Chinese transport aircraft


Fight for yor Right!
14 January 2007
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Hi all,

do you have drawings, pics and technical informations about the chinese transport aircraft Chung Yun 1 and Chung Yun 2 by the No.2 Aircraft Factory? I believe this are not projects, but only prototypes.
All info´s are welcome... ::)
Best to avoid going to that cwlam2000 website directly - its host,, has a reputation for malware, etc. Still, there's a number of interesting photos there, so ...

A roughly cleaned-up version of Google Translate of the relevant bits follow below. Chinese transliteration variants result in different name presentation ... Chung Yun or Zhongyun translate as 'SinoTrans' or 'China Transport' (Chung Yun or Zhongyun translate as 'Loyalty').

The beginning of the article describes the company and its earlier products. But its a bit muddled. I'll summarize rather than given the entire translation ...

The maker is listed as the "Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation" which is a bit garbled. There seems to be some confusion between the US-backed Central Aircraft Manufacturing Company [1] set up at Hangzhou (Hangchow) in 1934 and the Sino-Italian National Aircraft Works (SINAW) established at Nanjing in early 1935. The SINAW factory's renamings get a bit convoluted - in 1937 it is nationalized as the Central Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Factory before being moved to a more secure cave site (Hai Kong Plant) at Nanchow (Nanchuan) as the No. 2 Aircraft Manufacturing Factory.

The text goes on to say that this factory developed six aircraft types between 1939 and 1947. The type descriptions are a bit wonky in the text, so I'll substitute my own list.

Chung 28A: ~19 x Polikarpov I-16s fitted with US engine, aka Zhong 28A, Chung 28 Chia/Zhong 28 Jia
- 745 hp Wright SR-1820-F53 Cyclone (from Curtiss Hawk III)

Chung 28A: ? x local modification of I-16s to UTI-4 2-seat trainer standard

Chung 28B: 30 x locally-assembled Polikarpov I-15bis,* aka Chung 28 I/Zhong 28 Yi
- 745 hp Wright SR-1820-F53 Cyclone, 3-bladed Hamilton-Standard propeller
-- * Assembled primarily from Soviet-supplied spares and Hawk III engine/prop

(??) : ?? x unlicensed copies of Dickson Primary gliders (by Roger S. Dickson, span 10.45 m)[2]

(??) : 31 x unlicensed copies of Hütter 'H-17' intermediate gliders (H 17a, span 9.70 m)[2]

Chung Yun 1: 1 x () transport aircraft prototype, aka Zhongyun 1, C-0101

Chung Yun 2: 1 x () transport aircraft prototype, aka Zhongyun 2, C-0102

The relevant part of the text takes up the story at the Hai Kong Plant in Haikongdong cave:

"Under such difficult conditions, the "Sinotrans" small transport aircraft was designed and manufactured in the winter of 1941. Chief designer is Tongtong Lin, deputy chief designers are Gu Guangfu and Gao Bangjun. Other designers include Lu Xiaopeng, Zhang Guilian, Cheng Baodi, and over 20 others. To speed the progress, design drawings and prototype production are done simultaneously. By the autumn of 1942, the overall design, theoretical model drawings, aerodynamic calculations, load and weight distribution, and strength calculations were essentially complete. Since there was no access to a wind tunnel, all aerodynamic data had to be selected by the designer from books. For unknown reasons, development of this aircraft type was temporarily suspended, then resumed in 1943. It took just over a year to complete the design in August 1944. The first aircraft was assembled and was named "China Transport One".

In the spring and summer of 1944, the Japanese army aggressively attacked the Central Plains, opened the Guangdong-Han and Ping-Han roads, and advanced into the southwest. In the winter of this year, Guizhou (Kweichow) Dushan fell, and the southwest was in critical condition. The No. 2 Aircraft Manufacturing Factory and the Guizhou Dafang (Kweichow Dading) cave aero-engine factory received orders to prepare for relocation. The employees of the No. 2 Aircraft Factory disassembled "China Transport One" for road transport. In order to avoid Japanese reconnaissance during the day, the convoy travelled at night. After seven or eight days of twists and turns, they finally arrived at Chongqing Baishiyi airfield (Baishi Yi, near Chungking). There, "China Transport One" was assemble and prepared for flight tests.

Current aviation construction materials were in limited supply in China during wartime. As a result, a mixed construction of wood and metal was adopted for "China Transport One". Scarce aluminum alloys were used only for the ailerons and flaps. Much of the rest of the airframe was created from wood. US off-the-shelf components included the engines, propellers, landing gear, and instruments. The landing gear - of three-point, 'taildragger' type - retracted rearward into the engine nacelles.

The first flight took place in October of 1944. Test pilots Li Xingtang, Lin Tongji, and inspector Lin Tongji boarded the plane together and successfully lifted off. After circling Baishiyi Airport for more than 20 minutes, they landed safely and successfully completing their first flight. After several test flights, it was decided to fly from Chongqing to Chengdu. The plant manager was very satisfied with the employees who participated in the design, and was very confident in the aircraft. He boarded the plane in person and flew with Lin Tongji and others. On 18 November, the aircraft flew from Chongqing to Chengdu in a record time of 59 minutes - which was faster than the DC-2 of that time. In Chengdu, the test flight team, in collaboration with design and manufacturing personnel, conducted test flights one by one in accordance with flight test regulations and obtained satisfactory results. The aircraft was designated as the C-0101 transport aircraft. The success of the aircraft design has been praised and encouraged by Wang Zhu, a senior in the aeronautical engineering industry (then deputy dean of the aeronautical research institute). At the end of 1946 , "China Transport One" was ordered handed over to the Kuomintang Air Force Air Brigade.

There were plans to convert "China Transport One" into a bomber to continue the war of resistance against Japan. Funding problems prevented this and plans were abandoned after the victory in the War of Resistance.

Based on "China Transport One", "China Transport Two" incorporated improvements intended for production aircraft. The structure of the aircraft was similar to that of No.1, but the landing gear of "China Transport Two" were complete hydraulic gear sets taken from an American-made P-40B fighter. Improvements were made in wheel mechanism, flap control, cabin interior, as well as safety and comfort. Due to the on-going shortage of modern aviation materials, "China Transport Two" continued use of wooden structural parts. The second aircraft had a reduced weight but also fewer seats. Engines were two 9-cylinder air-cooled Pratt & Whitney radials. On 19 February 1948, "China Transport Two" made its first flight at Chongqing. The aircraft looked sleek and beautiful, and was commendable. Continued development of the concept led to the "China Transport Three" was a full metal structure. The design speed of "China Transport Three" was 353 kilometers per hour. But here, the Civil War launched by the Kuomintang was underway. The "Sinotrans" aircraft were never put into mass production and, of course, could not be used on air routes. After the successful test flight, "China Transport Two" was not accepted by the military. At the end of 1948 , the factory was moved back to Nanchang, and "China Transport Two" went with it. When Nanchang was liberated in June 1948, "China Transport Two" remained at Qingyunpu Airport. The pilot Liu Huantong, who had been accepted by the PLA, flew directly to Hankou after a test flight.

On 01 December 1948, the then-factory director Ma Deshu convened the entire plant staff to announce that the No. 2 Aircraft Factory was to shut down by order of the commander-in-chief Zhou Zhirou. After that, except for the designers of "China Transport Three" - who were temporarily incorporated into the Aviation Research Institute - most of the rest of the staff moved to Taiwan.

The main technical data of "China Transport One":

Wingspan: 15.85 meters
Length: 11.95 meters
Height: 2.67 meters
Empty weight: 3021 kg
Total weight: 3147.79 kg
Speed: 344 km / h
Ceiling: 5334 meters
Range: 1696 km
Power: 2 x 450 hp Wright R-975 Whirlwind
Crew: 2
Passengers: 8

[1] Established by William D. Pawley on behalf of his erstwhile employer, Curtiss.

[2] Source: Gliding Activities in China by Zhang Ruying, Nanjing, China, Technical Soaring, Volume XV No. 2, April 1991, pg.62

BTW, preceding this article in the same issue (beginning on pg. 56) is China's Sailplanes and Motorgliders - An Overview, by Zhang Ruying and Ma Lungzhang which, as the name suggests covers original glider design in the PRC.
One S.72 was presented to Chiang Kai-shek by the Swiss May-Kee (China) Export Company for personal transport, and six others were ordered as bombers and delivered in 1936. But in 1936, the twin-engne S.81B bomber was seleccted for production in the aforementioned Sino-Italian National Aircraft Works (SINAW) factory. One was delivered from italy in nine boxes and finally completed in Canton in 1938, while three machines (from six ordered) were built in the Nanchang SINAW factory, before it was bombed by the Japanese (How much it was "building" and how much just assembling from Italian-made parts I don't know). One of the finished machines was destroyed there, others served with the 13th Squadron.

Source: Andersson, Lennart. A History of Chinese Aviation - Encyclopedia of Aircraft and Aviation in China until 1949.
Great book by the way.
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And something new is learned! Many thanks for correcting me Aubi. I deleted my post since it was "Wrong, wrong, absolutely brimming over with wrongability". :oops:


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