Aircraft by Sergei Pavlovich Korolyev

Maveric

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Hi all,

we all know the rocket aircrafts by Korolyev RP.218 and RP.318. He designed also a series of gliders and light aircraft, but I know not all bird of this series, can you complete?

S.K.3 sport glider
S.K.4 light aircraft 1930
S.K.7 transport motor glider 1937
S.K.9 training glider 1935

Thanks Maveric
 

hesham

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Hi,

he also designed the RPK-1;

http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,5021.0/highlight,korolev.html
 

igor-mich

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A sample list of developments Queen
AVF-27 glider, 1925.
KL-5 (SKL-5, SK-5) Koktebel glider 1929.
SK-3 "Red Star" glider in 1929
ANEZH-12 project light aircraft 1929.
SK-4 light aircraft 1930
"?" Twin-boom glider 1931 draft
SK-6 project airframe using electronic 1931.
"High Road" project light aircraft
SK-7 project glider paritel 1933
SK-7 Type - 7 projects planerletov ie had engine
(Assuming that was done about 5 projects
under the symbol SK-7 Type-7)
SK-8 aircraft project 1931?
SK8-9 twin-boom aircraft design scheme of 1931-1932?
ELECTRON-1 project aircraft 1932
SK-8p project glider paritel 1935.
SK-8 twin-boom glider project 1935.
SK-9 glider 1935.
RP-218 project rocket glider 1935.
SK-10 rocket plane project 1936.
R-318-1 rocket glider 1937
 

borovik

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SK-4
span-12,2m
lenght-7,15m
height -1,88m
speed-160km/h
ceiling-4000m

SK-6
SK-9
 

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borovik

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Other schemes, drawings to post igor-mich
 

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borovik

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SK-7
Please see also:
http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,10100.0.html
 

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borovik

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SK-8... /variants/
 

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borovik

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sources: Vetrov G.S. S.P.Korolev in aviation: Ideas, Projects, Designs. - Moscow, 1988.
http://rgantd.ru/vzal/korolev/razdel4.htm
http://rgantd.ru/vzal/korolev/razdel3.htm
http://rgantd.ru/vzal/korolev/razdel2.htm
'VI' (La-5 VI)
 

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igor-mich

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Here you can view and download the book, though it is in Russian
http://amyat.ru/bio/vetrov_gs_korolev/index.htm
 

hesham

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A very interesting aircraft and projects,thank you very much my dears
Borovik and Igor;

I think you forget this;

http://amyat.ru/bio/vetrov_gs_korolev/12.jpg
 

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redstar72

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Hi all!
The answer is almost complete, but I'll add some info.

Sergei Korolev's designation system was VERY irregular and complicated (if there was a system at all). His very first glider project, designed in 1924 at aviation enthusiasts circle in Odessa inhering to ChAG (ЧАГ - Black Sea Aviation Group) when Korolev was 17 years old, was designated “K-5” for some reasons. This project was highly appreciated by aerotechnical department of Odessa OAVUK branch (ОАВУК– Aviation & Aeronautics Society of Ukraine) and recommended for realization. But it was necessary to approve it at OAVUK Central sport section in Kharkov, which allocated funds for construction of gliders to different Ukrainian aviation circles. Korolev sent his project (11 drawing sheets with explanatory comment) to Kharkov… and it was lost somewhere by the post service. So, the first Korolev design became a mystery: anybody doesn’t know today how it looked like. It’s known only that Korolev preferred to call it “motorless airplane”, not “glider”. Therefore we can guess that he planned to put a low-power engine on it as next stage, turning it into an ultralight aircraft.

Later Korolev designated his new creations with “SK” index. But the numeration was still irregular. His next design was SK-5, followed by SK-3 and SK-4. SK-1, SK-2 never existed! Also Korolev often used the same index for different projects, until one of them would reach construction stage. For example, there was a lot of VERY different projects (some were gliders, others powered aircraft) named SK-7 and SK-8: you can see them on borovik's attached images.

So, the realized Korolev flying machines were:

1. SK-5 Koktebel – single-seat, high-perform sport glider. Designed together with Sergei Lyushin (this is not a misprint and not the famous designer Sergei Ilyushin, it’s another person!); sometimes mentioned as KL-5. Built in 1929 in Moscow, took part in 6th (October 6-23, 1929) and 7th (1930) All-Union gliding contests. The glider was named after a town in Crimea where all gliding contests until 1935 were held (in 1944 this gliding center was even renamed into Planerskoye – “Glider Town”; it regained name “Koktebel” in 1991). Among contemporary gliders, SK-5 was unusual with its long fuselage and robust design; but it had excellent aerodynamics (for that time of course) and flew as well as the better of its much lighter counterparts.
Technical data:
Wing span – 17.0 m
Length – 7.75 m
Wing area – 16.4 m2
Wing aspect ratio – 17.6
Empty weight – 230 kg
Flight weight – 300 kg
Gliding ratio (L/D ratio) – 25:1


2. SK-3 Krasnaya Zvezda (Red Star) – aerobatic glider, the first Soviet and maybe even the world’s first (correct me if I’m wrong). Designed specially for aerobatic maneuvers (safety factor of 10); first time diving flight calculations were made for a glider. It was projected since autumn 1929 and built in 1930 in Moscow during 47 days only. SK-3 participated in 7th (October 1930) and 8th (October 10 – November 10, 1932) All-Union gliding contests in Koktebel. On October 28, 1930 Vasily Stepanchonok (later renowned test pilot) during one flight made 3 normal loops with it. This was world’s first successful attempt to perform such maneuvers on a glider which climbed on thermics (shortly before American pilot made 4 loops on a glider, but he used assistance of towing airplane for climbing).
Technical data:
Wing span – 12.2 m
Length – 6.79 m
Wing area – 12 m2
Wing aspect ratio – 12.4
Empty weight – 189 kg
Flight weight – 270 kg
Gliding ratio – 20:1
Rate of sink – 0.9 m/s


3. SK-4 – two-seat light aircraft. Designed in 1929 at Bauman Moscow Technical University, as Korolev’s graduation work (his advisor was none other than the great Andrei Tupolev); defended on February 1930. SK-4 could be used as liaison and trainer aircraft, but Korolev planned to use it also for long-range air raids. He wanted to surpass the achievement of Yakovlev AIR-3 in which pilot Filin, with journalist Koval’kov onboard, performed non-stop flight from Minvody to Moscow on September 6, 1929 (during 10 hours 23 minutes they overcame 1750 km – a world record for this category of aircraft, unregistered officially because USSR wasn’t FAI member that time). SK-4 was tested in late 1930 – early 1931 by Dmitry Koshitz, renowned pilot and Korolev’s good friend; Korolev himself also participated in the tests. During one of test flights, engine failed and SK-4 crashed (fortunately Koshitz wasn’t seriously injured, and Korolev wasn’t onboard that time). The record flight stayed only a dream…
Technical data:
Wing span – 12.2 m
Length – 7.15 m
Wing area – 15.36 m2
Empty weight – 500 kg
Takeoff weight – 690 kg (in “normal” version, not for the raid).
Powerplant – one Walter NZ-60 engine, 5-cylinder radial, 60 hp
(the aircraft was designed and calculated for 100-hp Shvetsov M-11, but it just came to production and Korolev couldn’t obtain it).
Maximum speed – 160 km/h
Landing speed – 68 km/h
Service ceiling – 4000 m
Flight endurance – 2 hours (“normal” version), 12 to 20 hours (raid version)


4. SK-6 – experimental 2-seat, twin-boom glider of very compact design, remarkable also by wide usage of Elektron magnesium alloy in the structure. Built in 1931 or early 1932. There is very few info about this glider; nobody knows why, but it never participated in any All-Union gliding contest and obviously wasn’t among Korolev’s favorite designs. Only one photo remained which is identified as SK-6 glider. It was designed (very similar project, anyway) in April 1931 as two-seat training aerobatic glider, but under designation SK-7 (see file SK-7.jpg attached by borovik). The historian Georgy Vetrov guess it's the same design. But why Korolev changed the designation – it is another mystery.
Technical data (calculated, for SK-7 project from April 1931):
Wing span – 10.0 m
Length – 5.45 m
Wing area – 17 m2
Flight weight – 230 kg
Gliding ratio – 15:1
Rate of sink – 0.9 m/s


5. RP-1 – powered version of Cheranovsky BICh-11 experimental tailless glider, designed together with Friedrich Zander (Tsander) and other Korolev’s friends from GIRD (ГИРД - Jet Propulsion Research Group). It was planned to be a rocketplane (therefore RP index); Zander OR-2 rocket engine (500 N thrust) was designed specially for it. But development of the engine was very difficult, and Zander didn’t achieve success; furthermore on March 28, 1933 he died of typhus in Kislovodsk. Therefore two RP-1 prototypes were tested in 1932-33 only as “ordinary” powered gliders, each with 25-hp Scorpion piston engine. First of them was flown on June 8, 1932 – Korolev himself was a test pilot. Totally 34 flights were made by him, but only 5 with engine powered up.
Technical data:
Wing span – 12.1 m
Length – 3.81 m
Wing area – 20.5 m

Other data unknown.

6. SK-9 – two-seat glider designed for towing flights and flights along thunderstorm front. Built in 1935 at Osoaviakhim’s Planernyi Zavod (“Glider factory”, Tushino, near Moscow). Participated in 11th All-Union gliding contest (September 6 – October 6, 1935) in Koktebel (it flew there from Moscow on tow, as part of an “aerotrain”, with Korolev onboard as a passenger). Later SK-9 was converted into RP-318-1 rocketplane (many historians guess that Korolev envisioned such a conversion from the beginning).
Technical data:
Wing span – 17.0 m
Length – 7.33 m
Wing area – 22 m2
Wing aspect ratio – 13.1
Empty weight – 300 kg
Flight weight – 460 kg
Gliding ratio – 19:1 (23:1 by another source)


7. RP-318-1 – designed since 1937 at RNII, finished without Korolev (as he was arrested on June 27, 1938); since this, Alexei Scherbakov became its chief designer and Arvid Pallo took the work on its powerplant. RDA-1-150 rocket engine designed by Leonid Dushkin was installed into SK-9 fuselage rear part, and the tanks for nitric acid and kerosene occupied the former rear cockpit. The whole powerplant weighed 136.8 kg, the fuel 75 kg. The engine could work until 112 seconds. Ground fire tests began at February 1939, until October more than 100 firings were done. The first powered flight was performed on February 28, 1940 by test pilot Vladimir Fedorov. The rocketplane took off towed by Polikarpov R-5; at 2800 m altitude it released, Fedorov set up 80 km/h speed and then fired the engine. After 5-6 seconds the speed increased to 140 km/h; Fedorov established climbing flight with 120 km/h speed and held it during all time the engine worked (110 seconds); he climbed 300 m during this time. The speed increase after engine start was smooth, vibrations didn’t appear. On March 10 and March 19, 1940 two next successful rocket flights were performed.
Technical data:
Wing span – 17.0 m
Length – 7.44 m
Wing area – 22 m2
Takeoff weight – 637 kg (max. 700 kg)
Powerplant – 1x Dushkin RDA-1-150 rocket engine, 1500 N maximum thrust
Maximum speed – 160 km/h (limited by strength reasons)


8. Pe-2RD – version of legendary Petlyakov Pe-2 bomber with additional Glushko RD-1 rocket engine (3 kN thrust) mounted instead of fuselage tail cone. This conversion was a task of special design bureau led by V. Glushko, based in Kazan and worked on rocket powerplants; Korolev’s post there was deputy chief designer of flight tests. Korolev made full aerodynamic calculations for Pe-2 equipped with RD-1; they indicated that maximum speed at sea level will increase by 82 km/h (and reach 542 km/h), while at 7000 m altitude it will increase by 108 km/h (although all this only for short time). The reworking of one production Pe-2 (No.15/185) into Pe-2RD began in 1943 spring. The nitric acid tanks were mounted in the bomb bay, kerosene tanks in the wing roots; full weight of rocket fuel system was 1050 kg. After many ground fire tests, on October 1, 1943 test pilot Alexander Vasilchenko first time fired rocket engine in the air for 2 minutes. During this time, flight speed increased by 92 km/h. On October 2 the rocket engine was fired already for 4 minutes, and next day the first takeoff with RD-1 working was performed. Later RD-1 was replaced by improved RD-1KhZ, with chemical ignition instead of electric. The tests were held until middle 1945; more than 100 fire flights were done. On May 12, 1945 the rocket engine exploded – aircraft’s empennage was seriously damaged, Korolev himself scorched; but Vasilchenko managed to land successfully.
Technical data:
Wing span – 17.60 m
Length – 12.60 m
Wing area – 40.50 m2
Empty weight – 6044 kg
Takeoff weight: normal – 8200 kg,
maximum – 9215 kg (with two 500-kg bombs on external crunches)
Maximum speed – 650 km/h; at sea level – 542 km/h
Flight range – 1200 km
Service ceiling – 9000 m
Takeoff run – 446 m (with RD-1 fired): 70 m shorter than ordinary Pe-2


Also Korolev participated in these aircraft designing: Richard (“Rishar”) TOM-1, Grigorovich TB-5, Tupolev Tu-2, Lavochkin La-7R.
 

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redstar72

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Additional images...
 

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 IMG]
 

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Tophe said:
Just a question: do you confirm the SK-8-9 had no fin? or is that a sketch with not all parts?

I think it's a sketch with not all parts. If SK8-9 would actually have such an uncommon design feature, I think Vetrov would note this fact specially in his book - but he didn't. Generally, Vetrov doesn't give detailed description of SK8-9; he considers it as "transitive" project, not very important. He noted only that SK8-9 general view drawing is dated April 24, 1931 and it was a twin-boom pusher, with 14 m wingspan and with high, spatted undercarriage legs. It's all info. Also Vetrov notes that it's the only example of "double" index among Korolev's designs, and it could mean double purpose: SK-8 as piston aircraft, and SK-9 as... potential rocketplane? But it's only a hypothesis.
 

Maveric

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My friends,

thanks for your great work. Let me say this: You are better than every encyclopedia or libary!!!!!

THANKS :-*

Maveric
 

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RP-318-1 cutaway from Modelist-Konstruktor magazine, No.9/1977.

1 - kerosene tank; 2 - nitric acid tanks; 3 - rocket engine; 4 - protective casing.
 

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Stargazer2006

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Interesting to compare the RP-318-1 above with the original RP-318 design:
 

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Jemiba

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Stargazer2006 said:
Interesting to compare the RP-318-1 above with the original RP-318 design:
Seems even to be fitted with a pressure cabin ! Must have been the smallest one designed
during pre-war times ! Maybe back-to-back seating was chosen to spare room.
 

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Two versions of the same project. In 1938, due to changes in the structure of the institute and department numbers the first digit of the objects RNII been changed and the rocket plane "218" was designated "RP-318"
 

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Jemiba

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The RP-318-1 was then just a proof-of-concept demonstrator, as we would call it nowadays ?
 

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Jemiba said:
The RP-318-1 was then just a proof-of-concept demonstrator, as we would call it nowadays ?
Yes, that's right.
After the arrest of S. Korolyov June 27, 1938 Lead Designer on "RP-318-1" - (demonstrator on based of the glider) was appointed engineer Shcherbakov, author of a number of high-rise projects gliders. The lead designer of the rocket engine was the engineer Arvid Pallo. (Instead of repression in March 1938 on a false denunciation engine designer Valentin Glushko.)
Is this your own artwork?
yes
 

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Just found this photo of the RP-318-1 in flight, with test pilot V. P. Fedorov at the controls.

Source: Memories of A. V. Pallo "How the RP-318 rocketplane was created and tested", extracts. RGANTD. F.107 op.5 ll.1 d.83-14, 17-21, 31.

(source document in Russian is attached)
 

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hesham

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From a Russian book about Korolyev.
 

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