MiG-29 Avionics

LukaszK

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If you manage to use Google translate that is definitely better. My experience with translation of the whole document was moderate. But this is for sure faster.
 

LukaszK

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Great results Overscan!
One remark according to page I put link, (Maybe it is obvious, If yes - sorry for such low level of remark ;-) )
It is possible to download ppt file . In preview of file on that page - formatting of all diagrams in ppt is not correct.
Personally I download all content of those lectures B)
 

stealthflanker

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Interesting. so the N019 has 6.5 kW instead of 4 kW of peak power. and 960 doppler filters. It also interesting to see the detection and tracking criteria being related to probability (detection is 0.5/50% while tracking is 90%)

Great find LukaszK and nice translation Overscan.
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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Yes, I'm using the PPT version. I will upload the PPT version if you want to correct it :)

Having done machine translation before on this very subject, I know some of the trickier terms and can tidy up the translation somewhat.
 

Zeka_Peka

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Hi there,

I have some dumb situation to solve.

I come from another forum. We debate the performance of MiG-29 radar. I am generally satisfied with the level of understanding several other members debating this issue display, and yes, we have the manual. Back in my days I had no problem with the manual, yes it demands some knowledge prior to reading, but nothing too demanding.

Currently we are having an exchange with some troll, who claims that MiG-29 radar after launching R-27R performs both scanning (search) of airspace for other targets while guiding R-27R on attacked one. As crazy as it sounds, but picture this - manual never says explicitly that radar lock have to be maintained until missile impact and that while that lock is maintained all other targets disappear (writers believe we already know that). Further manual is rather liberal in using terms such as "lock", tracking, automatic tracking, etc and *very liberal* in using word "regime" (eng. "mod") they describe a wide array of terms from real, selectable mods like "V" or "D" to some sub operations which system performs "behind the scene" i.e. invisible to the pilot and not shown anywhere like "mod" DNP. Add to this a host of people who are unsure what to believe and it is a perfect stage for an ambitious troll to do all kinds of logical and linguistic aerobatics. At one moment he used some data from "overscan's" avionics to support his claims which led me here.

I know the first thing you might say is that we are on poorly moderated forum - no doubts about that. I am sure "our" troll wouldn't last 24h here.

However things are, as they are, so I ask if there's any assistance you are able to provide? If not, a clear statement from Paul (Overscan) that such thing is impossible could also be of some help.

We have mostly used as "ammunition" "HUD" pictures from the manual and also "HUD" shots from some youtube videos. Cretin stated that HUD and HDD (IPV) show different pictures i.e. (while target is locked on HUD, radar searches on HDD :-X ;D :eek:)

Thanks
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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It can't be done.

The technical training documents posted on the last page (https://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=102.0;attach=598409) clearly distinguish between:

1) Finding, detecting and determining the coordinates of targets, maintenance "on the pass" up to 10 targets with the continuation of air space search.
2) Continuous tracking of one target with accurate measurement of its coordinates without overview of the air space.
3) Discrete-continuous illumination of the attacked target with the formation and transmission of radio correction commands.

When you engage tracking mode, you designate the target (or it is autoselected for you), then the radar stops scanning for targets, and focuses purely on the single target. The "on-the-pass" mode simply doesn't give enough detail quickly enough to accurately calculate launch parameters or formulate course correction commands for the R-27R missile.

Now, it's possible that the Ts100 processor could continue predict the other, non-tracked targets motion based on the last known direction and speed, but again the accuracy of these measurements in "on-the-pass" mode is quite low so it would probably not be terribly accurate. The only way to 100% disprove this would be testimony of a MiG-29 pilot or a video showing the radar in operation. I don't think it's likely - I would expect tracking the target gives it quite enough to do for such a relatively crude computer.
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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  • Search, Detection, rough measurement of coordinates and determining the nationality of air targets during the inspection airspace.
  • Support "on the pass" (SNP) to 10 targets, their ranking on the predicted time of meeting with the target, the issuance of recommendations for selecting the target for the attack.
  • Tracking of one attacked target with precise definition of coordinates, aiming for her impression, targeting the heads of missiles and preparing them for launch.
  • Calculation of the launch zone , the issuance of a command to start, illuminating the target, formation and transmission of radio correction commands.
  • Exit the attack.
 
Last edited:

overscan (PaulMM)

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Maximum error in target range measurement in SNP mode: ≤4 km.
Maximum error in measurement of range with tracking in DRB mode ≤0.2 km
Maximum error in measurement of range in BMB (close combat mode) ≤0.05 km.
Maximum error in measurement of speed when tracked in DRB and BMB modes ≤ 10 m / s.
Maximum error in determination of direction when tracked in DRB and BMB modes ≤0.25 °
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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- an overview of the airspace for the search and identification of air targets, the rough definition of their coordinates and parameters of motion and the establishment of state affiliation with the help of an airplane radar requestor;

- escort of the target chosen for attacking the target in range, direction (monopulse method) and speed with an accuracy that is sufficient for aiming and targeting conjugated systems;

- illumination of the target and the transfer of commands for radar correction to missiles from the CSG.

Additional modes:

- Accompanying the method "on the passage" of several identified goals.

- transition from airspace survey to target tracking with DRB;

- Accelerated search and target identification, targeting target channels in the BMB (VERTICAL mode).
 

Zeka_Peka

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Thanks :)

SNP - the closest English equivalent is "escort while pass" - it gives rough position (up to 4 km error as you have said), but deals with closure dynamics - ie: If you have A-10 flying towards you at 500km/h at the distance of 22km and 5km after it B-1B flying at 1020km/h, system shall conclude B-1B shall "surpass" A-10 and shall recommend B-1B for locking up.

"Now, it's possible that the Ts100 processor could continue predict the other, non-tracked targets motion based on the last known direction and speed"

That's the feature of the Foxhunter, I would love very much if you can re-upload mode photos on its page.

:)
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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"The study of the composition, design, controls OEPrNK. Checking the health of the complex. Checking the health of the built-in control system" - "Operation and repair of radio-electronic equipment for aircraft, helicopters and aircraft missiles"

GUIDE
to the practical lesson №18-3.
"The study of the composition, design, controls OEPRNA. Checking the health of the complex. Checking the health of the integrated control system."
Discipline: "Operation and repair of REO aircraft, helicopters and
aircraft missiles. "
Section "Airborne complexes and airborne integrated systems
The study of the composition, design and controls ed. OEPrNA-29. Performance check using VSK.
1. The purpose of the practical lesson.
The study of the composition, design ed. S-31 and controls. The inculcation of practical skills to test ed. S-31 using VSK.
2. Assignment for independent preparation for work:
- repeat the appointment and composition ed. S-31;
- repeat the main performance characteristics of the ed. S-31.
3. Security questions:
- appointment ed. S-31;

- The main performance characteristics of the ed. S-31;
- modes of operation ed. S-31.
4. Literature:
- lecture notes on the topic number 18;
- textbook VK No. 266
5. Task for the performance of work:
- to study safety measures when working with ed. S-31;
- to study the composition ed. S-31;
- study the design: OEPS-29, Ts.100;
- to study the purpose of the controls ed. S-31;
- to study the purpose and method of verification of ed. S-31 with PVK-31;
- check the operability of publisher S-31 using PVK-31.
6. Material support:
- poster set SK-S-31.
7. Report content:
- the composition and purpose of systems and devices ed. S-31;
- Appointment of complex management bodies;
- the methodology and results of verification of ed. S-31 with PVK-31.
The order of the work.
1 Security measures when working with the ed. S-31:
Before starting work with the PK-31 remote control, the lid is previously removed, with the PVK-31 remote control, the hatch is tilted. After work, the lid and hatch are closed.
ATTENTION: WHEN THE SUV FILLER IS INCLUDED, THE CATEGORICALLY PROHIBITED:
1. INCLUDE AZK KOLS, IF ITS INCLUSION IN THIS TIME IS NOT A REQUIREMENT OF TECHNICAL DOCUMENTATION. ON WHICH WORKS ARE PERFORMED .. WORKS WITH THE PRODUCT OF RINGS TO BE CARRIED OUT ONLY WITH THE OPEN FLASHLIGHT AND THE CHASSIS IS OUT.
2. MAKE A CHASSIS CLEANING (OR SIMULATE A CHASSIS CLEANING FROM THE BUTTONS HAVING IN THE CABIN, OR FROM HORSE SWITCHES) WHEN THE LAMP IS OPENED (OR IF THE LOCK IS OPENED).
3. CLOSE THE FLASHLIGHT (OR SIMULATE CLOSING THE FLASHLIGHT FROM THE END SWITCH) WHEN THE CHASSIS IS REMOVED (OR IF THE CHASSIS IS CLEANED FROM THE BUTTONS HAVING ANYONE EXCEPT).
The residence time of the complex in the on state should not exceed 5 hours, products 915 - 4 hours and products 23C –2 hours.
The break time in the operation of the complex before restarting (after 5 hours of operation or after 4 hours of operation of product 915) should be at least 2 hours ,
the recess of the product 23C (after 2 hours of operation) is not less than 25 minutes .
It is allowed to work with the complex without blowing for no more than 20 min at an ambient temperature of + (25 ± 10) ° С, followed by turning on the blower while continuing to work.
When working with ILS-31, IPV, not earlier than 3 minutes after turning on the SEI filling stations with the YARK handles on ILS-31, IPV, you should set the image brightness convenient for observation.
The list of complex controls, their location and initial positions are given in Table 1.
Table 1

Switch location
Switch nameInitial position
On the PSR-31 remote controlMODES
ZONE
PREPARATION.MAN-AUT
MAIN-OFF
KOMPL-ONE-0,5KOMPL
AMPLIFIER handle YARK.SHL
BASE M-S-B handle
NVG
ZONE
ABT
OFF
ONE 0.5
Clockwise
In position "C"
On the remote control PUR-31-1AP-OFF-APK
COMP
EX-EQ-OFF
-ZPS
RADAR MODES
ΔН
OFF
In the lower position
OFF
ZPS
ABT
0
On the PC-31 remoteSTAGE
OPER
VSK-INDIC
S-31
one
In neutral
On the remote control PU-S31BRAKE WITHOUT BRAKE
CAPTURE
AIR EARTH
SPECIAL AB
NAVED
EXPLOSION IS NOT EXPLOSION.
WITHOUT BRAKES.
OWN
AIR
RIGHTS
In the lower position
NOT VZR.
On the indicator
ILS-31
NIGHT-DAY-GRID
The handle of the BRIGHT.
DAY
Counterclockwise
On the
IPV indicator
MARK TRACK
TACT DUB.
The handle of the BRIGHT.
LABEL
DOUBLE.
Counterclockwise
On the remote control PVK-31MODE
S-31 - SK-1 - SK-2
OFF
S-31
Continuation of table 1

On the
control panel
IKV OCH. - ZAP.
AUTO CHANNELS - MANUAL
PPM - AER.
KUR RSBN - ARC
LANDING
COURSE 0 0 - 179 0
180 0 - 359 0
CIRCLE LION. - RIGHTS
DOS.
ABT
MRP
RSBN
In the lower position
0 0 - 179 0
A LION.
2. Composition and design of OEPRNA-29.
The optoelectronic sighting and navigation complex OEPrNK is designed to solve combat and navigation tasks at all heights of combat use, including against the background of the earth, day and night, in conditions of optical visibility, and also in the presence of organized interference both autonomously and when interacting with the RLPK complex.
The OEPrNA complex provides:
- search, detection, automatic tracking of an air target, measurement of angular coordinates and range to the target in stand-alone mode and in the mode of interaction with the RLPK complex;
- on-board guidance, calculation of launch zones, target designation and launch of guided missiles
R-73 and R-60M1 with TGS;
- aimed firing from a cannon at an air defense system at energetically maneuvering air targets and at ground targets;
- launch of unguided missiles at ground targets in terms of their visual visibility;
- targeted bombing on ground targets in terms of their visual visibility;
- the formation of teams and target designation in angles and ranges in the complex RLPK with tracking air targets;
- determination of flight and navigation parameters necessary for aircraft control;
- the formation, display and photo registration of overview, sighting and flight and navigation information, signals and commands necessary to control the aircraft and weapons;
- manual formation of target designation at the corners of guided missiles with TGS and complex systems.
The main tactical characteristics of the OEPrNA-29 complex;
1. The detection range of the MiG-21 type air gun in the air traffic control system under the 3/4 angle with P = 0.5 with the maximum engine operating at altitudes of the aircraft and the target N = 5 km in simple weather conditions is D> 15 km , the capture range with
probability P = 0.9 under the same conditions D = 8-10 km.
2 . Conducting targeted firing at aerial targets from a cannon at ranges of 200-1200 m.
3. Conducting targeted fire from a cannon at ground targets at ranges of 800-1600 m.
4. Launch of unguided missiles of the S-24B type at ranges of 1,200-2,500 m, of the S-8A type at ranges of 800-2000 m.
5. Conducting targeted bombing: from horizontal flight at a speed and altitude of 600-1200 km / h and 30-2000 m , respectively ; from the dive and at the exit of the dive at a dive angle of not more than 45 °; with cabling at a path angle of 110-130 °.
6. Generation and delivery of signals to the SEI and SAU-451-02 systems that provide indication of navigation parameters and control of the aircraft during flight along the route, return to the programmed landing aerodrome when performing pre-landing maneuver and approach.
7. Operational change of the flight program along the route with landing on an unprogrammed airfield.
The OEPrNK complex provides a solution to combat and navigation tasks in the following conditions of combat use:
- fighter flight altitude from 30 to Nm m;
- The maximum speed of horizontal flight at high altitudes is 2500 km / h and near the ground - 1500 km / h;
- maximum design vertical speed - 350-400 m / s;
- maximum flight time for combat use - 2 hours; the average time of combat work - I h ;
- operational overload: n x = - 2.0-1.5 units; n y = - 1.5 - 9.0 units; operating value n z = ± 0.7 units; limit value n z = ± 1 * 0 units;
- maximum angular velocities at which the complex remains operational: ω x = ± 3 1 / s ; ω y = ± 2.5 1 / s; ω z = ± 1.5 1 / s
Weight (taking into account the intersystem cable network) - no more than 250 kg;
9. The time between failures detected on the ground and in flight must be at least 50 hours;
10. Power supply of the subsystems and devices of the complex - from on-board sources 200/115 V 400 Hz, 36 V 400 Hz, 6 V 400 Hz and +27 V.
11. Currents consumed by the complex at maximum supply voltages (must not exceed): over a 27 V network - 65 A ; over a network of 200 V 400 Hz - 7 A (for each phase); on the network 36 V 400 Hz - 5 A (for each phase).
The composition of the OEPrNA complex includes: (see Appendix 1).
- BTsVM S-31 type Ts.100.02-02 with a device for input-output of information UVV20-31;
- optoelectronic sighting system OEPS-29;
- navigation system SN-29 ,
-
weapon control system SUO-29M2 (hereinafter referred to as the SLA);
- SEI-31 single indication system, hereinafter referred to as SEI;
- Unified multi-functional control panels PSR-31, PUR-31-1. 31, PK-31, PU-47, PVK-31, PU-S31-1 and the control button KU-31 on the aircraft control stick (RUS);
- communication unit and information distribution BSR-31;
- block of linear acceleration sensors BDLU-31; .
- block of angular velocity sensors BDUS-31;
- photocontrol device FKP-EU;
- mounting frame RM-31 to accommodate the units of the SEI system, the BSR-31, UVV20-31 block and their electrical connection;
- mounting frame RM-32 for installing the ILS-31 indicator from the SEI system and the FKP-EU device.
The basis of the OEPrNK complex is the S-31 BCVM, which performs mathematical and logical processing of information when solving combat missions, navigation tasks to ensure the combat regimes of the complex and control tasks. It performs the following basic operations: determining the data and conditions necessary for launching guided and unguided missiles, as well as the moment the bombs are dropped during bombing; determination of corrections when firing a cannon at air and ground targets; information processing E502-20; performing calculations related to solving navigation problems for combat modes; providing a mode of interaction with the RLPK complex; control of the complex in flight and at all stages of preparing the aircraft for flight. Communication of the BCVM S-31 with on-board analog devices, systems and multifunctional remotes is carried out through the input / output device UVV20-31, which, in addition, digitally encodes the commands received from the control panels. For communication and conversion in the type and scale of signals and commands that provide communication between the OEPRNA complex and other aircraft systems, the communication and distribution unit BSR-31 is used.
Optoelectronic sighting system OEPS-29 includes a quantum optical positioning station (KOLS) - ed.13C and a helmet-mounted target designation system (NSC) - ed.-Shchel-ZUM "(Щ-ЗУМ). KOLS station, in turn , consists of a survey-tracking heat direction finder (TP) and a laser range finder (LD). The KOLS station provides search, detection, capture and auto tracking of air targets by their thermal radiation in the infrared region of the spectrum, measuring the angular coordinates of an air target, as well as the distance to an air or ground target. KOLS station measures the angular coordinates of the line of sight of an air target relative to the building axis of the aircraft and the absolute angular velocity of the line of sight, as well as the distance to the target at the time of sounding. - Other parameters necessary for aiming, in particular angular accelerations of the line of sight, the current value of the distance to the target, speed rendezvous with the goal, are calculated by the computer S-31.
The NSC helmet-mounted target designation system is designed to determine the angular coordinates of the line of sight of a visually observable target, accompanied by a turn of the pilot’s head, in conditions of close air combat. The NSC system issues to the S-31 digital computer the primary angular coordinates of the line of sight of an air target, according to which the S-31 digital computer calculates the angular coordinates of the line of sight in the aircraft and other coordinate systems and provides target designation.
The navigation system SN-29 is designed to solve navigation problems, continuous automatic detection and delivery to sighting systems, the SAU-451-02 system and other airborne devices and flight-navigation parameters at all stages of an airplane’s flight. Flight and navigation information is displayed and displayed on the indicators of the SEI system and indicator devices - a planned navigation device of the PNP-72 type and a flight control device of the gearbox that are part of the SAU-451-02 system. The structure of the SN-29 system includes: an information system for the vertical and course IK-VK-80-4 (publ. Ts-050), a radio technical system for short-range navigation and landing RSBN with a digital navigation computer (NEC) - on-board radio navigation equipment - BRNO-29 (ed. A-323); system of air signals SVS-II-72-3-2; switching unit BK-55.
The SEI system is designed to indicate and display overview, sighting, tactical and flight-navigation information in all operating modes of the SUV system. The SEI system consists of two indicators: the ILS-31 collimator sight-navigational indicator “on the windshield” and the IPV navigational-tactical indicator of direct vision.
The weapon control system SUO-29M2 provides direct preparation for use and ensures the use of all types of weapons used on aircraft.
Unified multifunctional control panels ПСР-31. PUR-31, PU-47, PU-S-31-1, PVK-31, PK-31 are designed to control the operating modes of sighting systems RLPK and OEPrNA, and the SUV system as a whole.
The PSR-31 special modes console provides: selection of the operating mode of the SUV system, switching on the instrument guidance mode according to the data of E502-20; switching of operation modes of indicators ILS-31 and IPV; management of switching search zones of the RLPK complex and the KOLS station; selection of the launch mode of guided and unguided missiles or the discharge of bombs and other cargo setting the size of the target for external base range measurement and performing a number of other operations.
The PUR-31 control panel is designed to select the operating mode of the RLPK complex. It provides: switching of the RLPK operating modes, control of the radar transmitter; the inclusion of the compensation channel radar; turning on and off the SORT mode; selection of the operating mode of the RLPK complex under the influence of interference; the task of exceeding the target over the fighter.
The PU-47 control panel is designed to select the modes of bombing, the mode of operation for air or ground targets; operating modes of the device FKP-EU; selection of emergency bomb drop.
The PVK-31 input and control panel provides manual input of ballistic data of bombing into the S-31 digital computer, as well as control of the entered information, input and output information from the S-31 digital computer. The control panel PK-31 is designed to control the integrated control system of the OEPrNA complex and its devices and systems. The KU-31 button is used to control the strobe and field of view of the RLPK complex or KOLS station.
Blocks BDLU-31 and BDUS-31 provide measurement, respectively, of the absolute acceleration components along the axes of the aircraft coordinate system and angular . aircraft speeds relative to construction axes.
The FKP-EU photocontrol device is designed to control the accuracy of aiming and documenting the results of firing at air and ground targets. It provides simultaneous and combined photographic recording of targets visually observed in the field of view of the ILS-31 indicator (external space), and parameters displayed on this indicator.
As part of the SUV BTsVM S-31 system, other systems and devices of the OEPrNA complex are functionally interconnected with each other and with the RLPK complex both along the code lines of communication and along the chains of analog signals. Reception and transmission of information over code lines of communication in the S-31 digital computer is carried out in the form of a bipolar 32-bit serial binary code. Information on the following lines is received in the S-31 digital computer: on A2 - from the KOLS station, on A4 - from the NSC system according to the READY signal; on A5 - from the navigation system SN-29; on A6 - from E502-20-04 at the signal 'READINESS I; on A7 - from BCVM N019; on A8 - from UVV20-31; on A9- from the LMS system; A18, A16 - from the SEI system, A17 - from the PVK-31 remote control.
The issuance of code information from the S-31 digital computer to the interacting digital computer, systems and devices is carried out along the following lines: along B1 - to the KOLS station; on B2 - to the NSC system; according to the BZ - to block Н001-25 (left) and then to the SUO-29M system; on B4 - to block Н001-25 (right); according to B5, B6, B13 - to the CEI system; on B7 - in the BCVM N019; on B9 - to the PVK-31 console; according to B14 - in UVV20-31; for B11 - for TESTER, for B10 - for OSVKiPE.
2.1. Quantum optical location station KOLS-29
.
The KOLS quantum optical-location station is part of the OEPS-29 optical-electronic aiming system. The KOLS station is an integrated system consisting of an OSTP survey-tracking heat direction finder and an LD laser range finder. OSTP provides search, detection, capture and auto tracking of an air target in the air traffic control system by its thermal radiation. LD is designed to measure range to an air or ground target.
KOLS measures the angular position of the line of sight of the target (φ y , φ z ), the absolute angular velocity of the line of sight of the target (ω y , ω z ) relative to the construction axis of the fighter and the instantaneous distance to the target. These measured parameters through the block of digital converters BTSP are issued in BTsVM S-31 (Ts100.02-02).
Other parameters necessary to solve the aiming problems (angular accelerations of the line of sight, current values of the range to the target and its derivatives) are calculated in the digital computer S-31 (Ts.100.02-02).
The use of KOLS as part of OEPS-29 makes it possible to effectively carry out targeted firing from a cannon, launch guided aerial maneuvers and short-range missiles, as well as launch unguided rockets and drop bombs to destroy ground targets. Combat application of KOLS is provided at all altitudes of a fighter’s flight, including against the background of the earth, day and night, in conditions of optical visibility, and also in the presence of organized interference.
The main tactical and technical characteristics of KOLS.
1. Viewing area:
- in the BIG FIELD REVIEW mode:
- in azimuth ± 30 °;
- in elevation ± 15 °.
- in the SMALL FIELD OVERVIEW mode :
- in azimuth ± 15 °;
- in elevation ± 15 °.
A small field of view can be shifted to the right or left relative to the construction axis of the aircraft by 15 ° at the command of the pilot.
2 .. Automatic capture zone in all operating modes, except for TP-BB mode:
- in azimuth 4 °;
- in elevation 6 °.
In this mode, the automatic capture zone is in azimuth ± 2 °. and in elevation ± 15 °.
3. Automatic tracking zone:
- in azimuth ± 30 °;
- in elevation from -15 ° to + 30 °.
4. Maximum ranges when working on a target of the MiG-21 type in the ZPS up to 3/4 angle:
- detection of at least 15 km;
- capture of a previously detected target of at least 8-10 km;
- automatic capture of at least 5 km.
5. Target capture time in all target designation modes 1.5 s.
6. Duration of the review cycle:
- a large field of 2.5 s;
- small field 1.25 s.
7. The minimum range of auto tracking 200 m .
The maximum angular velocity of the line of sight of the target in the auto tracking mode is 30 ° / s.
9. KOLS provides detection and auto-tracking of air targets with a minimum angle of sight in the sun equal to 10 ° relative to the direction of the line of sight of the target.
10. Maximum measured range:
- for a target like MiG-21 5 km;
- on a ground target of 5 km .
11 . The minimum measured range is 200 m.
12. The error in determining the instantaneous range to the target is not more than 10 m.
13. The operating mode of the LD - intermittent with frequency
following radiation pulses:
- in the main mode I Hz;
- in standby mode 0.25 Hz.
14. The wavelength of the laser radiation is 1.06 μm.
15. The pulse duration of the laser radiation rangefinder 40-60 ns .
16. The energy of laser radiation in a pulse of 0.4 - 0.5 j.
17. The angular divergence of the laser beam 20 '.
1 Maximum operating time of the laser range finder per flight:
- in the main mode 3.5 minutes ;
- on duty 12 minutes
19. The maximum operating time of the direction finder per flight:
- in the review mode 1h;
- in tracking mode 15 minutes
20. Power consumption on the direct current circuit is not more than 330 W, of alternating current in the LD radiation mode is not more than 1420 VA.
21. The readiness for operation at an ambient temperature of 40 ° C is not more than 3 minutes .
22. The mass of the station is 59 kg .
KOLS station (see Appendix 2) consists of three main functional blocks:
- the head of the target (GV);
- block tracking systems (BSS);
- electronics unit (BE).
All main elements of the OSTP and LD are located in the main body. Structurally, the GW is made in the form of a monoblock, which includes an optical-mechanical unit, as well as receiving and transmitting LD units. The transmitting unit LD consists of a radiation unit (the laser itself), a control unit that provides laser operation in a pulsed mode, and a laser power supply. The receiving unit is designed to receive a laser pulse reflected from the target and convert it into an electrical signal.
Optical-mechanical unit (OMB) consists of the following functional units:
- a coordinator designed to measure the angular coordinates and angular velocities of the line of sight of the target; it includes an optical antenna (scanning mirror), a mirror motion control device, an optical system and a photodetector of the IR channel of the heat finder;
- a scan unit consisting of line and frame scan generators that provide control of mirror scanning in azimuth and elevation in viewing mode;
- a reference voltage shaper intended for generating reference pulses, which are used in calculating the coordinates of the target in the tracking mode;
- a collimator designed to generate radiation of the target simulator in the built-in control mode;
- a block of built-in control of the TLS, which ensures the operability of the angular velocity sensors.
The electronic unit ensures the operation of the LD in different modes with the help of a converter, as well as measuring the distance to the target using a time interval meter.
The block of tracking systems includes:
- a control unit that solves the problems of switching station blocks, passing signals and commands, highlighting mismatch signals in various operating modes, checking the station in the built-in control mode;
- a block of video amplifiers designed to amplify the signal from the output of the photodetector of the heat finder;
- a sawtooth voltage generator, which is used in power amplifiers to obtain voltages that control the operation of executive motors, which ensure the rotation of the scanning mirror in the overview operating modes of the station;
- power amplifiers designed to amplify the voltages that control the operation of executive motors;
- AGC block, which performs automatic gain control by noise and signal; the automatic control device constructively enters the AGC block, which transfers the heat direction finder to tracking mode;
- extrapolator, which generates the mismatch signals that control the operation of the Executive motors in tracking mode.
Functional communications of the KOLS station with the SEI and BTSVM S-31 unified indication system are carried out through the digital converters block, which is not part of the KOLS.
KOLS station has three operating modes: viewing mode, guidance and capture mode, tracking mode
2.2. Helmet targeting system NSC
The NSC is designed to determine the angular coordinates of an aerial visually observable target as part of OEPS-29, followed by a rotation of the pilot's head. The angular coordinates of the target are determined by the spatial position of the line of sight (LV) (line that connects the pilot’s eye with the target). The angular coordinates of the position of the drug with the NSC will be transferred to the “BCVM S-31, where they are converted from the NSC coordinate system to the KOLS coordinate system, and then they are used for preliminary target designation of the RLPK, KOLS and the homing guided missiles.
The principle of the NSC is as follows. On the helmet of the pilot on the helmet-mounted sighting device (NVU) at three points spaced apart from each other at certain distances are the emitting diodes ID1, ID2, ID3. The wavelength of the radiation of the diodes lies in the near infrared (IR) region of the spectrum of the optical range and is invisible to the human eye. Emitting diodes form a plane, the coordinates of the location of the diodes determine the position of the plane in space (Fig. 1). The NVD, on which the emitting diodes are located, is mounted on the pilot's helmet so that the target LV is perpendicular to the plane formed by the three IDs. Obviously, to determine the direction to the target in this case, it is enough to determine the spatial position of the plane, determined by the position of the pilot's head. Therefore, this plane is a reference (reference).
The spatial position is determined in the NSC equipment by the direction finding method of its radiation by two spaced photodetector devices located in scanning devices (SKAB-A and SKAB-B), which are located above the instrument panel of the aircraft cabin. Photodetector devices have radiation patterns that are narrow in the horizontal plane (along the Z axis of the aircraft) and wide in the vertical (along the Y axis of the aircraft).

Fig . one

Fig .. 2
These radiation patterns (MD) rotate towards each other in the horizontal plane (Fig. 2, top view).
When the bottom of the photodetector passes through the ID, its radiation enters the photodetector, the output of which in this case is the signal from this ID. Since the scanning speed of the bottom of the receiving antennas is known, then, knowing the time of the start of scanning and the time of arrival of radiation from the ID, it is possible to determine the angle (bearing) at which the emitting diode is "visible" to this photodetector. The bearing on the second ID and another photodetector is determined similarly. As a result of the direction finding of the ID by two photodetectors, a line directed parallel to the Y axis of the aircraft on which this ID lies is determined. The length of this line is determined by the width of the bottom of the receiving devices in the vertical plane and the distance between the ID (pilot’s head) and SCAB. Direction finding of the other two IDs will also produce two lines parallel to the Y axis of the aircraft. In this way, as a result of direction finding by two photodetectors of three IDs, three lines are obtained parallel to the Y axis of the aircraft, the spatial position of which is determined by the spatial position of the ID, i.e. turning the pilot's head (Fig. 3). These lines are the geometric location of the ID location points. Since the distances between the ID location points on the NVD are known, then regardless of where the ID will be on the line, they will form planes parallel to each other, and the direction of the perpendicular, i.e. LP of the goal will be one and the same. Since the distances between the ID location points on the NVD are known, then regardless of where the ID will be on the line, they will form planes parallel to each other, and the direction of the perpendicular, i.e. LP of the goal will be one and the same. Since the distances between the ID location points on the NVD are known, then regardless of where the ID will be on the line, they will form planes parallel to each other, and the direction of the perpendicular, i.e. LP of the goal will be one and the same.
The NSC provides, under conditions of visual visibility of the target, the delivery of drug coordinates in the area corresponding to the cone (Fig. 4) with a flat angle at apex of 60 ° in an aircraft coordinate system, limited in elevation to - 15 °.
The NSC's operability is ensured by moving the NVU unit (pilot’s head) in the zone shown in Fig. 5.

Fig.3

Fig. 4

vertical plane. horizontal plane


Fig.5
The maximum error in calculating the coordinates of the spatial position of the drug is 45 ". Power consumption on the DC circuit +27 V is not more than 150 W; power consumption on the AC circuit 115 V frequency 400 Hz is not more than 250 VA. Weight of the DUT is not more than 0.35 kg; the mass of the NSC is not more than 10 kg, the time the NSC is ready for operation from the moment it is turned on does not exceed 3 minutes, the time of continuous operation is 3 hours, the minimum break between cycles of continuous operation is 25 minutes.


The NSC includes 4 blocks:
- Helmet sighting device NVU;
- scanning device - SKAB-A scanning unit;
- scanning device - SKAB-B scanning unit;
- electronics unit (BE).
In the NVU block are located: emitting diodes IDi (i = 1,2,3), which form a reference plane; sighting device consisting of a collimator device and a reflector (retractable translucent mirror); photodetector of the device for automatic brightness of the luminance of the aiming and signal brands.
IDi emit energy in the form of a continuous sequence of pulses of duration I μs and with an interval between pulses of 9 μs. The pulse sequence emitted by one diode is shifted relative to the pulse sequences of the other diodes by 3 μs. The shift is necessary for the selection of pulses of various diodes in the BE. The radiation patterns of IDi are so wide that the radiation of each IDi falls on SCAB-A and SCAB-B.
The collimator device included in the sighting device is intended for the formation of sighting and signal marks. The aiming mark (Fig. 6) consists of two concentric rings, which are formed by illuminating the aiming grid with an incandescent lamp (L1). The signal mark (Fig. 7) is a crosshair with a gap in the center, which is formed by illuminating the signal grid with an L2 incandescent lamp. The radiation of the lamps L1 and L2 pass through the grid and enters the input of the collimator. Aiming and signal marks are highlighted in yellow. Combinations of illumination of the aiming and signal marks form one-time commands for the pilot.
Fig. 6 Fig. 7
The reflector (retractable translucent mirror) is designed to enter sighting and signal marks into the pilot's eye. The reflector is reclined (introduced into the field of view of the eye) by the pilot by pressing the reflector input button in the SUV-29 HELMET operating mode. The position of the reflector in the tilted state is adjusted so that the target's LV (the line connecting the pilot’s right eye with the target) passes through the center of the aiming mark.
The photodetector for automatic brightness control is a background light level sensor. Depending on the illumination of the background, the brightness of the glow of the aiming and signal brands changes (power supply of the lamps L1 and L2). The higher the background light level, the brighter the lamps L1 and L2 should glow, and vice versa.
SCAB blocks are identical. SKAB includes an instantaneous field of view (MPZ) driver, an optical monoblock, an amplifier of the main channel, a tracking device, an amplifier of reference (single-degree) and reference (thirty-six-degree) pulses. The instantaneous field of view (radiation pattern) of the photodetector (FP) is formed by a ten-sided mirror prism, the rotation of which by the motor (D) through a gearbox with a reduction coefficient i provides scanning of the photodetector MPZ, and an optical monoblock (lens). The scanning period of MP3 by each face of the prism is 10 ms ± 20%.
To determine the spatial position of the MPZ in the scanning area, a tracking device is used. The tracking device consists of a movable upper limb, mounted on the same axis with a ten-sided prism, and a fixed limb, rigidly fixed in the SCAB housing. Transparent strokes are applied to the limbs, following after one degree and after 36 degrees. The limbs are set so that the 36 ° strokes correspond to the moment of the beginning of the MPZ scanning by each face of the prism. Photodiodes (PD) are fixed above the movable limb. When the strokes of the rotating and stationary limbs coincide, light pulses will arrive at the PD. At the moments of the PD, voltage pulses appear, which through the amplifier of one-degree and thirty-six-degree pulses arrive in the BE, where they are used to determine bearings on the emitting diodes IDi (i = 1,2,3).
2 . 3. Brief description of the BCM Ts.100.02.
BTsVM Ts100.02 is executed on the main module principle. The operation of the computer blocks is carried out at two levels - software (operator) and microprogram.
Element base of a digital computer: main (silicon integrated circuits of the 134, 133, 136, 130, 106 series, which are potential systems of elements with transistor-transistor logic (TTL), which are based on the AND-NOT / OR-NOT logic circuit); special elemental base, providing communications both between the elements of the digital computer, and between the digital computer and external devices and systems.
Cooling of the ЦВ100 TsTSVM is carried out by forced ventilation with a cooling air flow of 10 kg / h at a temperature of T = 20 ° C and an ambient temperature of 20 ° C from an air conditioning system that is not part of the BTsVM.
The composition of the digital computer Ts.100.02 includes: A09.030.02 device, designed to perform computational and logical operations in a program or circuit way and exchange information with external sources and consumers of information; unstabilized rectifier 09.084 (VN) and harness 09.086-01. The device A09.030.02 can operate without forced ventilation for no more than 10 minutes at an ambient temperature of no higher than 60 ° C. Unstabilized rectifier 09.084 allows continuous continuous operation in conditions of natural cooling at an ambient temperature of no higher than 60 ° C. With the cooling system turned off, i.e. in conditions of natural convection, a digital computer can work for a strictly limited time (see table 2.).
Table 2.
Ambient
temperature,
° С
No more
than 5
5-1010-2020-3030-4040-5050-60
Permissible
operating time of the computer, min,
not more
Work without
blowing
3626twentyfourteen12

BTsVM Ts.100.02 consists of 18 structurally and functionally completed blocks (modules) with autonomous program and circuit control (Fig. 2.1). According to the functional purpose of the BCVM Ts.100.02, it can be divided into the following parts:
- central processing unit (CPU), ensuring the implementation of all procedures for processing information and controlling the computing process;
- an input / output information processor (UIP) that organizes the interaction of a digital computer with external devices;
- a memory unit (PSU) designed to store information;
- public tires (highways);
- power supply units.
3. Management bodies SUV-29.
Unified multi-function control panels PSR-31, PUR-31, PU-S-31, PK-31, PVK-31 are designed to control the operation and modes of the SUV-29 and its systems.
PUR-31 - remote control radar.

PUR-31
Radar Modes Switch:
AVT - automatic switching of high frequency and frequency control.
In - meeting, the inclusion of the RF mode;
D - catch-up, the inclusion of the frequency control system;
B. Combat - activates the MIDDLE FIGHT mode.
The VChP mode provides an attack in the faculty. The MPS mode provides an attack in the ZPS.
Toggle switch "ZPS-PPS":
- in the PPP position, it includes the “tracking of targets” tracking mode, in which targets are detected and the coordinates of up to 10 targets are roughly measured and the most dangerous target selected;
- in position ZPS works as a coordinate meter.
In B. Fight mode on SEI - two vertical lines, RL index; the antenna is rigidly fixed along the roll relative to the aircraft; scanning of the antenna during the review is carried out in a vertical plane in a closed loop.
B. Boy's conditions: max D z = 10km,
min D z = 400m
min D s = 250m.
Switch "ΔН" - to control the viewing area by tilt;
Toggle switch "AP - OFF - APK" - to select the operating mode of the radar control system under the influence of interference
Toggle switch "COMP" - to enable the compensation channel RLPK.
Toggle switch “IZL - EKV - OFF” - RLPK transmitter operating mode: radiation- equivalent- disabled
Toggle switch "SNP / PPS - ZPS" - to switch the operating modes of the RLPK.
PSR-31 - remote control of special modes.
"MODE" switch:
- CBD - bombing with cabriole;
- NVG - navigation;
- RL - work with RLPK;
- TP - the main mode of operation of KOLS (target capture with preliminary gating);
- B. B. - KOLS work in the "close combat" mode;
- HELMET - work with NSC;
- OPT - optics mode;
- φ about - firing missiles with TGS according to the method of φ about.

PSR-31
Toggle switch "ZONE" - to select the position of the viewing area in azimuth.
Toggle switch "KOMPL - ONE 0.5KOMPL" - for unmanaged ASP.
Toggle switch "PREPARATION MANUAL - AUT" - for the preparation of UR in manual or automatic mode.
The toggle switch "GLAVN - OFF" - to turn on the OMS.
The “BASE M - S - B" regulator - selection of the TP viewing area.
The regulator "USILTP YARK SHL" is a regulator for enhancing the brightness of NVU brands.
PU-S-31-1 - control panel S-31
Toggle switch “CAPTURE: OWN - ALIEN” - to attack their own and enemy targets, respectively.
Toggle switch "AIR - EARTH" - the choice of the attacked target.
Toggle switch “HIT: ON - OFF”:
- OFF - for voice guidance from the CP;
- ON - for automated guidance from the CP.
Toggle switch "VZMD BRAKE - WITHOUT BRAKE":

PU-S-31-1
- VZMD BRAKES - to enable the interaction of RLPK and OEPrNA or to reset the AB with a parachute;
- WITHOUT BRAKES - autonomous use of RLPK and OEPrNA or to reset the battery without a parachute.
Toggle switch “SPECIAL. AB: LEO - RIGHT "- for the use of special. AB with left or right suspension.
EXPLOSION - NOT EXPLOSION toggle switch - for switching the fuse.
Toggle switch “АВАР. RESET ”- for emergency reset of ASP.
PK-31 - control panel.

PK-31
Toggle switch "VSK - INDIC" - to turn on the VSK.
The button is the “VSK / RESET” lamp - to turn off the VSK.
The button is the lamp “FAILURE / PROD. VSK ”- to continue VSK in the event of a failure.
The button is the lamp “READY” - to indicate the end of the VSK and to indicate failures.
STAGE switch:
-PP - preliminary training;
-PV - preflight preparation;
-S-31 - verification of S-31 plus additional control of the radioactive weapons, remote control systems, switchgear, control room;
-N0-19 - RLPK check;
-1,2,3 - for a more detailed check of the RLPK when a failure is detected.
The “OPER” switch - for in-depth verification of the RLPK and S-31 (see table No. 3). PVC position - for collaboration with the PVC-31 remote control.
Table No. 3
OPER switchSTEP switch
RLPKS-31
one
2
3
four
5
6
7
8
9
general readiness of RLPK, if FAILURE / PROD of VSK is lit, there is a failure
no 3 x min. readiness
H019-02
master oscillator
power Н0-19-02
overheating N0-19-02
overload BB-14 bl.N019-02
SJO
boost
overall system availability
SHS
OMS
BAP-20P from the control system
BVC-20-6 from SEI
CH-29
not involved
CEI Advanced Test
extended test Ts.100.02.02
KU-31 - control button.

On the aircraft control handle (RUS) are located the control button KU-31 and the button “MRK - CAPTURE P.Z.” - on the engine control handle (ORE).
- MRK - CAPTURE P.Z - to switch from SORT mode to continuous tracking of the most dangerous target selected in SPS;
- control button - to apply a moving strobe to the selected target mark.
PVK-31 - input and control panel

PVK-31
MODE switch:


- ST. TEST - to enable docking test ed. S-31;
- INDIC - to indicate the contents of the selected RAM cell when dialing its number on the dialing field PVK-31;
- ENTER - for a set of operational information with a simultaneous indication of the input information.
Buttons 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,0, -, + - for a set of information.
4. Product C-31 - troubleshooting.
Troubleshooting of the S-31 product on board is carried out using the integrated control system of the complex without connecting test equipment.
In flight, information about complex failures generated by the built-in control system with the participation of a digital computer is transferred to the Ekran product and stored. Separate failures are indicated to the pilot on the Ekran product in the form of frames with the names : CBC, TWO CURSOVERTIK, CALCULATE NAVIGATS, BASIC CURSORVERTIC, RESERVE COURSEVERTIC, SUA, GUN, HELMET, S-31.
The information on failures stored in the flight after the end of the flight is documented on the screen of the Ekran product in the form of numbers assigned by the fixed failure and the time of their formation in flight. Documentation on the film of the Ekran product is allowed; numbers 206 (БЦ0), 207 (БВЦ), 211 (ИЛС), 214 (УВВ), 235 (ШИНА1) are not complex failures. In this case, in the absence of the pilot's comments on the operation of the complex in flight, their analysis is not performed.
In the case of receiving comments on the operation of the complex in flight and in the presence of recorded failures of the S-31 product on the film of the Ekran product, the operation of the S-31 product in the ground-based control modes is checked and troubleshooting is performed.
Checking and troubleshooting of the complex, including its communication lines with the on-board equipment E-502-20, A-037, (A-031) blocks H001-25 and product H019, is carried out using the product "Screen" in pre-flight preparation mode (software control ) object

When troubleshooting and troubleshooting the complex (without covering the communication line with the on-board systems), it is checked in the "VSK S-31" mode
When conducting troubleshooting and troubleshooting of product 915, the complex is checked using the Ekran product.
After checking the complex in the "VSK S-31" mode, if the system detects integrated failures and malfunctions, the READY display on the PC remote control does not appear. Further troubleshooting is carried out using the remote control PVC. To do this, after the end of the “VSK S-31” mode (cessation of the READY display flashing on the PC), the following are installed on the PVC: switch S-31 - SK-1-SK-2 to position S-31, the MODE switch to the ENTER position. Moreover, on digital indicators No. 1-8, shown in the figure

1 2 3
555
5555500


4 5 6 7 8 9 10

the results of the integrated control of the equipment and communication lines of the complex are displayed in the form of the numbers "5" or "2" in accordance with Table 4. The display of the number "5" indicates the serviceability of the tested equipment, the number "2" indicates a failure.
Table 4

PVC Digital Indicator NumberName of the checked equipment and communication lines
one
2
3
four
5
6
7
8
13C
Щ-3УМ
SEI
communication SEI- information sensors
20PM
915
BDUS, BDLU, BSR, FKP-EU
Ts.100, air-blast, communication Ts.100-SEI

one
2
3
four
5
6
7
8​
If there is a failure or malfunction in the complex (indication of the number "2" on any of the PVC indicators), the place of failure is specified. To do this, the MODE switch is set to INDIC. The parameter numbers 237, 238, 239, 240 are dialed sequentially. Before each set of the parameter number, the RESET button on the PVC is pressed. After dialing, each parameter number on the digital indicators No. 5-10 is controlled by the display of numbers according to table 5

Table 5

PVC Digital Indicator Number
room
figure]
vogo
INDIC
atora
PVC
I23four5678910
Parameter Number
yep pa
rameter
INFORMATION
No.
1FORSCHI
AND
2370one77777
2380one77777
2390one77777
2four00one77777
When highlighting on digital indicators 5-10 digits that do not correspond to those indicated in Table 5, the name of the failure is determined by Table 6.


Table 6
Number tsif-
rovogo invariant
cators AHC-31
Indicated
digit (one
of the given
)
Parameter number on PVC-31
237238239240
Name of refusal
50, 2, 4, 6NVU CRACK---
60, 1, 2, 3
0, 1, 4, 5
0, 2, 4, 6
BEAT CRIT
CRACK SCAB-B
SCAB-A CRACK
-
CVM31 BDUS
CVM31 BDLU
ZTP TIME
CVM31 SEI
POWER FREQUENCY
-
-
-
70, 1, 2, 3
0, 1, 4, 5
0, 2, 4, 6
-
13C BCP
13С ДУС
BSR 31
TsVM31 Ts050
CVM31 SHS
UVV20
-
IPV
-
-
-
80, 1, 2, 3
0, 1, 4, 5
0, 2, 4, 6
13C LD
13С STP
13C OTP
CVM31 20PM
20PM T4
20PM T3
ILS
SEI BSK
SEI BVC20
-
SEI UVV20
-
90, 1, 2, 3
0, 1, 4, 5
0, 2, 4, 6
TP
HELMET
C31
20PM T2
20PM T1
20PM T5
SEI BTs020
SEIGS
CH FAILURE
SEI RSBN
-
-
100, 1, 2, 3
0, 1, 4, 5
0, 2, 4, 6
SEI INDICATOR
SU0
Digital computer 31
20PM BUR
20PM BSF
20PM T6
FKP-EU
-
-
SEI SHS
-
SEI 20PM
5. To do the work:
-on the power cabinet, turn on the gas station: POWER, +27, press START, turn on the gas station: Ts.100, PU, UVV, BSR, BDUS, SEI, 13C;
- on PC-31, move the STEP switch to C-31, and OPER- to position 1;
- on the PVC-31 switch the MODE switch to the ENTER;
-on PK-31 - click on VSK-INDIC in VSK, at the same time on the scoreboard PVK-31 there will be a change in numbers from 0 to 9;
- Next, switch the MODE switch to INDIC on PVK-31 and dial 237 on the dial, from indicators 5-10 remove information about the failures, press the RESET button;
-further, check in accordance with Table 6.
9. Test questions for the report on practical work:
- composition and design of KOLS;
- composition and design of the NSC;
- The principle of measuring the line of sight in the NSC;
- set one of the OEPrNK-29 operating modes on the control panels.
10. Used literature:
1. Technical description ed. S-31,
2. Tutorial VK-266
Compiled by a teacher at VK No. 4 of the
Higher School of Economics MPEI (TU) Major V.V. Volkov
ANNEX 1

APPENDIX 2
 

LukaszK

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Thanks Overscan for sharing this manual.
Actually I manage to read this in Russian language somehow (I am from Poland. Polish language has some small similarity, and fortunately I was forced to learn Russian when I was child - (this side of curtain ;) ). At least now I can read cyrillic

Anyway, this post enhance me to find another manuals online.
I found forum with many links:
https://www.mycity-military.com/Avijacija-i-PVO-2/MiG-29-Fulcrum-tehnicka-dokumentacija.html

So I dig further:

There are many known references from airwar.ru etc. Also manual for EKRAN - onboard diagnostic system used in Mig-29 (and in Su-27?)

But I found the whole book from 91 year for Mig-29 electronics. Of course in Russian. Maybe Too much for translation..
 
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LukaszK

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МиГ-29Б - Бортовой комплекс самолетовождения, прицеливания и управления самолетом


There is need to register.
I download the file but it is too large to send it here.
 

LukaszK

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Some comments to the above mentioned book:
1. Is available in other places like:

https://www.digitalcombatsimulator.com/en/files/2378427/
Unfortunately I did not find some pdf or doc version for easy translation
2. Book is very detailed and technical. It described systems for export version "B"
Based on this book, there was prepared lectures (power point files mentioned earlier),
and page about optical- navigational system founded by Overscan above. (the same tables images etc.).
But for the same content - there is more context, details- what helps understand better.
3. Despite being very details, there are also obvious mistakes, or elements not consistent or different with other sources. For example:
- pages: 278; 272 top system for presentation of information: there is said that IPV monitor (HDD) presents information in 3 colours (penetron type of vacuum tube lamp) : green for symbols and target "blips", red for false targets, yellow for navigation.

Probably this part was taken from instruction prepared before serial release of Mig. On prototypes at least in Su-27 there was tested 3 color display, but not introduced in production models.
Anyway any sources confirm 3 colour display, including manual for Su-27 with the same/similar indication system.

-There is mentioned that it is possible to display tactical information and provide trace of tracked targets (switches: Dubl/Takt, Mietka/Trasa) This also is not the case/not confirmed anyway for Mig, at least for export versions, but it's the case for Su-27.
.. and other interesting stuffs.. maybe in the next post..
 

yahya

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Dear Colleagues, do you have factual information confirming that the E502-20/04 Lazur (Russian: Э502-20/04) data link was indeed used by any of the MiG-29 (izd. 9.12A) foreign operators? The kit was connected to the on-board R-862 V/UHF AM radio through which it received the GCI commands from a ground station, and was delivered to numerous Central European air forces. How reliable was this system? Reportedly, the commands received through the link were to be displayed on the HUD and CRT radar display. Luftwaffe and other Central European air forces apparently removed the kit yet in the 1990s suggesting it was not too useful.

Does anyone know what was the purpose of the 8-position raznos (spacing?) switch on the E502-20/04 control panel on the starboard cockpit console? Other switches on that panel made it possible to select one of the 20 communication "waves" (volna) of the data link so that more aircraft could operate in a certain area, and one of the three only encryption keys (shifr). The non-export Soviet 9.13's Э502-20 Biryuza (Turquoise) data link control panels differed. The Э502-20 panel had 15 encryption keys' possibilities instead of just three, and had two encryption indicator lamps instead of one. Did this system practically work and was it used on a larger scale?
 
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overscan (PaulMM)

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"Radio line is characterized by three settings: a working wavelength (volna) the frequency of scattering (raznos) and a call cipher (shifr). The ALR-1M equipment is tuned to 20 working waves, 8 scatterings and 3 call ciphers. It is considered appropriate for each control point to assign one frequency and spread. The appointment of spare frequencies and distribution is not feasible, as the time for the ground station to be rebuilt to a new frequency and spread is 4-6 minutes"

So each GCI control point operator has assigned a basic operating frequency (out of 20 available) and an offset from the basic frequency specific to that controller.

Turquoise's (biryuza) command radio line is characterized by two settings: working frequency and cipher. The E-502-20 on-board equipment is pre-tuned to 40 fixed frequencies, and also has 12 ciphers (from 4 to 15), which are strictly assigned to the jobs of combat control officers (RUS - 1-4; RM2 - 1-22; RM3 - 5-8; RM4 - 8-12).

Note call ciphers are 1-3 the legacy ones from the old GCI system, and the next 12 (4-15) are ciphers for the newer system.

If the WarPac forces didn't get the new Rubezh ground equipment, then they would not have been able to use the new datalink standard, so they got a version of the Biriyuza with the new stuff removed.
 
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yahya

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Thank you very much for the reply. I've never came across the nomenclature ALR-1M. I thought the Soviet GCI data links had rather nomenclatures like the ARL-x, ARL-SM, etc. Do you have proof that this system operated on board the MiG-29 independently from the R-862 AM aircraft radio? Does it mean that the Э502-20/04 on WarPac jets was pre-tuned to other frequencies than provided by the VHF/UHF AM R-862? Reportedly the ARK-19 navigation radio could also be used to pick up the GCI signals.

I still do not understand the scattering switch's purpose. What kind of spread was indeed provided by the raznos switch? Did it affect the details of data being displayed on the HUD and CRT displays? Here are the examples of the Э502-20 control panels in the VVS and the watered down Э502-20/40 WarPac Soviet client states' forces versions.

Izdeliye 9.13 (Э502-20):
datalink.jpg


And Izdeliye 9.12A (Э502-20/04):
p1100595.jpg
 

LukaszK

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Hey.
There is a lot of written in manuals and books.
Unfortunately, all they are in Russian language.
And those are scans - so not easy to make automatic translation
Sources are in the previous posts in this thread.
You may look into:
a)МиГ-29Б - Бортовой комплекс самолетовождения, прицеливания и управления самолетом - link above
This is description of electronics of Mig-29 - export version
On chapter 7.1 - there is description of system.

b) Technical Manual for Su-27, http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/Su-27SK_RTE.djvu page 119 - there is described system 11G9 (Spectr?)
This is different system, but standards/formats of data transmission include those used by e500 datalink

So from a),
1586857345393.png
command guidance radio -link E502-20-04 is on-board revive equipment, part of complex guidance E500. KRU (Command Guidance radio-link) designated for recieve guidance command on-board of fighter, help of coordinates*, tactical situation** (takticheskey obstanovki) and support, send from command point (GCI)

comments:
*help of coordinates - I think here this may refer to fix coordinates of fighter position
** here is said about tactical information - but I found no other sources, confirmed presenting some kind of tactical information on Mig-29 either export or domestic variant
about "-position raznos (spacing?) " - those are sub- frequencies of single channel. Not sure how they are switch (is there some kind of "frequency hopping") - or just they are "static"

1586854675812.png

"frequnecy grid and wave range used : 83.3 kHz in range 100-149,750MHz with one from 8 positive spacing (raznos): 44; 64 (...) 208kHZ"
 

LukaszK

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from a) some technical characteristics (some "free" translation):
- number of fighter groups guided on single frequency channel : 3
- number of types of commands passed to group of fighters: 54
- time of providing data to one group of fighters 1500 ms (MC means ms?) so 1.5s

According to commands - there was mentioned 54 commands, from another forum :
http://www.combatsim.com/cgi-bin/ubbcgi/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic&f=20&t=001419

----------------------------------------
The MiG-29 Lazur Data Link System:

The Lazur Data link System is a two-way system, GCI-to-Fighter and Fighter-to-GCI. It is composed of the SAU-451-04 automatic control system, the E502-20/04 airborne guidance system, the R-862 radio, A-611 marker radio receiver, SO-69 ATC responder with the UNN block/K-42E kit, the ARK-19 radio compass, the TESTER-UZ/LK flight data recorder, and the ALMAZ-UP information reporting system. The MiG-29 appears to have no Fighter-to-Fighter capability yet. Transmitted target information is displayed on the HUD display which is the primarily display, then on the radar scope and appropriate cockpit instruments. The "GUIDANCE" switch on the Air-to-Ground Panel must be "ON". A Data Link Frequency nees to be selected and a Data Link Mode selected from the "GCI SITE", "AIR TRAFFIC", or "TERMINAL" options. The system operates in the VHF frequency band and is effectively line-of-sight limited.

The information displayed with 54 symbols or directives, some are listed below:

* closure speed command go-to
* continuous distance to prime selected target
* fixed distance to targets indicated
* end of intercept (flight recovery) command
* end of intercept (change target) command
* engine power setting commands
* afterburner activation (what stages if any?)
* interceptor aspect commands (go-to)
* interceptor altitude commands (go-to)
* interceptor course commands (go-to)
* interceptor speed commands (go-to)
* interceptor turn commands (go-to)
* missile warm-up (AA-10) commands (approx 3 minutes)
* target assignment commands for priority
* target elevation delta (±) commands
* target true bearing commands for pointing
* target vertical speed (snap-up) command
* target range, look angle, speed, G, etc.

More ... in another posts..
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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It really isn't difficult. The settings determine the exact frequency setting needed to receive the correct GCI link signal. It has nothing to do with quality of information presented. The only difference in the panel is the lack of ciphers 4-15 on non-Soviet aircraft, which required the Rubezh ground equipment to be of any use.

On the Biriyuza, encryption from the Parol IFF system was used to ensure integrity, while earlier GCI command links were not very secure.

Bear in mind GCI command link and datalink are not the same thing. Su-27SK datalink can receive data from SAO-30, SPK-75, SPK-68, ALM-1,ALM-4 devices.
 
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overscan (PaulMM)

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I'll do some research.

Raduga-SPK-68 - Command link (1968 standard)
Raduga-SAZO-SPK-75 - Command link (1975 standard), includes IFF-based encoding ("SAZO") - uses transmitting ground station Raduga SPK-75P

Also note the PVO and VVS had different GCI systems.
 

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Gentlemen, there were numerous "protocols" in the Soviet GCI systems, like the Vozdukh-1/Lazur-1M/ALM-1, ALM-4, SPK-68 and SPK-75. The ALM-1 and Lazur only were available on watered down systems sold to the Soviet client states with the MiG-29s.

The ALM-4 was more complex, and I believe it enabled the MiG-29 to inter-operate with the Rubezh GCI earth stations, and the Su-27 data links like the 11G6 Spectr and the TKS-2, and also likely with the MiG-31s. The Su-27 Russian language manual that LukaszK mentioned discusses these protocols on pp.119ff. The ALM-1 and ALM-4 data were received over the R-800L2 on-board radio of the Su-27, thus I still cannot comprehend the idea of Volna and Raznos switches on the GCI control panel in the MiG-29 cockpit. Maybe these were related to demodulation and decoding of data, and not the radio frequency that was used to transmit them wirelessly? P.132 of the abovementioned manual discusses that the ALM-4 had 20 waves (voln), which is correct, and that it had only 3 possible codes (shifr), and this seems to be the fastest among the other protocols in terms of data acquisition (4.5 sec. or less). I think this section of the manual needs a good translation into English by someone who knows how these systems really worked and who is knowledgeable of telecomunication vocabulary.
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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I don't understand your lack of understanding.

MiG-29 (export) had a UHF/VHF R862 radar which operated at VHF 100-149.375 MHz and UHF 220 to 399.975 MHz. The communication frequencies were spaced every 25KHz on the VHF band for a total of 2000 possible frequencies. 20 selected frequencies awere preset in the radio from the 2000 possible frequencies.

The Lazur datalink operated within the 100-149.375MHz band, i.e. the VHF band, and as you say, the signal for it is recieved via the R862 radio.

Each GCI ground station had to be tuned to a transmit frequency somewhere between 100 and 149.375MHz to be receivable. The recieving Lazur-M station in the aircraft had to be manually set to the correct settings corresponding to the GCI station that is controlling the intercept. This was done with three controls. VOLNA (wave), SHIFR (code) and RAZNOS (separation/spacing). The Raznos setting 1 -8 is 44 / 64 / 90 / 110 / 142 / 162 / 188 / 208kHz. This is manually set at the start of a mission.

When you were handed over to another controller, it had a feature where the new settings were sent over the command link and you just pressed the auto button to set them.

The most likely scenario to me is that the voice radio and data receiver both shared the same 20 preset radio frequencies, and then the data was transmitted offset from the selected main voice frequency by an amount depending on the RAZNOS value. I'm not a radio expert though.

I guess the question then would be, did one use the same base frequency for voice from GCI and command data from GCI? I.e. did you set your radio to "17" and your GCI reciever to "17" with an offset? Or were the two set separately?

The Raduga-SAZO-SPK-75 ground station used a highly directional antenna that located the target aircraft (via IFF?) and beamed the command data directly at it, receiving an ack response, and even sending back the accurate location of the "friendly" back to to the command post which generated the command. It was integrated into the IFF system for better security, and of course by tightbeaming it to the selected aircraft the chance of the enemy snooping on the signal is reduced.
 
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overscan (PaulMM)

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I've received some comments from a former radar technician familiar with the N019EA radar. His comments in italics.

Interesting. so the N019 has 6.5 kW instead of 4 kW of peak power. and 960 doppler filters. It also interesting to see the detection and tracking criteria being related to probability (detection is 0.5/50% while tracking is 90%)

Great find LukaszK and nice translation Overscan.
Yes that`s true but must know that this 6.5kW of max pulse power is for High /Medium PRF mode and in regime which name is `Equivalent of the antenna` on russian эквивалент / EKVIVALENT , or how could I say: transmitter- stand by regime . Tha max output power for N019 Rubin is 100kW on the electrical net of 27V ( DC ) and 60kW on electrical net of 115V/200V , f- 400Hz ( AC ) for High/Medium PRF mode of transmitter . This regime is IZLUCHENIE ( on russian ) or radiating the pulses in to airspace.
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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2) For tracking (SST mode)- there are completely different circuits, but finally tracking could be done with great precision (probably) even in high repetition frequency mode
The regime SNP ( iz western fighters is mode TWS ) does not use mono- pulse but pulse and Doppler method of quasi -continuous waveform . Regime or mode called RNP or in english lock-on mode is using mono-pulse method of continues wafeform ( CW ) . In SNP you have crude angular and speed automatic tracking of max 10 aircraft in combat modes V-Vstrechya and D-Dogon ( not in AVT-Avtomat ) and in RNP ( lock -on mode ) you have precise angular and speed automatic tracking of one target for engaging with missile/s
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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Now, it's possible that the Ts100 processor could continue predict the other, non-tracked targets motion based on the last known direction and speed, but again the accuracy of these measurements in "on-the-pass" mode is quite low so it would probably not be terribly accurate. The only way to 100% disprove this would be testimony of a MiG-29 pilot or a video showing the radar in operation. I don't think it's likely - I would expect tracking the target gives it quite enough to do for such a relatively crude computer.
Yes the BCVM C100.02.01/02/06 can predict the fly-path of aircraft but Paul not in SNP mode as you wrote "on-the-pass" mode , in RNP or lock-on mode you must know that . So when radar goes from SNP mode to RNP mode and transmitter goes from quasi -continuous waveform regime to continuous waveform regime the BCVM C100 activate programme which name is `PROGNOZ DOROSHKA` ( same name for one combat mode for gun 30mm ) . This programme allowed computer to predict the angular coordinates of max 9 aircraft that was automatically tracked in SNP mode ( sub -mode for V or D combat modes ) .This lasts 10 seconds and interestingly when I first met Americans in F-16C I asked one of american pilot for how long computer in F-16 radar predict the fly paths of aircraft non tracked in lock- on mode ,his answer was max 13 seconds . So as I wrote ,this capability of radar /FCS computer C100 is used in RNP not in SNP regime.

I was referring to the possibility of known targets from SNP mode being predicted during RNP/Single target track mode, this apparently was possible for up to 10 seconds.
 
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overscan (PaulMM)

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It can't be done.

The technical training documents posted on the last page (https://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=102.0;attach=598409) clearly distinguish between:

1) Finding, detecting and determining the coordinates of targets, maintenance "on the pass" up to 10 targets with the continuation of air space search.
2) Continuous tracking of one target with accurate measurement of its coordinates without overview of the air space.
3) Discrete-continuous illumination of the attacked target with the formation and transmission of radio correction commands.

When you engage tracking mode, you designate the target (or it is autoselected for you), then the radar stops scanning for targets, and focuses purely on the single target. The "on-the-pass" mode simply doesn't give enough detail quickly enough to accurately calculate launch parameters or formulate course correction commands for the R-27R missile.
your answer was : ` It can't be done. ` Yes it can be done Paul and for that you must know and understand how N019 works and functions in the regime called DNP . So after pilot launched one or both R-27R ( R1 ) missile/s to target in lock on regime radar N019 goes to DNP mode and transmitter goes in special mode in which he combines quasi -continuous waveform and continuous wave illumination .Radar N019 has dual-mode transmitter ( also has N003E in MiG-23MF/ML and I worked on them too ) .So what is dual- mode transmitter ? This means that it is capable to work both in quasi -continuous waveform ( for airspace searching ) with as I wrote pulse and Doppler methods and continuous waveform with mono-pulse method , so in continuous wave illumination mode . So after the R-27R is or are launched radar begin to work in special tact pulses . First tact is for tracking ( tracking regime ) and lasts 20.48miliseconds , read carefully , first tact pulse that lasts 10.24 ms is used for airspace searching ,so for scanning of zone of airspace in exact number of rows horizontal and vertical with speed 57 or 70°/sec depending on mode of air space searching on russian OBZOR-SOPROVOZHDENIE : automatic or manual . So in first 10.24ms radar is searching and tracking aircraft in zone ( max 10 in SNP ) than in another 10.24ms tact pulse , radar tracks only target which is engaged with R-27R , R1 missile , `s .That is 20.48 miliseconds of tracking regime . This solo- tracking of egaged target help radar FCS to track his angular coordinates and any change in them will initiate the programme for radio-correction of missile fly-path with special radio-correcting signals in the first inertional phase of missiles fly path( 70% of all missile fly-path ) . Than you have CWI regime that lasts 30.72 ms ,this regime uses continuoes wave illumination of target that is engaged with those missile or missiles . The radar signals in this CWI -regime work on different working frequency than those in tracking regime and the signals that hit the target come back to the radar guided head in missile cone ( SARH as you know ) . This DNP regime lasts exactly one minute .

If I understand this correctly:

You start in SNP mode, up to 10 targets tracked in rough method.
You switch to RNP mode which uses monopulse CW to to precisely locate highest priority target and calculate launch parameters. For up to 10 seconds, the 9 other tracked targets are predicted on your display, but new targets are not discovered, full attention of radar is on trscking for missile launch.
If you now launch a missile, you switch to DNP mode which interleaves between search (10.24ms), track (20.48ms) and illumination (30.72ms) phases. The additional up to 9 targets can be relocated in rough tracking method (SNP) providing they are within the scan area, while the primary target continues to be tracked in high quality monopulse method and any changes in primary target position from initial launch prediction are sent to the missile via radio-correction.

DNP mode is maintained for up to 1 minute. Is that always enough time for the missile to reach the target? What happens if the missile is still in flight?
 
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stealthflanker

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I've received some comments from a former radar technician familiar with the N019EA radar. His comments in italics.

Interesting. so the N019 has 6.5 kW instead of 4 kW of peak power. and 960 doppler filters. It also interesting to see the detection and tracking criteria being related to probability (detection is 0.5/50% while tracking is 90%)

Great find LukaszK and nice translation Overscan.
Yes that`s true but must know that this 6.5kW of max pulse power is for High /Medium PRF mode and in regime which name is `Equivalent of the antenna` on russian эквивалент / EKVIVALENT , or how could I say: transmitter- stand by regime . Tha max output power for N019 Rubin is 100kW on the electrical net of 27V ( DC ) and 60kW on electrical net of 115V/200V , f- 400Hz ( AC ) for High/Medium PRF mode of transmitter . This regime is IZLUCHENIE ( on russian ) or radiating the pulses in to airspace.

Interesting. Those very high power tho seems to indicate somehow very short pulses. much shorter than 1 us.
 

LukaszK

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I've received some comments from a former radar technician familiar with the N019EA radar. His comments in italics.

Interesting. so the N019 has 6.5 kW instead of 4 kW of peak power. and 960 doppler filters. It also interesting to see the detection and tracking criteria being related to probability (detection is 0.5/50% while tracking is 90%)

Great find LukaszK and nice translation Overscan.
Yes that`s true but must know that this 6.5kW of max pulse power is for High /Medium PRF mode and in regime which name is `Equivalent of the antenna` on russian эквивалент / EKVIVALENT , or how could I say: transmitter- stand by regime . Tha max output power for N019 Rubin is 100kW on the electrical net of 27V ( DC ) and 60kW on electrical net of 115V/200V , f- 400Hz ( AC ) for High/Medium PRF mode of transmitter . This regime is IZLUCHENIE ( on russian ) or radiating the pulses in to airspace.

Interesting. Those very high power tho seems to indicate somehow very short pulses. much shorter than 1 us.
I think this powers 100kw/60kw refers to powering radar device not to the power of emitted signal.
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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I have some additional feedback.

SNP mode (track-while-scan) does allow searching for new targets and tracking 10 targets via pulse-doppler method.

In RNP (single target track) you lose the other 9 targets from display - however their flight paths are predicted by the Ts100 computer for up to 10 seconds while target is tracked via monopulse CW method.

In DNP mode (illumination) you track the up to 9 SNP targets for 10.24ms (pulse doppler track), the primary target for 10.24ms (pulse doppler track), then illuminate for 30.72ms (CW). New targets will not be acquired during DNP.

DNP mode lasts 60 seconds which is the maximum flight time of the R-27R missile then switches back to SNP.

Question here is that if the SNP mode pulse-doppler track method doesn't give precise enough location for the R-27R launch parameters - how is the same tracking method for the primary target in DNP useful for mid-course correction?
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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So sequence is - SNP mode to find target - RNP mode to lock on to a single target to generate high quality data - DNP mode to illuminate the target for 60 seconds - then back to SNP mode to look for more targets.

The DNP mode maintaining tracks on the up to 9 other targets does mitigate the "target blindness" associated with single target track somewhat, assuming 60 seconds isn't enough time for a brand new target to appear that you didn't see before and kill you.

It does mean that illumination is not continuous- but presumably in the 20ms that the radar is tracking, the target shouldn't move too far.
 

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So sequence is - SNP mode to find target - RNP mode to lock on to a single target to generate high quality data - DNP mode to illuminate the target for 60 seconds - then back to SNP mode to look for more targets.

The DNP mode maintaining tracks on the up to 9 other targets does mitigate the "target blindness" associated with single target track somewhat, assuming 60 seconds isn't enough time for a brand new target to appear that you didn't see before and kill you.

It does mean that illumination is not continuous- but presumably in the 20ms that the radar is tracking, the target shouldn't move too far.
Well, I think almost all what was said in the last posts is correct and consistent with all manuals except this mode DNP.

Option 1: I think that mode DNP is just combination of tracking and illuminating. Nothing more. No maintaining track of 9 other targets.
2 sequences (each 10.24ms) is to track object - using pulse doppler emitting and monopulse receiver. 3 sequences - to illuminate target for R-27R missile (due to continuously waveform - radar receiver can not work - it is only illumination).
Look into already done translation: https://www.secretprojects.co.uk/attachments/Т12-rlpk-eng-pdf.598409/ pages 54 and 56 both bottom

So confusion may arise that the first two cycles are similar to normal scanning - and its purpose is just to update position of single target for tracking single target using pulse doppler signal. Next 3 are lower power (1kW instead of 4-5kW) but continues waveform to illuminate target for R-27R

I think it is not possible to track other targets in just 0.03s - antenna can not move such quickly to refresh information about position of other targets.
So in my opinion, when there is change from TWS (SNP) to SST ("DNP")- there is possible to remember parameters of other targets and extrapolate them for a while (in case of loosing track in STT, to return quickly to TWS - SNP), but in "DNP" - there is no real tracking of other targets.

Option 2: (phantasy mode on) There is really something "more" in WarPac radars (N-019EA) we did not know previously. Keeping TWS while guiding R-27R or tracking single target. In such situation, in the first phase of guiding of R-27R: there would be mix of phases:
- tracking single target, updating (mid course update) and possible illuminating
- in second radar "updates information about other targets" either making entire scan, or just "visiting places where additional targets should be - based on extrapolation".
Each phase would take several seconds (2 - 4?).
In short time when R-27 is not guided directly (2-4 s) - missile preserves position of target based on own INS.

This may work at the beginning, but in the final phase of guiding, the radar switches to pure to STT to finalize guiding. This might be final 10 or more seconds, where position of other targets are extrapolated to be regained after loosing SST (missile destroys a target).
(phantasy mode off)
I can imagine second scenario might be possible, but I find no evidence for them anywhere.
If such mode exists, why other targets are removed from display when switch to SST?
So I think Option 2 it is not true (especially in case of Mig)
 
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overscan (PaulMM)

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Presumably the radar goes through a scan pattern covering some field of view centred on the primary target. As it is scanning, it is constantly switching between illumination and tracking, but according to this, the "tracking" is TWS style not STT style during the 60s illumination phase. Other targets can continue to be tracked providing they are in the field of view.

The AN/APG-65 used a separate horn antenna for its CW illumination for AIM-7F which means it is much less directional than the primary radar beam - which means it covers a much wider area of sky than if the main antenna was used.
 

LukaszK

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Presumably the radar goes through a scan pattern covering some field of view centred on the primary target. As it is scanning, it is constantly switching between illumination and tracking, but according to this, the "tracking" is TWS style not STT style during the 60s illumination phase. Other targets can continue to be tracked providing they are in the field of view.

The AN/APG-65 used a separate horn antenna for its CW illumination for AIM-7F which means it is much less directional than the primary radar beam - which means it covers a much wider area of sky than if the main antenna was used.
Well, interesting.
I understand that main target in such scenario would be illuminated by "side radiation", not only and by constantly centered beam as usual.
For MiG beamwidth is 3.5 deg. Beam corresponds to 1/2 power drop or
-3dB. It is not much drop of power and outside of beam width energy is still high. Actually, this means decline in tracking range for missile sqrt(0.5) so 30%. For tracking range let say 25 km (manual 3m2) it is still 17.5km. The actual beam till the first null is about twice beam width for 3dB (Stimson). But any sensible gain let say is till half of this. Let's account whole 5 deg ( at the edge let say - without inspecting sinc function, missile can get target from 5km )
The first sidelobe is 1/64 (range 8 times less so about 3km) but for uniform array. For tapered it is much less - so I will not account for sidelobes.
Using monopulse array, there are 4 beams slightly rotated. If there is hardware possibility (not sure) to select only one or pair for emitting energy, this would allow to shift somehow beam.
Again after Stimson, typically beams are rotated about beam width. So if it possible to select channel, would be possible this double cone to 8-10 degrees.
So in such scenario, while missile approaches and radar does TWS scan (let say 20 degrees x 4 bars 8 degs 2.5s cycle): target will be illuminated 4 times per second, (period 0.6s), while gaps when there is no illumination would be slightly more than of total time 50%, Each gap will take: 0.3-0.4s.
During this gap missile continues in INS mode based on computed target trajectory.
On extreme short ranges (less than 1km) this gap might be even smaller.
So, yes, this might be even feasible.
But on the other hand, energy received by missile decreases and this increase chance of loosing track. In real complex environment, any designer would rather do best to increase Pk.
(I am still skeptical)
 
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LukaszK

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In discussion there emerged "mysterious" mode: DNP.
I found description - in Su-27 manual (export version)
https://studfile.net/preview/6717361/page:13/
(Here - there is no indication that this mode can do something more than tracking target and illuminating. On the other hand it exciplicity does not say that this mode does not scan or track :) - like for RNP, but everybody takes this as obvious)

RLPK operates in the following modes:
  • the mode of review and detection of targets with the determination of coordinates and setting them on the SNP (tracking no more than 10 targets on the "pass");
  • RNP mode (continuous direction finding mode), when the coordinates of one target are determined with the accuracy necessary for the launch conditions of guided missiles without maintaining the view of space;
  • DNP mode (discrete-continuous illumination mode), when the attacked target is tracked and illuminated and commands are transmitted to the missile via the RK line (radio corrections for missiles with RGS);
  • ....

РЛПК работает в следующих режимах:
  • режим обзора и обнаружения целей с определением координат и постановкой их на СНП (сопровождение не более 10 целей на «проходе»);
  • режим РНП (режим непрерывной пеленгации), когда производится определение координат одной цели с точностями, необходимыми для условий пуска управляемых ракет без сохранения обзора пространства;
  • режим ДНП (режим дискретно-непрерывного подсвета), когда производится сопровождение и подсвет атакуемой цели и передача команд на ракету по линии РК (радиокоррекции для ракет с РГС);
  • ....
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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In discussion there emerged "mysterious" mode: DNP.
I found description - in Su-27 manual (export version)
https://studfile.net/preview/6717361/page:13/
(Here - there is no indication that this mode can do something more than tracking target and illuminating. On the other hand it exciplicity does not say that this mode does not scan or track :) - like for RNP, but everybody takes this as obvious)

RLPK operates in the following modes:
  • the mode of review and detection of targets with the determination of coordinates and setting them on the SNP (tracking no more than 10 targets on the "pass");
  • RNP mode (continuous direction finding mode), when the coordinates of one target are determined with the accuracy necessary for the launch conditions of guided missiles without maintaining the view of space;
  • DNP mode (discrete-continuous illumination mode), when the attacked target is tracked and illuminated and commands are transmitted to the missile via the RK line (radio corrections for missiles with RGS);
  • ....

РЛПК работает в следующих режимах:
  • режим обзора и обнаружения целей с определением координат и постановкой их на СНП (сопровождение не более 10 целей на «проходе»);
  • режим РНП (режим непрерывной пеленгации), когда производится определение координат одной цели с точностями, необходимыми для условий пуска управляемых ракет без сохранения обзора пространства;
  • режим ДНП (режим дискретно-непрерывного подсвета), когда производится сопровождение и подсвет атакуемой цели и передача команд на ракету по линии РК (радиокоррекции для ракет с РГС);
  • ....
Actually the RNP description mentions “without maintaining the view of space” but there is no such description for DNP mode.
 

LukaszK

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In that topic, I am not sure if this was posted in other threads.
Videos from Mig-29 cockpit:
Both worth to see all:
1. (This is Wings of Red Starts, but somehow more extended version from Polish TV).
View: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AzE6hYDi8qg


Some interesting moments, radar scanning & tracking:
View: https://youtu.be/AzE6hYDi8qg?t=1076

(till 19:10)
19:30:
OLS mode, scanning and tracking:
View: https://youtu.be/AzE6hYDi8qg?t=1170

(till 21:00)
once again tracking, radar:
View: https://youtu.be/AzE6hYDi8qg?t=1351


By the way, Mig-31
View: https://youtu.be/AzE6hYDi8qg?t=151

(Till 7:10)

2. "777" This is some videos, from test R-77 (N-019M) probably early 90-tees, Mig-29S(D?) air refueling etc., worth to the see whole:
(Author, former Mig-23 pilot, is cameraman worked for MAPO),
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WiMHBxSp6f0&t=404s
screen:
https://youtu.be/WiMHBxSp6f0?t=1106
 
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