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Grey Havoc

The path not taken.
Senior Member
Oct 9, 2009
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Came across a couple of documents that mentioned this abortive late 1980s/early 1990s plan for the future of the Soviet (civil) space program out to the year 2005. Included preparatory work & supporting projects, such as Mars '94 and a sample return mission in 1998, for the Mars Expedition (planned for 2015-2017).

(Primarily pages 53-56 [pdf pages 57-60])

The Academy itself is not free from rivalries among its institutes. 1KI and Vernadsky appear
to be struggling over the control of Mars project funding, program definition, and relations
with the US. Within IKI, the headof the Department of Radioastrophysics is attempting
to move his group to the Lebedev Institute of Physics.

Within the space community generally, there has been an ongoing debate over the
comparative virtues of manned and unmanned space exploration.

Much of this described interplay concerns the control of funding and resources. Recent
economic trends and policies appear to be intensifying such concerns and creating an
atmosphere of great budget anxiety. First of all, the Soviet Union's move to transform its
centrally planned economy into one governed by market forces has thrown the planning
process into disarray. For two years,the civil space program has been operating without an
approved official plan, although the "Program-2005" is currently under consideration. The
proposed program specifically emphasizes applied (and potentially profitable) projects such
as communications platforms, cartography, navigation, meteorology, natural resources
monitoring, and microgravity processing. Planetary exploration focuses on Mars, and
astrophysics and solar-terrestrial physics missions are slated as well.

The conversion of defense and space industry enterprises to consumer production has also
created economic uncertainty for the space program. The refitting of plants and retraining
of personnel are costly and often only partially effected. At the same time, the policy of
self-financing may encourage enterprises to deemphasize basic research in favor of short term
profits. Thus, the USSR risks losing its competitive edge in this high-technology sector.
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Grey Havoc

The path not taken.
Senior Member
Oct 9, 2009
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Also from the second link:
Program-2005, although developed by General Machine Building, is generally in accord with
the 1988 Academy proposal. Excerpts follow. 47

Communications: Planned satellites include: Granit, Gelicon, Granit-M, Granit-2,
Gelicon-2 and Informator for communications and TV. The Marafon project is
planned as well.

Geodesy: The Etalon and GEO-IK satellites constitute the first step toward building
global and regional geodesic networks.

Cartography: Continuing efforts in outer space surveys.

Navigation: The Glonass system of 24 satellites will assist sea navigation. The
Nadezhda-M system of search and rescue will acquire new capabilities.

Meteorology: Visible and IR reception will be added to the Electro satellites'

Natural Resources: The Almaz, Resurs, and Okean satellites will continue collection
of data on the Earth's environment.

Technology: Increased investigation and production of organic and inorganic
compounds under microgravity conditions are planned.

Science: The solar system, cosmic plasma, and interplanetary and near-Earth space
will be investigated with the Relikt-2 and Koronas projects. Astrophysical research
will be conducted by the Gamma observatory and the Spektr projects (Radioastronical
[Spektr-R], Spektr-RG [X-ray, gamma], Spektr-UFT [ultraviolet]). A solar probe will
explore space adjacent to the Sun and carry out gravitation experiments. Other
programs for solar-terrestrial physics and the Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere
are also planned.

Manned Spaceflight: In 1990 the Kristall technology module will be added to the Mir
complex. The Mir-2 station will be launched, and the Soyuz and Progress vehicles
will be modified. Regular flights of the Buran will begin, and several international
expedititions are planned. The production of industrially useful materials is

Mars Expedition: The use of balloons, penetrators, small landers, and possibly a
small rover are planned for Mars '94. A sample return is hoped for in 1998. A
manned expedition is foreseen between 2015 and 2017.

47 Col. M. Rebrov, "Cosmonautics, Year 2005," Krasnaya Zvezda, 8/23/89:4. Reproduced in Foreign
Broadcast Information Service, Daily Report Soviet Union, 9/12/89:75-76 and 9/1/89:60-61.
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