• Hi Guest! Forum rules have been updated. All users please read here.

Fieseler Fi-103 (V 1) development, variants and derivatives

Justo Miranda

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Joined
Dec 2, 2007
Messages
4,040
Reaction score
1,574
Dilandu, funding comes down from the top, not bcause the engineers wants to avoid the eastern front !
My point is - logic suggests that glider training was probably tried but soon abandoned in favour of the powered two seater.
However what I am really interested in, is hard facts - are there any photos or original drawings of the glider variants ? if not all the drawings are pure guesswork.
Hubert Chances drawing of the two seat glider states it was seen at Peenemunde and his drawing of the colour scheme suggests a photo - but has anyone seen such a photo ?
Paul
Photo
 

Attachments

Dilandu

I'm dissatisfied, which means, I exist.
Joined
May 30, 2013
Messages
712
Reaction score
333
Website
fonzeppelin.livejournal.com
P.S. I tried once to speculate about a possibility of Germany using V-1 missiles, launched from U-boat, to attack New York and Boston in early 1945:

https://warhead.su/2020/04/14/podvo...iego-reyha-mogli-li-nemtsy-udarit-po-nyuyorku

(on Russian, article in Russian "Warhead" magazine)

1589043523513.png

Came to interesting conclusion, that it was actually possible; the last few u-boats sunk near US coastline, actually came close enough to New York to put the city into range of Fi-103F-1 long-range missile. Of course, surfacing for launch would be insanely dangerous, but not impossible either.

The major problems would be non-catapult launch (for some reason, Germans didn't even consider rocket-boosted launch for Fi-103 - probably because of abysmal quality of German solid-fuel boosters), and correct aiming the missile. Since the submarine is not stable enough, and it's impossible to set the magnetic compass on Fi-103 by usual means, the only idea that I came with, was to install the FuG 230 Strasbourg radio control receiver onboard the missile, and connect it to the relay, controlling the heading gyro - to correctly aim missile while in flight.

Since the only possible time for u-boat near US coast in 1945 to surface and NOT be immediately destroyed was night, the radio-control system would also require some kind of radar tracking. I think, that standard u-boat FuMO 61 Hohentwiel radar, complemented by modified FuG 23 beacon onboard the missile could be used to track the missile for 20-30 km of its flight - enough to aim its heading more or less correctly.

The conclusion was, that it was actually possible - but military useless action. Just the projected losses of submarines would cost Germany order of magnitude more, than several widely inaccurate Fi-103 missiles hitting New York could inflict to Americans.
 

Justo Miranda

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Joined
Dec 2, 2007
Messages
4,040
Reaction score
1,574
P.S. I tried once to speculate about a possibility of Germany using V-1 missiles, launched from U-boat, to attack New York and Boston in early 1945:

https://warhead.su/2020/04/14/podvo...iego-reyha-mogli-li-nemtsy-udarit-po-nyuyorku

(on Russian, article in Russian "Warhead" magazine)

View attachment 632608

Came to interesting conclusion, that it was actually possible; the last few u-boats sunk near US coastline, actually came close enough to New York to put the city into range of Fi-103F-1 long-range missile. Of course, surfacing for launch would be insanely dangerous, but not impossible either.

The major problems would be non-catapult launch (for some reason, Germans didn't even consider rocket-boosted launch for Fi-103 - probably because of abysmal quality of German solid-fuel boosters), and correct aiming the missile. Since the submarine is not stable enough, and it's impossible to set the magnetic compass on Fi-103 by usual means, the only idea that I came with, was to install the FuG 230 Strasbourg radio control receiver onboard the missile, and connect it to the relay, controlling the heading gyro - to correctly aim missile while in flight.

Since the only possible time for u-boat near US coast in 1945 to surface and NOT be immediately destroyed was night, the radio-control system would also require some kind of radar tracking. I think, that standard u-boat FuMO 61 Hohentwiel radar, complemented by modified FuG 23 beacon onboard the missile could be used to track the missile for 20-30 km of its flight - enough to aim its heading more or less correctly.

The conclusion was, that it was actually possible - but military useless action. Just the projected losses of submarines would cost Germany order of magnitude more, than several widely inaccurate Fi-103 missiles hitting New York could inflict to Americans.

The accuracy of the Reichenberg allowed the Luftwaffe to destroy, for the first time in the war, with security and economy of means all kinds of high valuable targets like warships, aircraft factories, military HQ, munitions depots, bridges and power stations.



It was also considered its use for political purposes, based on the idea that an attack carried out against the Buckingham Palace, the Houses of Parliament or the White House could create the right situation for some kind of peace agreement. For the attack on Washington, it was proposed to arm some U-boat Type XXI with a Reichenberg IV housed in a watertight container located on the rear deck behind the conning tower. The problem with Type XXI is that they were not big enough to use the same system of steam catapults installed on Japanese submarines of the Sen-Toku series. Nor was it possible to use the catapult 'Madelung KL 12', designed for launching unmanned missiles because its length was 42 m and its terminal speed of 105 mps would make the pilot lose consciousness.



The solution proposed by the Dipl. Ing. Willy Fiedler consisted of a folding ramp, only 10 m. length, which was originally designed to launch the Natter. With the use of two RATO rockets of the Schmidding 109-533 type a softer thrust would be obtained until reaching the starting speed of the pulsejet. After the war, Willy Fiedler worked designing several U.S. Navy submarine launch systems for the 'Loon' and 'Regulus' missiles.
 

Dilandu

I'm dissatisfied, which means, I exist.
Joined
May 30, 2013
Messages
712
Reaction score
333
Website
fonzeppelin.livejournal.com
The accuracy of the Reichenberg allowed the Luftwaffe to destroy, for the first time in the war, with security and economy of means all kinds of high valuable targets like warships, aircraft factories, military HQ, munitions depots, bridges and power stations.
Well, frankly, I do not believe that piloted version would actually work better than pilot-less. Anyway, the Reichenberg project was essentially on hold since October 1944, and just training the pilots to fly this jury-rigged contraption would probably took far too long.
 

Justo Miranda

CLEARANCE: Top Secret
Joined
Dec 2, 2007
Messages
4,040
Reaction score
1,574
- In early 1945 the Allies electronic technology was so advanced that they could interfere any radio-controlled system built by the Germans. The Axis only possibility was using suicide pilots. After the failure of the Messerschmitt Me 328, Hanna Reitsch, who had participated in its testing program piloting one of the prototypes and was greatly affected by the bombing of German cities, met with Otto Skorzeny to support his idea of using a piloted version of the V-1. The successes achieved by the kamikazes in the Far East strengthened the position of those in favour of creating S.O. units and the OKL finally authorized the transformation of several V-1 missiles into piloted flights, under the codename Reichenberg.



The work was undertaken by DFS-Ainring with the installation of a cockpit, instruments and flying controls in the space formerly occupied by the two spherical air bottles. Ailerons also were fitted in the wing trailing edges and the surface of the rudder doubled to improve manoeuvrability. In the prototype, the fuel tank and the warhead were replaced by sand bags of equivalent weight.



The first aircraft was transformed in just fourteen days, initiating flight tests Lärz, slung under the port wing of a Heinkel 111. After launch, the pilot lost control and the Reichenberg turned was destroyed. The same happened with the second prototype when attempting a landing without flaps at more than 220 kph. The system of sand ballast was replaced by a water tank that could be emptied in flight to lighten the plane before landing, although sometimes the discharge valve froze, as it happened to Hanna Reitsch with the third prototype during a launch from 18,000 ft. After making a successful flight test on the pulsejet in the Karlshagen Erprobungsstelle, it was decided that the Reichenberg would enter mass production.



With a speed of 800 kph maximum dive and a cockpit design that prevented the installation of an ejector seat, no one doubted that it was a suicide project. But the OKL insisted that S.O. pilots were trained in landing manoeuvres, for the sake of formality. DFS build three versions of training: a two seat unpowered glider based on the airframe of a Fi 103 A called Reichenberg I, a pulsejet powered two seat called Reichenberg II and a pulsejet powered single seat called Reichenberg III for advanced training. All these variants were equipped with a landing skid and were reusable.



The S.O. version, named Reichenberg IV, was based on the airframe of the Fieseler Fi 103 B-1, with wooden wings, Amatol 39 A warhead and three impact fuses. The launch system was dangerous and ineffective, the Heinkel should take off with a large asymmetric load of 2,250 kg which would mean the loss of both aircraft in the event of failure of the port engine. The S.O. pilot remained aboard the Reichenberg since before docking under the Heinkel and the cockpit could not be opened until after launch because of the relative position of both planes.

The 5./KG200 was the Luftwaffe unit responsible for the formation of a first batch of 70 S.O. pilots. The Training Programme included a number of flights in elemental gliders of the Grunau Baby type, then started to use the Stummel Habicht - a single seat version of the aerobatic glider DFS Habicht - with reinforced airframe and wingspan reduced from 13.6 to 6 m. The Stummel of short wings could fly at 300 kph in diving, but it was dangerous at landing because of its stalling speed of 80 kph. At the next level of training, the pilots got familiar with the flight controls of the Reichenberg I, performing various take-off towed aloft by a Henschel Hs 126. The ignition of the pulsejet was practiced with the Reichenberg II two seat trainer, making a shallow dive to reach the ignition speed of 400 kph.

In the final stage, the pilots performed a flight in the single seat version of the Reichenberg III which included the simulation of a terminal dive to become familiar with the tightening of the flight controls at high speeds.

In November 1944 there was no point in trying to destroy the allied invasion fleets and the naval versions of the Reichenberg IV were left aside to enhance the strategic bombing versions. It was suggested that one S.O. variant of the Fieseler Fi 103 B-1 would be carried under a Heinkel He 177 to attack the Soviet industrial centres of Kuibyschew, Tscheljabinski and Magnitogorsk.

On February 24, 1945, only 34 S.O. pilots had completed training due to fuel shortages. The Reichenberg IV Programme was cancelled on March 15 without being used operationally because the Luftwaffe preferred to use the Mistel for their last bombing missions. At the end of the war in Europe, the Allies discovered about 500 airframes of Reichenberg IV in different stages of construction in the Pulverhoff VI assembly plant of Dannenberg. At least 175 of them were ready for combat.

The Reichenberg V was the project of a single seat trainer, based on the Reichenberg III to be used by the pilots of the new generation of fighters and fighter-bombers powered by pulsejets (Heinkel He 162 A-10 and A-11, Heinkel P.1077 Romeo and Junkers EF 126) with which the OKL hoped to continue the fight in 1945.
 

Attachments

Top