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Ariane 5 Prototypes evolution 1977 to 1985

Michel Van

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already in 1977 were studies for Ariane with Lox/Lh2 upperstage
those became 1977 to 1982 the Ariane 5R study
aka in Forums "the Ariane 5 Common core booster" design
Note code: P=solid fuel, L=Liquid fuel, H=Lox/LH2 fuel. Number=fuelmass in tons

1977 "Systéme Ariane Véhilcule Habitable" study
use of Ariane 3 "L180" (40 tons more fuel as Ariane 3) with 4 booster P9.5
second sage with cryogenic propellants and engine of 60 ton trust

1978 version
GEO launch 4,5 tons ?
first stage L210 with 4 booster P9.5
second stage H45 with HM-60 engine
third stage H10 with HM-7 engine

this second stage H45 has larger diameter 5,26 meter.
this "hammerhead" configuration was change later to diameter of 4,20 meter
i don't know why, but maybe it because aerodynamic problems
http://www.capcomespace.net/dossiers/espace_europeen/ariane/ariane5/1979%20concept%2001.jpg

1979 version
Ariane 5
310 tons launch mass
Trust: first stage 265 Tons+4 solid booster, second stage 60-80 tons, third stage 6 tons
payload 5500 kg in GTO, first planed launch for year 1990
Ariane 5H
310 tons launch mass
Trust first stage 265 Tons+4 solid booster, second stage 60-80 tons, third stage Hermes

Around 1980
new Version AR4 has now 4 Liquid Booster
the first stage become L220 with 4 booster L19 (like Ariane 44L)
Second stage H45 or H55 with HM-60 engine
Third stage H10 with HM-7 engine
index.php


1982 the Ariane 5 change do Hermes weight problem
the last version 5R had a 5 Viking engine first stage under L220
for more trust, is likely that center engine is shot off during flight
or as last alternative
only 4 Viking engine with 4 PAL AND 4 PAP booster on L220 !

Launch Weight 505 tons
GEO launch
L220 with 4x L34 Booster
second stage H60 with HM-60
Third stage H9R (R stands for engine restart)
http://www.capcomespace.net/dossiers/espace_europeen/ariane/ariane5/1979%20concept%2003.jpg

for Low orbit
Third stage MOTCA Module de Transfert et de control d' attitude) with 300 kg fuel
ironycal MOTCA survived and Transform into EPS stage of Ariane 5!
http://www.capcomespace.net/dossiers/espace_europeen/ariane/ariane5/1979%20concept%2004.jpg

index.php

but Ariane 5R had problems
Pogo oscillation because of fifth viking engine
also the length of 70 meter brings instability flight
and death end for incrasement in more Payload

Source
http://www.capcomespace.net/dossiers/espace_europeen/ariane/ariane5/developpement_1979_92.htm

German Spaceflight book by Harry O. Ruppe
Die Grenzenlose Dimension Raumfahrt Band 1
Page 636-642

CNES Report - Future of Launcher in Europe
Conference in Paris January 19-21, 1982
 

SAustin16

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Michel,

I second Martinbayer. Very well done.

I really enjoy your drawings showing both outside and cutaway views.

The Hermes/Ariane 5 would make a beautiful model.

Thank you for posting your work.

Steve Austin
Texas, USA
 

OM

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...Damn nice brief overview, but I do have *one* question about something that may have gotten lost in translation:

and death end for incrasement in more Payload

...What exactly did you mean by this?
 

Michel Van

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OM said:
...Damn nice brief overview, but I do have *one* question about something that may have gotten lost in translation:

and death end for incrasement in more Payload

...What exactly did you mean by this?

that Ariane 5R was on his maximum payload and was unable to launch more
the today Ariane 5 design can be change for more payload
 

Michel Van

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next part

parallel to Ariane 5R study, were the Ariane 5prime study
also know as Concept etage 1/2 a unusual concept

1978
Booster 2XP150 reusable Booster each 3000 kN trust
core Stage H60 from Ariane 5R concept 4.2 meter ø
but modified for 90 t Lox and only 7 t LH2 !
as engine HM60 with 750 kN trust
a External Tank H11 - 4,2 meter ø and 15 meter long with 11 tons LH2

the flightplan with Hermes as payload
Launch with Booster and HM-60 Igniting
125 sec Booster are drop and land with parachute in atlantic
350 sec H11 tank is drop
520 sec H60 is drop Hermes enters Orbit
see attache Picture


1979 Ariane 5 P change
for Launch 15 tons in LEO
Booster 2XP150
core Stage H82 with HM-60 engine
H38 Largable (Jettisonable) with 36 tons Lox/Lh2

for launch of 4,5 tons in GTO
Booster 2XP75 !!
core Stage H82 with HM-60 engine
second stage H10 with HM7 inside aerodynamic hull
http://www.capcomespace.net/dossiers/espace_europeen/ariane/ariane5/1979%20concept%2002.jpg

1982 Ariane 5P chance a last time

Booster 2xP170
Core stage H120 with 1xHM-60
second stage H10 with 1xHM-7
http://www.capcomespace.net/dossiers/espace_europeen/ariane/ariane5/1982%20concept%2005.jpg
sound familiar ? its Ariane 5 we know today !

Ariane 5C - cryogénique (cryogenic)
stage all Loy/Lh2 and launch mass of 270 tons
First stage H160 with 4xHM-60
second stage H60 with 1xHM-60
third stage H10 with 1xHM-7


between July 1982 to October 1984 the Ariane 5R Ariane 5C and Ariane 5P were study by ESA
Ariane 5R had technical problems, high toxic fuel costs and reach maximum payload capacity.
Ariane 5C consider the second stage HM-60 Igniting as problem
Ariane 5P had the advance of Booster and HM-60 Igniting on ground
also is this concept cheaper thanks to reusable solid booster and design can be change for more payload

so Ariane 5P wins

Source
http://www.capcomespace.net/dossiers/espace_europeen/ariane/ariane5/developpement_1979_92.htm

CNES Report - Future of Launcher in Europe
Conference in Paris January 19-21, 1982

next part: the Ariane 5 Concepts except from competition
 

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Michel Van

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its chrismass time ;D

first of rejects prototype of Ariane 5
Note code: P=solid fuel, L=Liquid fuel, H=Lox/LH2 fuel. Number=fuelmass in tons


CONCEPT CLUSTER CRYOTECHNIQUE

a cluster of 4xH48 stage with 4x HM60 and 4 Solid booster
the tanks are fueled from 45, 46, 48 tons also range the booster from P15 to P22
so launch mass goes from 330, 384, 427 tons
second stage is a H60 with HM60 engine

interesting is that the first stage cluster land with parachute in Atlantic
for reused

sadly the Source don't give name or Compay how design this
its mentions in report of CNES office at Ever
Evolution of the Ariane 5 concepts by J. Bouchet

Source:
CNES Report - Future of Launcher in Europe
Conference in Paris January 19-21, 1982
 

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Michel Van

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Re: Ariane Reusable AR-X

while Frenchs work on CONCEPT CLUSTER CRYOTECHNIQUE
is in Germany MBB Offenbrunn very busy a group under W.Kleinau

they proposed Ariane Reusable AR-X
based on H45 Tanks and HM60 Engine but inside a Aerodynamic hull with Heatshield
AR X-1 Demonstrator
Stage one
4xH45 and 9xHM60 (8 for Launch, 1 for Landing)
Stage two (inside the payload shroud)
1xH45 with 1xHM60

the finale AR
has a Second stage build from 2XH45 Tanks piece and 5xHM60 engine
(4 for launch, 1 for landing) inside Aerodynamic hull with Heatshield

the Frist stage lands 1500 km away in Atlantic, while second stage made several orbit
and land near Space Port in in Atlantic.

Source:
A Semi-Reusable Launch Vehicle Concept as a Reference System
by W.Kleinau, MBB Space Division at Ottobrunn
around 1979-1980

CNES Report - Future of Launcher in Europe
Conference in Paris January 19-21, 1982
 

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martinbayer

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Here's some more information: http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1981/1981%20-%204019.html

Martin
 

Michel Van

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Thanks for Info's martinbayer

CNES and the parallel Aerospatiale study comes next.

that is Ironic story,
because CNES gave Aerospatiale the order for Study to have a alternative.

they check so 12 different version
index.php

http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,4557.0.html
in end Aerospatiale came with almost the same proposal ;D
 

Michel Van

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CNES and Aerospatiale study Reusable Ariane 5-6

original its a 1980-1982 study for future launch system
but in most literature is labels as Ariane 5 and 6 study
and there only Unclear information on this

CNES made a Study Reusable rocket with launch mass around 400 tons.
first stage with delta wings with 8 engine with NTO/UDMH
second stage 1 engine with Lox/Lh2
unusual in the design was postion of second stage and Payload
inside a Bombbay in first stage !

CNES gave Aerospatiale the order for Study to have a alternative.
they check so 12 different version

in the end they had same Bombbay concept
only it use Lox/Kerosene in first stage and jetengine for return to launch site

Later CNES change its concept and put the second stage on top first.

after Ariane 5 became a conventional rocket
those studies became in 1990s Ariane 6 studies

CNES Report - Future of Launcher in Europe
Conference in Paris January 19-21, 1982
 

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Michel Van

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Matej said:
Great work Michel!

thx Matej

I'm not finish yet
there is the evolution of Ariane 5P from 1984 unitil first launch Ariane 5
like who HM60 became Vulcan Engine
 

hesham

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Hi,

http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1985/1985%20-%201712.html
 

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Michel Van

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nice find Hesham !

this show that SRB on 1985 Ariane 5 had four segment
later change to three segment EAP (Ètage aux Acceration á Poudre)
the Nosecone was change for better aerodynamic and transfer stress
on Main structure of central stage Lox tank
 

Archibald

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Per lack of a dedicated Ariane 1 > 4 thread ;)

I've just discovered that Fokker proposed ESA to parachute Ariane 1 first stage into the sea for possible reuse of some components.
This went as far as a test on the last Ariane 1, the Giotto launch of July 1985. Result: failure, the parachutes did not opened and the stage smashed into the ocean.
(hell, now that was quite a launch - last Ariane 1, first planetary probe, and recovery atempt. Wow.)
They also mention possible reuse of Ariane 4 PAL - the Viking pods on the sides that doubled the thrust. That's more realistic (they were lighter).
Source: Flight Global archive
http://www.flightglobal.com/pdfarchive/view/1982/1982%20-%201032.html
 

Michel Van

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Whoo, what nice find, Archibald !


the Ariane 1 recovery was study in deep, but during the first fights. they discover that first stage tumble uncontrollable downwards.
Because the heavy engine pod on now light tankvolume.


one idea was to separate the engine pod from tank pyrotechnical and land the pod with parachute.


According the Fight global, the test this parachute had to be on third operational flight of Ariane 1
That must be L7 Intelsat V-F7 on october 19, 1983
but there no info about a parachute test, i think the test was cancelled after discovery of tumble problem.


On Booster recovery was also study in deep, but in end they came to conclusion: it cheaper to build the booster on mass, instead of recover & refurnish them.
 

Hobbes

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Thanks Archie for solving a question that I've had for a long time. I remember seeing some magazine articles about the recovery proposal, then nothing and no indication why recovery wasn't being done.
 

Michel Van

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Archibald said:
I wish a ESA NTRS existed !!! ::)


You word in Gods ear !
but sadly the data is spread all over Europe
I wonder what ESA has on his server and Archive, i think there stuff more at CNES
 

hesham

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From L + K 19/1979
 

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