Electronic Warfare

"Engineers at the Russian Space Agency Roscosmos have developed a plan to block foreign orbital spy satellites from operating in the skies above Russian territory, in what could mark a new era of counterintelligence.
The engineers at the Russian Space Systems Corporation, a subsidiary of Roscosmos, propose establishing a database of all known foreign orbital spy satellites to best configure an array of ground-based jamming devices.
Once this database is compiled, the agency could then decide the best location and composition for a proposed array of ground-based radio-electronic stations which suppress and prevent data transmission from optical, infrared and radar satellites."
Found out that a lot of different forum users have a Vietnamese background, so something to enjoy here.

"The countries of Southeast Asia are equipping their combat aircraft with new means of defense, trying to strengthen the protection of outdated Soviet-built machines.

In particular, an Indonesian Su-27 fighter, on which the Talisman airborne defense system was installed, was caught in the photo lens. This BKO is produced in Belarus by the Defense Initiatives enterprise. It is designed to counter threats posed by various types of missiles - both airborne and ground-based, including MANPADS. BKO has two modes of operation - "electronic stealth" and "false target".

This product provides protection for aircraft in the vicinity that are not equipped with such electronic warfare systems [...] Test and test results are very satisfactory

- noted in the Indonesian edition of EGI Inovasi.

The Vietnamese Air Force did not stand aside from the novelties of the Belarusian defense industry. "Talisman" was installed on the Su-22M4 fighter-bomber.

There is no doubt that the BKO Talisman will create an electronic shield around the Vietnamese fighters

As explained, the Vietnamese Air Force has 36 modernized Su-22 aircraft, which have undergone a series of improvements in Russia, Ukraine and Belarus. As a result, they were able to effectively use the R-13, R-60 and R-73 air-to-air missiles."

The Russian Ministry of Defense conducted exercises on the use of long-range electronic warfare systems.

As reported "News" with reference to the military department, the Baltic and Northern fleets of the Russian Federation took part in the testing.

Exercises on the use of long-range electronic suppression systems were conducted back in March 2021, but only now it became known about them. Electronic warfare systems from the Baltic and Northern fleets took part in testing, which ones, the Ministry of Defense, did not disclose.

As the newspaper writes, during the exercises, the electronic warfare systems of the fleets alternately found the stations of the imaginary enemy and suppressed them, despite the range of several thousand kilometers. The "enemy", in turn, inflicted a retaliatory electronic strike.

It is emphasized that the calculations of the electronic warfare stations worked in conditions close to combat. The exercises were recognized as successful, the stations confirmed the inherent characteristics and the ability to jam long-range communications.

For our part, we note that in the exercises, with a high probability, the Murmansk-BN electronic warfare (EW) complexes were used, capable of suppressing communication and control channels at a distance of up to 5 thousand kilometers. This complex was previously deployed in the Kaliningrad and Murmansk regions.

"Murmansk-BN" is an automated radio interference complex for communication lines in the short-wave (HF) range, capable of suppressing radio communications at a distance of 3 to 5 thousand kilometers, and with good signal transmission - up to 8 thousand kilometers. The equipment automatically collects data on signal emitters in the HF range, classifies and determines what and what power of interference can suppress them. In addition to communications, the complex also disrupts the operation of ships' weapons systems.

National Security Agency documents noting it has information dating to the late 1990s about an unidentified “hostile country” possibly having a microwave weapon “to weaken, intimidate, or kill an enemy over time.”
Old news but new to me. https://iz.ru/733352/aleksandr-kruglov-bogdan-stepovoi/kompleksy-reb-poluchili-pariashchie-antenny

For electronic warfare (EW) troops, "floating" antennas have been developed. These are quadrocopters equipped with special transceiver devices. Such systems can rise several hundred meters above the ground. They will be used alongside conventional antennas. Experts believe that the novelty will significantly expand the capabilities of radio intelligence and electronic warfare. It will also help to swaddle cruise missiles in a timely manner and knock them off course.

The Ministry of Defense told Izvestia that transceiver antennas based on quadrocopters were developed for electronic warfare vehicles. The prototype of the product has already been tested.
In total, two types of "floating" antennas have been created - controlled by radio channel and with the help of a special cable. In the second case, a copper cable for transmitting electricity and fiber-optic cables for exchanging information between the antenna and the automated control system (ACS) in the electronic warfare vehicle are hidden in a durable Kevlar cable-cable.

Uninterrupted power supply will allow the quadcopter, if necessary, to stay in the air for more than a day, ensuring the fulfillment of the combat mission. Communication between the equipment will be stable even if the electronic warfare devices operate at full power, suppressing all radio signals in a given zone.

Quadcopters will allow you to raise the antennas to a height of more than 300 m without special towers. These drones have improved significantly in recent years. They are stable in the air, have a good carrying capacity.

Now almost all modern means of air attack, including cruise missiles, attack targets at low altitude, military expert Oleg Zheltonozhko told Izvestia. According to him, due to the folds of the landscape, it is difficult for electronic warfare and air defense systems to detect such a target.

- Classical antennas have many drawbacks, - said Oleg Zheltonozhko. - They are bulky, have a lot of weight and dimensions. This seriously reduces the mobility of electronic warfare complexes and the possibility of their camouflage in the field. To increase the detection zone, it is necessary that the antennas are as high as possible. As a means for their lifting, various devices were considered, including balloons and airships. But they are highly dependent on weather conditions.

The new antennas will allow you to detect in advance and act on the sensors that lead to the target of cruise missiles. Lost in space, the rocket will have to urgently gain altitude to clarify its coordinates. At this point, it becomes a good target for modern air defense systems. And the EW forces at the same time will get a good chance to finally "blind" and "disorient" the missile of a potential enemy.

In the short term, "soaring" antennas can also enter service with the air defense forces. Modern military air defense systems have retractable masts. Elements of radar systems are installed on them. Such masts are on the S-300 and S-400 air defense systems. But they have a significant height limit. Quadcopters will help solve this problem.

Along with large attack unmanned aerial vehicles, very small drones that perform reconnaissance functions pose a big security threat. Especially multicopters. When a helicopter-type drone hovers, it is impossible to detect it with classical radars that use the Doppler effect - it becomes invisible. And if we take into account that such devices have a very tiny effective reflective surface, then it is really almost impossible to detect them. Suppose that an attacker was able to carry a multicopter equipped with a whole complex of spy equipment to some strategically important object and launch it under the cover of night. Such a copter will rise to a great height, where it is visually impossible to determine and will begin to collect information. He will not broadcast it, as well as at night he will go down and transfer the collected data to his master.
Today, it is almost impossible to catch such a spy. But a group of young specialists under the leadership of General Designer Alexei Tsarkov was able to develop technologies that allow you to instantly fix an uninvited unmanned guest. Not even motionless.

According to the developers, the three-coordinate multi-beam active antenna system created by them can significantly improve the technical characteristics of small-sized radar stations. Already today we can talk about the following advantages: round-the-clock all-weather mode of operation; automatic notification when a UAV is detected; Get real-time results integration with UAV suppression systems. Importantly, no special authorization is required for the use of radar equipment. The instrumental range of detection of a suspicious target is 5 km. Detection of small UAVs with AN ESR from 0.01 sq.m at a distance of 1 km. The radar complex provides measurement of the range, azimuth and speed of the target, its constant automatic tracking. There is also an automatic notification function when a threat occurs. After detection and recognition, the RADAR sends an instant alarm to the security point and continues to track the target. The current location of the UAV and the characteristics of its flight are displayed on the operator's screen.

The Military Educational and Scientific Center of the Ground Forces of the Russian Federation has developed a complex for protecting critical infrastructure facilities from attack by large groups of drones. The new means of defense is an "electrified dome-type barrier".

According to RIA Novosti,the invention of military scientists at the end of October was issued in Rospatent.

The device consists of a controlled electrified barrier in the form of two mesh domes, as well as radar, an automated operator's workplace and an electrical energy conversion device, as well as a power source and a video surveillance system.

With the help of electronic detection, the dome can determine the drones in flight, as well as track the parameters of their movement. There are three modes of operation: security, security-repellent and security-striking.
It is assumed that the new system of protection against the swarm of drones will be used in the protection of nuclear power plants, oil storage facilities and other infrastructure facilities.

By the way

Scientists at the Federal Nuclear Center, the All-Russian Research Institute of Technical Physics, have proposed using projectiles with cutting nets to defend nuclear power plants from drones. Instead of shrapnel, the projectile carries throwing blocks, each of which contains explosives and cargo connected by flexible binding cutting elements. When detonated, the cargoes are fired and stretch the network that cuts the drones behind it.



Dassault Aviation Falcon 8X Archange currently being tested at Airforce Base 125 Istres. It’s the future airborne strategic intelligence program aircraft equipped with the Thales new-generation payload CUGE (universal electronic warfare capability)
- To reinforce the capabilities of signals intelligence (ROEM) by allowing the interception, characterisation and analysis of radio and radar emissions (electronic warfare)
- Evaluate an adversary's strengths and adapt electronic countermeasures accordingly to its means of protection
- Disseminate warning intelligence to a maximum number of actors, as an essential link in collaborative combat

- Unified sensor allowing the simultaneous interception of radio and radar emissions
- Highly sensitive sensor adapted to long-range interception and modern stealth signals
- Program with the ability to evolve towards massive data processing by artificial intelligence algorithms
- Bizzjet-type carrier with a range of use in terms of altitude, manoeuvrability and speed close to that of a fighter aircraft and facilitating consideration of the modern long-range ground-to-air threat and/or stealth requirements
- Falcon 8X engine offering an extension - guaranteeing autonomy in the area - and a flight ceiling - guaranteeing area of coverage - that are clearly superior to the performance of the C-160 Gabriel
- CUGE systems enabling France to regain a strategic collection capability quantitatively comparable to that of the C-160G/DC-8 Sarigue pair
- Carrier natively equipped with high-speed communication means (SATCOM) and offering the potential to host connectivity solutions (tactical data link, software defined radio)
4 aircraft downed today by friendly fire..... So far
WTF! All by friendly fire? Is that even possible? With fire that friendly who needs enemies?
It sounds incredibly unlikely, given the geographic separation and the very different target types. On the other hand they were well inside the Russian border, so it is hard to believe Ukraine shot them down either. One of those things I doubt we will ever know the answer to.

I've seen it reported that both of the helicopters involved were a very rare electronic warfare variant - what kind of EW was this type associated with? ESM related recon or active countermeasures of some kind?
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The Borisoglebsk-2 is a multipurpose jamming complex designed for SIGINT and the suppression of HF/VHF/UHF frequencies of ground and airborne radio communication, satellite communication, and radio navigation systems and subscriber cellular and trunk communication lines operating in tactical C2 elements. It can track and jam both fixed-frequency and frequency-hopping signals.
The Borisoglebsk-2 system consists of a control post and four EW systems mounted on nine MT-LBuarmoured tracked vehicles. The composition of Borisoglebsk-2 is:
• R-330KMV Command-and-Control Station (Qty 1)
• R-325UMV Jamming Station (Qty 2) only one on URAL truck
• R-378BMV Jamming Station (Qty 2)
• R-330BMV Jamming Station (Qty 2)
• R-934BMV Jamming Station (Qty 2)
The features and capabilities of Borisoglebsk-2 are:
• Automatic distribution of frequencies to be jammed
• Automatic analysis and selection of emitters' signal parameters

View: https://twitter.com/Maks_NAFO_FELLA/status/1669401329331044352?s=20
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Correction, first vehicle in above video appears to be a R-934B "Sinitsa" jamming station.


The R-934B jammer is intended to disrupt airborne voice and data communications channels operating in the VHF and UHF bands. The system is available in two configurations, either carried on an MT-LBU tracked chassis, or a Ural 4320-31 series 6 x 6 truck with a K1-4320 chassis, using a 16 kW towed generator.
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Very Rare Electronic Warfare System R-325U and the 2S7 It Was "Protecting" Destroyed Near Bakhmut​

View: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KAxwe2sKC0M


Confusingly, Russian order-of-battle information lumps some of these systems together as a single system or ‘complex’. For example, the Borisoglebsk-2 HF/VHF COMINT/COMJAM system includes five distinct components. These include the R-330KPK C2 system, the R-378B, R-330B, R-934B and R-325U. The number of these latter four systems in an EW Company can be scaled up or down according to tactical requirements. Our table above includes a Borisoglebsk-2 system at its full strength with a single C2 system and two each of the COMINT/COMJAM systems. The graphic below illustrates the approximate COMINT and COMJAM coverage that six of the Borisoglebsk-2’s jammers could cover.


For example, each jammer could cover a surface area of approximately 907 square kilometres (350 square miles). As we have illustrated in our graphic above, six Borisoglebsk-2 jammers could potentially detect and jam ground-based radios across a 5,442 square kilometre (2,101 square mile) area. However, we should stress that this is by no means an exact figure. Also, military radios and other emitters like ground-based military radars will use COMSEC/TRANSEC measures and protected waveforms as a riposte. Nonetheless, Armada has learned that the R-330B and R-934B components may have some potential jamming frequency-hopping VHF radios performing up to 300 hops per second. The R-378B and R-325U are thought to be capable of jamming frequency-hopping HF transmissions at up to 30 hops-per-second. The R-330KPK C2 system can handle up to 30 jamming tasks simultaneously.

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