the sight: a radar Initiative-2 and optical OPB-16. An experienced aircraft built at the plant № 115 in December 1960 in accordance with the government decision of January 5, 1959 Engines R11F-300 to replace R11AF2-300 jet nozzle with vserezhimnym and round-air devices. Increased to 1000 litres fuel by changing the order of its formulation. In the rudder control system introduced damper "dry friction." Installed turboholodilny unit with greater productivity, as well as fire-autonomous system, the mass protivoflatternyh goods at the end of the wing increased to 150 kg.

Upgraded radio equipment, establishing coherent radio Prism, radio navigation aids near-2, the navigation device instead Computing navigational indicator NI-50BI, station ACT-3 instead of "Siren-2, an advanced autopilot AP-28K1 etc. The aircraft lifted radio station 1RSB-70ZH receiver with the US-9M and radar. As a result of improvements airframe fuselage length increased by 550 mm. The presenters on the Yak-28I during production tests were engineers, MI Leonov and YV Petrov, V. pilots Volkov and VG Mukhin, the navigator NM Shipowski.

In May 1962, flight tests have transferred to public (YN Kosolapenkov lead engineer, test pilot and navigator VV Dobrowolski Test Halyavin AM). 28 1962-1300 m. As it turned out, it has become a cause of instability of the contour: angular velocity sensor pitch - drive autopilot - handlebar height - elastic plane.

Tests Yak-28I long. In November 1963 in the Research Institute of the Air Force received a second serial aircraft № 3940102, issued plant № 39, and in April 1964 - the third flight № 3940103, replacing an experienced car vyrabotavshuyu guaranteed resource.

During the tests the bomber revealed a number of defects, demanding an urgent remedy. Among them: shaking the aircraft that appeared in flight with open doors bombolyuka at a speed corresponding to M = 1.2 ... 1.4 ... at the height of 10000 12000 m, "valezhka" at an altitude of 7500 m and a speed of 450 instrument ... 650 km / h. Nevertheless, in 1964 the first Yak-28I began to emerge from assembly plants.



Yak-28R (Fig. 255, see Fig. 252). Development of intelligence began in late 1960, the Government stated in the ordinance on the establishment of a Yak-28R as R11AF2-300 engines, and with R21A-300. In the case where the engine R21A-300 aircraft would reach a maximum speed of 2400 ... 2500 km / h, to reach a height of 18000 ... 19000 m and fly to a distance of 2700 km.

In bombootseke intelligence officer posted five replacement kits intelligence equipment. In addition to surveying the assembly included pulsing illumination installation SDU-2. Increased to 550 litres fuel. To improve navigation in the survey increased cabin space glazing lamp, a pilot in the cockpit with a flat glass roofs replaced on the wedge. As a result, the Air Force received a car, almost totally meets their requirements.

In March 1962, worked maketnaya commission on 10 September of that year completed the construction of experimental machines based Yak-28L. The final compartment of intelligence equipment has three sections with glazed fotolyukami.

Joint intelligence tests took place from September 28, 1962 to March 1, 1963 have been leading from OKB engineer SV Fedorov, airman VP Smirnov and navigator NI Samokhodkin from NII Air Force - engineer VA Besedin, Test Pilot of VM Komov and navigator Test VT Marfunenkov.

In 1965 Yak-28R launched into serial production at the plant № 39. The first car kits fotorazvedyvatelnym equipment.



Yak-28BI. In 1963, a Yak-28BI intelligence officer with the radar Initiative-2 and the station side-scan synthetic aperture. In the same year, bypassing the stage of state tests, the aircraft fired into serial production without approved model cars. Until the end of 1964, were released 50 aircraft. The presenters at the car during production tests were engineer SI Yaskov, airman YV Petrov and navigator NM Shipowski. Later in the intelligence apparatus had been in radio intelligence "Cub-3 and Rhombus-4A (4 B"). Yak-28RR. In 1964, the intelligence officer fired radiation Yak-28RR gondola with a filter-air samplers. Typically, the aircraft used by its intended purpose in the areas of nuclear testing.



Yak-28U (Fig. 256, see Fig. 252). For education and training of crew in 1960 based on the Yak-28B developed educational training aircraft Yak-28U (129 U) with engines R11AF-300 fitted with a nozzle and unregulated dvuhpozitsionnymi forsazhem. Jak X-28B lifted coherent radio station Navigation indicator NI-50IM, radio, bombing and small arms, including sight-3 and LSO OPB-15, the station "Siren-2 and one from the battery. In doing so, provided installation kollimatornogo sight PKI-1 and fotopulemeta ACU-5. Opening and closing bombootseka, which can be installed additional fuel tank with a capacity of 1350 litres, was done only on the ground. Factory test Yak-1962 g. The lead engineer of EDO were NG Kolpakov, airman VP Smirnov and navigator NI Samokhodkin.

From February 27, 1961 to February 20, 1962 Yak-28U satisfactorily passed state tests. The lead engineer on the car were VV Usov, SA pilots Rychkov, SG Dedukh, V. Dobrowolski and Y. Suchow. According to the pilots test technology piloting the Yak-28U technology is not different from piloting the Yak-28B. In 1961 the factory in Irkutsk released the same machine, in the next year - 32 Yak-28U. Their serial production continued until approximately 1965,



Yak-28SR (Figure 257). Created based on the Yak-28L № 3920903, in accordance with the government decision of February 5, 1962-The plane Yak-28SR dispenser meant for spraying liquid or powdery substances with altimeters. By car set two options containers for chemicals with spraying devices. Not impossible to use it as a bomber.

From September 16 to November 5, 1963 Yak-28SR passed tests in the Air Force NII. The lead engineer on the car were GI Ponomarev, airman BL Lions and navigator MM Petrov. Yak-28SR was recommended for adoption by the Air Force. However, it was noted that navigation equipment with a system of "Lotus" is not provided in a given airplane exit point. Suggestions equip the cars sight Initiative "and radio altimeters, as well as refine katapultnye chairs and increase the strength of frontal glass.

In early 1960 - ies. passed factory tests Yak-28 plane № 0304 with the start-28 boosters SPRD-99 and two braking parachutes PT-25. Project developed a double vertikalnovzletayuschego bomber Yak-28VV. It was expected that the two hoisting marshevymi R27AF and four lifting R39P-300 aircraft engines in flight mass of 18000 kg will be able to deliver to the goal of 600 to 1200 kg bombs. Its maximum speed was to be no less than 1700 km / h, and a ceiling - 18000 m.



Yak-28PP (Fig. 258, see Fig. 252). Producer interference Yak-28PP being converted from the Yak-28I aircraft was in 1965, intended to fight the enemy radio-electronic means, comprising at different stages of the system interfere "Bucket", "Siren", "Boom", "Beans." Under the gondola engines located tapes KDS-19, and under the wing of the console - two sets of UB-16-57M with unguided rockets aviation X-5P intended for the production of passive interference.

In early 1990 -. Yak-28PP was removed from the Air Force operation.




Yak-28P interceptor family


Yak-28P (Fig. 259, 260) is designed to combat air objectives at low and medium altitudes. Factory testing machines began in July 1962, preserved Despite aerodynamic layout Yak-28 plane has been largely transformed, especially affected fuselage. In the bow, under the fairing radio, installed radar "Eagle-D" that allowed detecting and tracking targets at altitudes of 500 to 20000 m. The navigator in the crew replaced the operator, hosted for the airmen. Instead gun weapons under wing appeared starting devices for missiles, two K-8M (K-98), capable of striking targets, flying at speeds of up to 1800 km / h.

Yak-28P manning katapultnymi chairs with shutter designed specifically for EDO supersonic aircraft. For the first time in the practice of bombing aircraft crew members Yak-28 oblachalis in space suit, which successfully defended them in razgermetizatsii and katapultirovanii.

Factory test took place from July to September 1962 were leading to the machine engineer BB Solovyov, Pilot VM Volkov and operator NM Shipowski. November 23, 1962 began public testing phase, prolonged until September 1964 had been the maximum speed of 1840 km / h at an altitude of 12500 m, practical ceiling - 16000 m with a maximum range - 2150 km. In tests taken part leading test pilots-PF Kabrelev, VN Baranov, Dumitrash, I.N. Dovbysh, second Zamaev pilots, MI Bobrovitsky, GF Bugenko and pilots over SA Mikoyan and AA Chairman.

In 1964, on the basis of test Yak-28P with guided missiles K-8M1 and K-98 had been recommended for adoption by the Air Force. But before the end of state testing machine launched into serial production at the plant in Novosibirsk. In 1962 - 1967's. factory produced 443 interceptor Yak-28P.

In late 1963, the first aircraft arrived at the military testing. At Yak-28P revealed a number of features not previously encountered management and technology at okolozvukovyh flight speeds and altitudes close to the actual ceiling when working on the engines neforsirovannom mode. Further research is required to study the behaviour of aircraft located in spin or spiral. It also eliminated many defects emerged. Aircraft accidents resulted in the loss of five machines.

Based on the Yak-28P project interceptor designed Yak-28-80 radar with "Eagle" with a range goal of detecting 50 km, two missiles at K-80 and R21-300 engines. It was expected that the mass flight in 1600 kg maximum speed reaches 2130 km / h, practical ceiling - 19000 m and the length of flight hours -2.7



Yak-28PM. July 20, 1962 completed construction of interceptor experienced Yak-28PM with four missiles at K-8M and conical fairing radar. At the same time, the plant № 153 in Novosibirsk built two more cars. At the Pilot Yak-28PM first stood R11AF-300 engines with elliptic DDT. Soon they were replaced by cylindrical. November 23, 1962 began joint government tests.



Yak-28-64. In August 1964, the interceptor Yak-28P № 0404 transformed the aircraft-carrier Yak-28N (Yak-28-64) with two protivolokatsionnymi X-28 missiles with a range of 90 start-up to 110 km. The aircraft with missiles had transmission speeds of up to 1700 km / h and a range of about 1100 km. Factory testing machines began on November 5, 1964 At the same time, preparation of drawings for a second copy machine. At the same name built by car engines were moved from the wing to the fuselage (Figure 261). In connection with this has been significantly redesigned airframe aircraft, but to get the desired effect and failed.

Yak-28P operated for about 20 years in parts of air defense ranks countries on armaments but was never enacted.

Among the many flying laboratories on the basis of a family of aircraft Yak-28 should be allocated machines designed for flow visualization studies in the various areas of the surface flow over the airframe and processes occurring in laminarization flow around the fuselage.

At Yak-28 and Yak-28I continued study (initiated at the Yak-25RV) of critical phenomena in the dynamics due to defects in individual airframe. At one of the cars studied contour aerouprugy aircraft - a system of automatic control. For this wing Yak-28 equipped agent elastic fluctuations. At another laboratory studied various antenna-feeder system and radiosvyaznye station.

Table. 3 indicate where and in what quantities manufactured warplanes OKB AS Yakovlev from 1954 1962 g.

Table 3
Batch production of combat aircraft OKB AS Yakovlev № plant type Year Total aircraft
1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962
292 Yak-25 4 63 - - - - - - - 67
Yak-25M - 14124916 - - - - - 406
Yak-25R - - - 10 - - - - - 10
99 Yak-25RV - - - - - - - 1 50 51 (1)
30 Yak-26 - - - 10 - - - - - 10
292 Yak-27 - - - 10 - - - - - 10
Yak-27V - - - - 5 - - - - 5
Yak-27R - - - - 11 34 46 53 21165 (2)
39 Yak-28 - - - - - 3 3 36 - 42 (3)
Yak-28L - - - - - - - - 4 4
Yak-28U - - - - - - - 1 32 33
(1) According to the EDO, serial production ended in 1965, the issuance of 155 machines.
(2) According to the EDO, the plant produced in 1962 to 149 aircraft, which does not correspond to official statistics.
(3) Includes 5 machines with RSBN-2 "Body" and 37 - with the LSO-3. During 1959-1974 he was. issued 737 family of aircraft Yak-28, not including the Yak-28P.
 

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Thank you Stingray,

and please continue.
 

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Pilot warplanes Yak-1000 and Yak-140


Yak-1000 (Fig. 262, 263) - with a single pilot aircraft pronounced wing PP Krasilschirova SC-2, with a jet engine "Derwent-V" (RD-500). The plane was in flight to test aerodynamic testing of the scheme and airstrips regimes.

Project data Yak-1000: The maximum speed of 1100 km / h, flight mass 2470 kg, the mass of 500 kg of fuel.

Yak-1000 was seen as the layout of the future fighter aircraft engine with double-TR-5. This calculation M = 1.7 was unusually large for that time.

According to the Government by June 10, 1950 fighter with TR-5 should submit to the state test in August 1952,

Tasks that leading designer LL Selyakov taken from A. Yakovlev October 3, 1950, included a tight deadline: adoption of a draft sketch - October 6, 1950, the lease machines at the factory test - January 1, 1951

A wooden mockup was prepared and tested in time in the pipe T-101 TsAGI in November - December 1950, in tubes T-106 and T-102 models tested. The plane was built 27 1951 g.

Yak-1000 - midwing tselnometallicheskoy construction. Fuselage - Collins with the skin, a circular cross section. The skeleton is formed 30 frames, three uniformed razreznyh set of beams and stringers. At the rear fuselage panels installed air brakes. Cockpit pilots with laser gas-tight seating area, with a boost from the engine compressor. In two fuselage fuel tank: 430 litres in the front and rear to 167 litres.

The wing is a thin, small elongation (1,46) diamond shape, compiled profiles of TsAGI SR-12S from the root and the S-9S at the end. The relative thickness of 3.4% from the starboard fuselage and 4.5% in the middle part and at the end. Designing wing: 60 ° on the front edge, 51 11 '-quarters of Fuchs and -11 on the back edge. Flap installed throughout the magnitude wing. Their rear end parts are both self aileron with the axis of rotation. A wing consists of two separate consoles. The skeleton of each console formed three crew, five razreznymi beams located along side, and ten razreznymi rib bow profile.

The chassis - the type of cycling, endurance, with oil / air depreciation. It consists of front and the main pillars of the single brake wheels the size of 570x140 mm, and two towers podkrylnyh, retractable in the fairing. The front wheel - orientiruyuscheesya that can be controlled. She was part of the fuselage frames wheel reliance placed in the main fairing.

Pneumatic system used for cleaning and the production of landing gear and flaps, charging damper main desk, front wheel control, a lamp shield air brakes, landing gear wheel brakes, flaps and landing gear locks, as well as the sealing of the torch. Working network duplicated emergency.

Office aileron and rudder height, as well as driving directions tough. It is a change in the attitude of the knob by modifying the length of the handle hinge pivot through electric motor, which can be switched on at will pilot or automatically when you reach certain speeds in flight.

Frontal air. The air to the engine is brought on the two tunnels cut along the sides of the fuselage and cabin envelopes. Takeoff traction 1590 kg, 1460 kg nominal, the effective take-off (taking into account losses in the entrance tunnels and exhaust system) 1500 kg. Weight 560 kg engine.

Length 11.69 m, 4.52 m wingspan, wing area 14.00 m2. The tests were conducted in 2500 ... mass airplane 2510 kg of fuel stock 350, 360 and 380 kg and 26% centering SAH.

March 2, 1951 pilot DV Zyuzin fulfilled two steering speeds up to 50 and 100 km / h. According to the pilot, the aircraft "in the cross against resistant, withstands direct easily turn performed well, the brakes are functioning properly, the speed of rotation of the aircraft after giving gaining easy." March 3 was performed before steering speed of 250 km / h. Due to the lateral wind Dopplerjevega at speeds of 5 m / s at an angle of 41 ° to the take-off strip aircraft awkwardly on the left podkrylnuyu support. Deviation against Flying heel gave no result, and with a smooth flight departing from the left-turn lanes takeoff. March 10 were held until the steering speed 210 km / h and zakrylkami decorated with a speed of 150 km / h with shields fired. In the second case, even a slight side wind razvorachival aircraft. The tests were suspended.

March 14, 1951 has compiled a list of works on fine-tuning the aircraft: changing centering on the takeoff and landing up to 25% of SAH; overhauls rear fuselage, as well as management systems, chassis, etc. Prodolzhilis study the amended layout in TsAGI. No test Yak-1000 have not resumed, and in October 1951, the issue was closed.

In early 1950 - ies. science has been unable to solve shaped in the process of building the machine, the problem of flight dynamics and control. In this regard, Yak-1000 ahead of his time. Further research scientists TsAGI wings on the small extension led to the establishment of the triangular wing, and the first such aircraft from the wing into the air podnyavshimisya were E-4 EDO them. AI Mikoyan (June 1955), and T-3 OKB P.O. Sukhoi (May 1956).

Until October 1951, work continued on fighter planes and "Yak" with a double-engine TR-5, but then they were halted.



Yak-140 (Fig. 264, 265). Lightweight single front supersonic fighter with a TRD. Principal Engineer of the aircraft V. Barsukov.

AS sketch project is approved Yakovlev July 10, 1953 According to the Government of September 9, 1953 was required to build two copies of the Yak-140 and the first of them at the present state test in March 1955, an Order was made following characteristics: maximum speed of 1650 ... 1750 km / h, practical ceiling 18000 m range at an altitude of 1800 km 15000 m, 400 m run, run 600 meters EDO estimates have been consistent with those numbers.

Length 12.95 m, 8.0 m wingspan, 20.0 m2 area of the wing, take-off weight of 4850 kg, the mass of the empty planes 3324 kg, the mass of 1275 kg of fuel, weight 10 kg of oil.

Armament: three guns with a calibre of 30 mm tube for 50 rounds. In transshipment option: 16 rockets ARS-57 calibre of 57 mm or eight ARS-70, or two TRS-190, or up to 200 kg bombs. The sight optical ranging from automatic. Of the two types of experimental aircraft fire 30 mm cannons - P 235 and TKB-500 - 235 Cannon chose P OKB-16 AE Knesset. It had advantages in size, weight, simplicity of construction, reliability, recovery and other parameters (future HP-30, adopted on arms in 1955).

EDO considered Yak-140 as a further development of the idea of a light fighter (immediate predecessor - Yak-50). Due to the unusually high tyagovooruzhennosti exceeding unit, and because of a successful match between the parameters of small light aircraft, with a relatively small burden on the wing (242.5 kgs/m2 on takeoff), with a light engine features AM-11, provided receive high flight data: speed more than 1700 km / h, the vertical velocity of the land more than 200 m / s and at an altitude of 15000 m - 30 m / s, more practical ceiling 18000 m at the same time excellent manoeuvrability in the vertical and horizontal planes. Due to the small values of load on the wing during landing (180 kgs/m2) wheels and low ground pressure (6.0 kg/cm2) allowed operate the aircraft on dirt airfields.

Yak-140 was to have TRD AA Mikulina AM-11 with traction 4000 kg and 5000 kg at forcing a regime. Compared with the options in the proposed EDO engines under the TRD-I (future AL-7) and VC-3, the plane carrying the AM-11 flying with the best characteristics and the same equipment and armament easier produces a half (4 ... 5 tons to 8, ... 10 tonnes for heavy fighter), for more economical consumption of non-ferrous metals in two or three times, labor built in three or four times, fuel consumption doubled.

In the design of the aircraft have focused on simplicity and convenience of use - a handy chart placement of equipment and weapons, large hatches in the fuselage, the possibility of removing the rear fuselage for the replacement of the engine, fuselage legkosemny tail cook for a free approach to the tail engine. Connection management rudder and engine runs on top of the fuselage and closed tip fairing (nozzle). Wiring easily laid in the ground, much of it is under the fairing.

Constructive decision main aggregates carcass linked to serial production technology requirements. Operating connectors and technological units to provide a wide front panel of works, riveted to the application of advanced techniques and the assembly-assembly works separately on the dashboard and aggregates, and hence the threaded assembly plants. It is widely applied stamping and casting.

Small size and operational fighter connectors permit to carry it by rail on the same platform.

One of the main features of the Yak-140 - high tenacity. The calculated vertical velocity reduction in planning with a dead engine not exceeding 12 m / s with the chassis and released zakrylkami rejected. Consequently, it is possible to reach a landing with an engine failure. Hydraulic chassis and the exhaust flaps, as well as the main pillar of braking wheel chassis duplicated pneumatic system. Release front and the main pillars made of the flow that ensures the accidental release chassis even with little pressure in a pneumatic system. The Office of the wheel height and aileron irreversible, done with a rotating shaft, working in torsion and experiencing a small load. Therefore zltohlava one or more shafts far less dangerous than zltohlava reversible traction control working under considerable pressure on tensile or compression. The engine is equipped with an alarm system and fire-fighting. The fuel filter is protected from low pressure icing in flight. An emergency shutdown system reburning.

Wing Yak-140 - sredneraspolozhennoe, with the sweep of the 1 / 4 Chords 55 °. Angle transverse V - 4 °. The wing is composed of profiles TsAGI S9 and S12-SR-7S9 change the relative thickness of 6% from the starboard fuselage to 8% from the end of the wing. The wing is equipped with aileron with axial compensation, and two sliding zakrylkami type TsAGI. Ending wing fairing podkrylnyh are both pillars of the chassis. In parts of BHPA bow with a large outflow of more receivers installed air pressures. At the top surface to prevent the spread of disruption to the flow of each console has two aerodynamic wing walls. A wing consists of two consoles based on the powerful transverse beam, pinned inside the fuselage. The skeleton is formed of each console and two crew set ribs. Designing of feathers 45 ° horizontal, vertical - 61 °.

Fuselage - a circular cross section, with a monocoque thick skin. In the rear of the air brake pads are located. Cab gas-tight, with the laser arm-chair (weight 140 kg). Glazing lamp is made of organic glass thickness 7 mm. In the bow of the fuselage is unregulated air with a cone. Inside it is installed radar transceiver rangefinder. At the bottom of the middle and rear parts of the fuselage is one of the fuel tank.

The design of the fuselage, as the Yak-50 and Yak-25, but for much of the vertical profiles loaded and set sail Yak-140 is used V95 alloy D16.

Chassis - cycling suspension rod type with wheels. It consists of two main pillars of braking wheels the size of 600x115 mm, with the front pillar managed netormoznym wheel 480x155 mm and the two towers podkrylnyh with wheels the size of 255x110 mm. Depreciation air-oil.

Because of the lack of engine AM-11 deadline for the government to produce aircraft test was postponed for the first quarter of 1956 and No extra time was not enough. EDO aircraft had to produce a pilot version with TRD 9D-AM (2600 kgs traction on forcing a regime - 3250 kg), and two HP-23 cannon fire with 23 mm tube for 75 rounds.

In this connection, the estimated maximum speed has been significantly lower. According to the calculation it would not exceed 1275 km / h from the land and 1250 km / h at an altitude of 13500 metres Fallen and other flight characteristics.

Built aircraft took off mass 4500 kg and 4000 kg mass planting, 1000 kg of fuel (two tank: at 800 kg and 200 kg). Length 13340 7395 m.

Yak-140 (tail № 40) was built in December 1954, he successfully passed the test ground, including steering, speed run to test the speed brakes and isolation. All arrangements, the management of the chassis, lantern, radio and appliances, motor fuel and food system, brake wheels worked reliably and securely. The behaviour of the aircraft at rulezhkah and expressways probezhkah was normal.

February 10, 1955 Yak-140 has been admitted to the manufacturer's flight tests without limiting maximum speeds (on the basis of the test models in the tubes T-108, T-106M, and T-102 TsAGI). But they have not begun because MAP made a bid on another plane OKB. Officially work on the Yak-140 were halted as lost relevance under government regulation, dated 28 March 1956 and MAP orders from April 6, 1956 Yak-140 - is built in the last EDO AS Yakovlev single front fighter.




Combat aircraft projects


Since mid-1940 - ies. EDO them. AS Yakovlev studied a large number of schemes jet fighter planes. Some of them have been translated into metal, and the rest could be seen as a search. Here's a summary of a number of pending projects.


Yak-27 (first with the symbol). One fighter similar to the Yak-25 model in 1947 Sredneplan direct wing of feathers and arrow, with one TRD "Nine" set for fyuzelyazhnoy scheme. Flight mass of 4150 kg, 18.7 m2 area of the wing. Elaborated upon in February 1947, in the form of frontal air intake and, in May of 1947 - with the air in parts of the wing root (as a future TCB Yak-30).



Yak-29. One fighter small size. Midwing with swept wing (first sweep angle was 35 °, and then 45 °) and the arrow of feathers. One TRD "Derwent" set for fyuzelyazhnoy scheme. Air intake is located on top of fuselage behind the cockpit. Wingspan 6.3 m, 8.64 m length of the aircraft, the space wing of 8.0 m2. Flight mass of 2300 kg, which gave highly specific strain on the wing - nearly 300 kgs/m2. Draft elaborated upon in July - in October 1947, with options for two cannons and without weapons.



Yak-40, Yak-40A, Yak-41 (the first of these symbols). Different versions of the single aircraft with two ends PVRD sagittal (45 °) wing. Thrust PVRD 850 kgs. PVRD gondola length 2.50 m, the maximum diameter of 0.55 m. The research was carried out in January - 1948 g.



Yak-40 and Yak-40A - with two fighter aircraft gun in the bow of the fuselage. Wingspan 5.05 m and 7.50 m in length aircraft Flight mass of 1800 kg. Taking off with the help of powder accelerators mounted on the trolley separable (Yak-40), or two accelerators U-93-1 under the wing cravings 750 kgf (Yak-40A).



Yak-41 - experimental aircraft. Wingspan 4.50 m and 7.90 m in length aircraft Flight mass of 2300 kg. Taking off with the help of engines (traction 300 kgs), located in the rear fuselage.



Yak-60. Lightweight single fighter on the scheme Yak-50 (1) TRD and the same VC-1 in 2700 kgf thrust and wing sweep 45 "with 4.0 lengthening and narrowing of 1.2. Wing area increased from 16 to 23 m2. Elongated fuselage with 9465 to 11.00 m. Flight mass of 4000 kg. Provision large fuel tanks podkrylnye 0.66 m in diameter and tricycle landing gear. general view of the Yak-60 A. Yakovlev was approved on November 20, 1948 In December 1948, - January 1949 in the wind tunnel T-106 model tested at speeds up to M = 0.9. Comparison of the profiles in the wing compartment limit allowed recommend OKB dial compartment end of the profiles SR-11-12. Produvki model showed that the speed of the Yak-60 to exceed the value corresponding to M = 0.9.

Draft Yak-60 was used in the creation in 1952 barrazhiruyuschego interceptor Yak-120 (in the series - Yak-25). The main differences: instead podkrylnyh tanks installed TRD AM-5, no engine in the fuselage, wing area increased to 28 m2. Thus, the Yak-60 was a transition from the Yak-50 for the Yak-120.

A second option, and Yak-60 with a bicycle-type landing gear and radar on the air.

(1) VB Shavrov History aircraft structures in the USSR 1938 - 1950. 3rd ed., ispravl. Metro: Engineering, 1994. 329 pp.



Yak-70. One fighter with a TRD TR-3. Elaborated upon in April - 1950 g. fuselage length of 15.24 m, diameter of 1.60 m. Frontal air to the central body, inside of which - radar. The chassis type of cycling.



Yak-M. Lightweight single fighter based on the Yak-50, differ from the deployment of air intakes on the sides of fuselage (in the zone of the cab). One TRD AM-5. Draft elaborated upon in November 1950 - 1951 g. Wingspan 7.70 m, 10.25 m length of the aircraft Fuel fuselage was located in two tanks designed for 350 and 250 kg in the transshipment option between the tank was located at 200 kg. Flight normal weight 3000 kg, with an additional tank - 3450 kg. Estimated maximum speed (in brackets values Heights): 1158 km / h (1000 m), 1131 km / h (5000 m), 1068 km / h (10000 m). Rate of land from 60 m / s, practical ceiling 17500 m, length of the flight at an altitude of 5000 m 1 hour and 45 minutes, the transshipment option 3 pm Flight data determined on the basis of the TRD AM-5 obtained from the factory № 300, and drag coefficients Yak-50 aircraft, fixed in accordance with minor deviations from the M-Yak Yak-50. Armament: an N-37 gun and two guns NR-23.



Yak-U. In April - May 1951, studied Yak-M option under the symbol Yak-U (L).

Another project in 1951 with the Yak-U symbol represented the single fighter with two TRD AM-5 set beside the fuselage in an oval cross section. Frontal air. The chassis type of cycling. Fuel located in the three fuselage tanks, calculated at 925, 150 and 225 kg.



Yak-13 (second with the symbol). The direct predecessor of the Yak-120 (Yak-25). Draft August 1951 Two TRD under wing. Wingspan 10.60 m, 15.40 m length of the aircraft, wing area 28 m2.



Yak-2AM-11. Two supersonic fighter-interceptor range. On its basis the creation of a double with four aerofotoapparatami intelligence officer for the full-time shooting. Two TRD AM-11 with a thrust of 4000 kg and 5000 kg at forcing a regime.

The ruling government from June 10, 1954 provided the following characteristics: maximum speed of 1350 ... 1400 km / h at an altitude of 10000 m for the interceptor and 1400 ... 500 km / h for intelligence, the maximum range (with an outboard tanks) 3000 ( 4000) km. Interceptor Armament: three guns NR-30, and overloading, rockets of various types, the sight - radar Sokol. Deadline for submission of official testing interceptor - the fourth quarter of 1955, intelligence officer - the second quarter of 1956

March 30, 1955 at the lack of AM-11 engines work on these aircraft were halted.



Yak-2VK-11. Two high-altitude supersonic bomber front, and at its base - intelligence. Two TRD VK-11 with a thrust of 4500 kg and 9000 kg at forcing a regime. Government Decision of August 15, 1956 were required to construct five copies bombers and the first of them present for flight tests in the first quarter of 1958, in the state - in the fourth quarter of 1958, Razvedchik had to be present for testing air control in the third quarter of 1958 . Assigned bomber characteristics: maximum speed of 1300 km / h (2500 mode, forcing km / h) range from 5% residual fuel 2500 km; practical ceiling 20000 ... 21000 m run-mileage 1300 m; load Bombings normal 1200 kg, the maximum -3000 kg. Intelligence should have the range 2500 22000 m.

These flight characteristics significantly higher than that assigned to the Yak-28.



Yak-30, Yak-32, Yak-34. Supersonic fotorazvedchiki double. Two TRD VK-13 with a thrust of 7100 and 10000 kgs at forcing a regime. The general pattern, as the Yak-28. The angle of 45 ° sweep wing. In contrast to the Yak-28 aircraft had a wing area 70 m2 and better aerodynamics.

Designation Yak-30 is also used in 1948 for the fighter with TRD "Derwent" and in 1960 for jet training aircraft. Single sport last option was designated Yak-32.

Yak-30 models tested since September 1957 and a model version of the Yak-30V - in August - October 1959, Flight 29600 kg of normal weight, with an outboard tanks - 34900 kg. Fuel 11000 and 16000 kg. The maximum speed of 2450 km / h, practical ceiling 17900 m, range 3700 km and 5300 km with an outboard tanks.

The work on the Yak-32 were brought to the sketch draft, signed A. Yakovlev 25 1959 g. Principal Engineer NG Kolpakov. The plane was destined for intelligence, day and night, in adverse weather, in a large range of speeds and heights. The project was developed in accordance with the decision of the Government on July 31, 1958 Deadline for submission of state testing - the first quarter of 1960, the VC-13 Engines or AL-7F1. Wingspan 14.52 m, 24.60 m length of the aircraft, wing area 70 or 60 m2, lengthening 3.52, 1.22 narrowing, profile at the root part of P-53, in the console - S12-C with a relative thickness of 4 , 2 and 5.0%. Flight 23500 kg of normal weight, with an outboard tank 27000 kg (fuel 7500 and 10500 kg). The load (fotobomby) 1500 kg. The maximum speed of 2500 km / h, practical ceiling 21000 m, range from 7% residual fuel 2600 km and 3600 km with an outboard tanks. To improve the flow around at high angles of attack is equipped with a wing and nominated LRIP forward deflected socks on the console part. This greatly increases the aircraft maneuverability, stability and transfer of small velocities ranging in speed stability. Double longitudinal control system consists of perestavnogo stabilizer exercising balancing the aircraft and steer vertical height for quick maneuvers. Application irreversible boosters management across all channels is an opportunity to get normalized values efforts in the management plane. Given the design of heating used details from steel and titanium. Airplane allows operation from groundwater airfields. Projecting continued until 1960,

Yak-34 was supposed to have speed 3000 km / h, practical ceiling 21000 ... 22000 m, range 3400 kilometers (2200 km at a speed of 2500 km / h). In March 1962, Yakovlev OKB has offered option-34R engined R21-300 (R21A-300). Completion date for the flight tests - the fourth quarter of 1965, was terminated Design in 1963



Yak-33. Family supersonic interceptors, bombers, intelligence. Design was initiated in 1964

Yak-35MV (malovysotny). The fighter-interceptor with TRD RD11-300, designed to destroy air targets at altitudes of 200 ... 10000 m in the use of equipment "Air-1. The project was developed in accordance with the decision of the Government on June 4, 1958 in the fourth quarter of 1961, the aircraft were to be present at the state test. Maximum speed flight from the land was unusually high for the time - 1300 km / h at an altitude of 10000 m -1550 km / h. 6000 kg of fuel. The sight radar "Panther-2 with a range of 30 km hostage. Weaponry consisted of two samonavodyaschihsya K-35 missiles with a range of hostage-18000 m. The project remained in the plans of EDO in 1958 - 1960's.




Well, that should be everything.
 

hesham

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Very great dear Stingary,

and now we have many little known projects,thank you a lot.
 

Stargazer2006

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I have attempted to isolate and restructure this thread somehow (it was previously just a block of text with no apparent plan) but I have not even tried to give any sense to the useless passages, which are the consequence of the Google Translator's highly approximative work. Only some of the main titles were simplified.

Needless to say, this kind of topic is NOT encouraged. I'm only leaving it here for the sake of archiving. Translation of a whole page can be done effortlessly through Google Translator by simply copy-pasting the URL in the left box (don't forget to specify the language) and then clicking on the same link in the right box.

The translation will not be ideal but it's a start. The longer the page, the less likely it will get translated in full (see screen capture below).




Here is the list of image captions that used to be scattered all across Stingray™'s posts (again, given "as is"):

Fig. 223. The second experimental aircraft Yak-18
Fig. 224. The scheme Yak-18
Fig. 225. Serial Yak-18 landing gear on ski
Fig. 226. The plane Yak-18 engine M-12
Fig. 227. The plane Yak-18 pilot with a three-nose landing gear
Fig. 228. The plane Yak-18U
Fig. 229. Scheme aircraft Yak-18U
Fig. 230. The plane Yak-18T 1951, with equipment CAP-48
Fig. 231. The second experimental aircraft Yak-18A
Fig. 232. Scheme aircraft Yak-18A
Fig. 233. Serial A Yak-18 landing gear on ski
Fig. 234. The plane Yak-20-01
Fig. 235. The scheme plane Yak-20-02
Fig. 236. The aircraft Yak-200, the initial appearance
Fig. 237. Scheme aircraft Yak-200
Fig. 238. The aircraft Yak-210 after finalizing
Fig. 239. Scheme aircraft Yak-210 after finalizing
Fig. 240. They Yak-30 and Yak-32
Fig. 241. The scheme Yak-30 aircraft
Fig. 242. The plane Yak-25
Fig. 243. The plane Yak-25M
Fig. 244. Scheme aircraft Yak-25M
Fig. 245. Plans aircraft Yak-25MR, Yak-25R, Yak-25B, Yak-26, Yak-27K, Yak-27V
Fig. 246. The plane Yak-25MSH
Fig. 247. Scheme aircraft Yak-25RV-1 Fig. 248. The plane Yak-25RV-II
Fig. 249. The plane Yak-26
Fig. 250. The plane Yak-27R
Fig. 251. Scheme aircraft Yak-27R
Fig. 252. Plans Yak-28B aircraft, the Yak-28L, Yak-28I, Yak-28R, Yak-28PP, Yak-28U
Fig. 253. The plane Yak-28L
Fig. 254. The plane Yak-28I
Fig. 255. The plane Yak-28R
Fig. 256. The plane Yak-28U
Fig. 257. The plane Yak-28SR
Fig. 258. The plane Yak-28PP
Fig. 259. The plane Yak-28P
Fig. 260. Scheme aircraft Yak-28P
Fig. 261. The scheme plane Yak-28-64
Fig. 262. The plane Yak-1000
Fig. 263. Scheme aircraft Yak-1000
Fig. 264. The aircraft Yak-140
Fig. 265. Scheme aircraft Yak-140
 

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hesham

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Stingray™ said:
A wooden mockup was prepared and tested in time in the pipe T-101 TsAGI in November - December 1950, in tubes T-106 and T-102 models tested. The plane was built 27 1951 g.


And here is the T-106;


http://www.plam.ru/transportavi/mir_aviacii_1997_01/p5.php
 

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hesham

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Hi,

there is anther project called Yak-U (L),it was a single engined fighter developed from
Yak-M and it was not related to Yak-U.
 

hesham

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Hi,

the Yak-28VV VTOL was a vertical takeoff and landing version of this family of tactical bomber,
this project powered by two R27AF-300 lift-cruise engines and four R39P-300 lift engines,has
anyone a drawing for it ?.
 

ucon

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Hi to all. My five cents for some Yak projects:
Yak-200
 

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ucon

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And not well known project of light transport Yak-220
 

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hesham

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Nice drawings my dear Ucon,

please continue.
 
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