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MiG-27 Flogger Strike Fighter Family

Pit

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Interesting story of Kh-23 usage on MiG-27 and also about Nav/Attack Control Suite of MiG-27K...how advanced it was!.

Via Paul Martell-Mead

V.N.Kondaurov. "runway with length into the life '
CHAST' VTORAYA
TESTINGS ON THE VOLGA SHORES

THE XVIII

4 already mentioned about the fighter-bomber MiG -23B - to first attempt OKB Of mikoyana to create the new for them variety of combat vehicle in contrast to the projected/designed, until now, tactical fighters. The innovation in it most pleasant for the pilot was the chamfered downward forward fuselage, which noticeable improved the survey/coverage of locality/terrain in front which is extremely important with search and attack of ground target on the low altitudes. The competing firm Of sukhogo went to this step/pitch only during the third modification of the fighter-bomber of sous -17 - on the sous -17M3. For destruction of ground targets MiG -23B it was possible to use the conventional series bomb, cannon and unguided rocket armament. But there was novelty - first guided missile X -23. of ona it was governed/controlled by pilot, also, on the radio commands from the joystick with the aid of the radio equipment "del'ta", arranged/located in the special container, which was hung up to the aircraft. With this rocket one connects me, if then it is possible to be expressed, "amusing" history. 4 it was not occupied by its tests, but he knew that on singleseater fighter pilot, the very same operator, with the guidance of rocket to the target was encountered with the serious difficulties, which noticeably decreased the effectiveness of its application. In spite of this it was accepted for the armament. And the matter was not only in the fact that immediately after gathering it too sensitively received the radio commands supplied with it, but in proportion to the removal/distance of aircraft it became ever more than "sluggish". And it was necessary to prilovchit'sya to this, indeed the appearance of an error during the approach of rocket to the target/purpose threatened by explicit oversight. There was one additional insidious problem - joystick, arranged/located on the control knob next to the "slider" of the mechanism of trimmer effect. The values of flight speeds rapidly changing on the destroyer lead to noticeable changes in the stick forces, that also forces pilot frequently, almost automatically, to move the "slider" of vverkh-vniz in order to facilitate to themselves control. However, this organ/control made it possible not only to remove efforts/forces, but also to transfer/translate flight vehicle into the side of pitching or dive. And if I pressed "slider" upward, then thus it moved control knob "from itself", i.e., to the dive. However, control of rocket from the joystick bore "straight/direct" nature. Stop! It is better in the order.
In the composition of the armament of the following after MiG -23B fighter-bomber the MiG -27 is left "by the inertia" or "just in case" by already known all X -23. its developers convinced servicemen that the specially created trainer for aging/training the pilot will make it possible to solve the task of the effective application of this rocket. Test program provided for only one flight for the launching/starting X -23 along ground target. The leader of brigade approached me and he asked to carry out this flight.
- why precisely 4?
- our specialists in the rocket solved, what you - the most suitable/approaching candidature for this. First, you the chief/leading pilot on the MiG -27, but in the second place, never launched rocket with this principle of control.
- well and that?
- represent that you - the usual average/mean pilot of regiment, the mastered MiG -27, and for you is in prospect to be prepared and to release this rocket.
- it represented, it is necessary to a little work by actor.
- here precisely, since the representatives of developer assure, that after the necessary aging/training under their control on the trainer you will fall "into the apple".
- A you?
- A we doubt.
- then we will consider that the proposal is accepted. Where the trainer?
Three days 4 "chased" the electronic marker of rocket on the television screen, imitating launching/starting at the different removals/distances to the target/purpose and different flight speeds. Chart recorders scrupulously drew on the paper the curves, which spoke about that, how correctly I supplied radio commands with the aid of the joystick. When these curves became the symmetrical sinusoids with the rapidly falling/incident amplitude, which pass then into straight lines to the "collision/encounter" of rocket with the target/purpose, they brought me to the aircraft. Sitting in the cab and looking at hung under the wing UR with the red nose, 4 he already understood what to govern/control this "living" piece in the real flight - this not marker on the screen to move. "well yes it is agreeable, god will not give out, pig will not eat", quieted himself "average/mean" pilot. On the polygon/range, after carrying out the necessary maneuver for the output/yield to the combat course, I included the electrical circuits of launching/starting and from the height of 2000 m transferred aircraft to a decrease to the side of the target/purpose, hardly examined/scanned through the frontal by glass- at the removal/distance 8-10 km Skorost' - about 800 km/h. I press combat button. Rocket rushed from under the wing as pike from the ambush, after proving to be to the left and higher than me. Finger/pin to the joystick - I begin with it to govern/control. Slightly to the right. It threw there so friskily, that 4 hardly it had time to stop it before itself. Now downward, to the target/purpose. I look at the rocket and press joystick… upward (from itself), as if it would govern/control aircraft. About features! It was swiftly tossed upwards To davlyu to the reverse side - it here passes into the nose dive. Now it will be hidden under the nose of aircraft! With the desperation I harvest cursed joystick, it is now narrower upward. I manage to note, as the "lost senses pike", that recently disappeared under me, by spark plug it departs upward, into bottomless Nebo… forever. For the fitting/landing I went evil as the features: "directors, is vigorous louse! But itself- that, artist is scabby!". Those met on the earth/ground according to the expression of my face surmised, that the result of entry/incidence not very high, but someone nevertheless inquired:
- well that, it did fall?
- aha, it fell. In- it there, I showed by finger/pin into the sky. Assuming/taking my gesture for the joke, engineer refined with the sympathy:
- I understand, far from the center of target/purpose.
- what target/purpose?! - it exploded by 4. - from the center Of zemli! But it is generally necessary to recognize, healthily you deceived me. And as the resume, conclusion/derivation my is such: trainer your to transmit into "kindergarten", and for the aging/training to issue the marker of the imitator of rocket directly to the frontal to glass- of cab. Here then that "average/mean pilot" it will fall "into the apple".
Of two subsequent modifications of aircraft the MiG -27 the greatest interest presented the MiG -27K, equipped with fundamentally new equipment and armament. For the first time on board the destroyer appeared the digital computer (TSVM), which became central figure in the aiming navigation complex (PRNK), that solve all tasks of navigation and combat employment. Laser station "klen" issued in PRNK precise range to target. Television station "kayra", because of which appeared in the name of aircraft the letter "K", ensured the application of the controlled weapon with the aiming on the television screen. Its rotary optical prism could reveal and track a target under itself and back from the flight to the angles of 130 degrees. True, the detection range, in many respects which depends on the state of the atmosphere, was compared with the visual possibilities of man. But, when before the eyes of pilot at the television screen appeared ever the increasing to scale and, in proportion to withdrawal under the aircraft, turned/made havoc in the plan/layout target/purpose, on which it was possible to refine aiming up to one square meter; when it was possible to use weapons, without carrying out special maneuvers, at the maximum speed and the low altitude of flight - this was enormous step/pitch forward in the tactics of conducting combat operations. The new guided missiles (UR) with the laser heads made it possible to derive/conclude them to the target/purpose on the laser beam with the high accuracy. One inconvenience - to retain laser beam on the target/purpose to the damage/defeat its rocket - was removed during the launch of other rockets, with the television head, which after the target lock-on autonomously derived/concluded rocket into the given point. In this case the pilot "was untied" with the target/purpose and acted according to the principle - "he released and forgot". One additional type of rockets was intended for the destruction of working ground-based RLS from the sufficiently long range for that time - 35-40 km Krome.togo, to the MiG -27K for the first time underwent tests new aerial bombs - corrected (KAB), that made it possible to correct within certain limits their ballistic trajectory, and by which it was possible to please if not into the "apple", then at least into the "watermelon". This powerful/thick kulak of combat capabilities completed himself by the built-in the fuselage 30- mm six-barrel cannon installation AO -18 with the rotating drum and very high rate of fire.
The past years cannot extinguish those impressions, which I tested during the first shootings from this gun. It was worthwhile for me, after putting central stamp on the aerial target, to harvest by trigger button to the knob/button of shooting, as was heard this "Tr-r-r- r -yk", that I involuntarily jerked back hand. From the shooting the aircraft entire zatryassya and almost "stopped" from the strong return of cannon installation. The pilotless target, which recently carried out turn in front of me, literally dispersed into pieces. 4 hardly it arrived into itself from the unexpected contingency and admirations: "here this is caliber! Is good, "zveryuga"! If you will fall - it will not little be ".
The second year of tests concluded. Program approached toward the end. Because of the joint efforts/forces of the specialists of industry and Gk.nii.vvs experimental PRNK it was brought to the working order. The completing flights for the determination of combat effectiveness remained. In the test brigade was selected the route and flight profile taking into account PVO the weapons of destruction of "enemy". Was determined the version of armament for the destruction of most "interesting" targets.
 

Pit

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In one of the gloomy autumnal days I sat in the cab and before approaching engine starting, again checked the programs of route, placed in TSVM and into the system of short-range navigation. I cause information about calculation data of each section of route by successive pushing of knob on the control knob. Everything in the order. On the light signals of the presence of suspensions I monitor the composition of armament. Well, they went! The aircraft, loaded to the limit it seems of prilip to the concrete. The bow heaviness increased on so many, that the machine barely is turned/made havoc on the taxiing. I include the special rotation maneuver of front/nose wheel to the large angles. On VPP I increase revolutions and I include afterburner. Fighter-bomber even did not shudder, only nose even more greatly descended, after pressing to the limit the shock absorber of front/leading strut. I release the trigger button of brakes, and it is smooth, seemingly reluctantly is begun takeoff/run-up. We are torn off, when speed exceeded 300. After takeoff by corrective turn I to the left establish/install the laths of the position of aircraft relative to track in the flight instrument on the center and I include the automatic system for control (SAU) in regime/conditions "automaton". I sit motionlessly, but I continuously monitor readings of numerous instruments by eyes. Aircraft flies "itself", carrying out turns on the second, and then to third route turning point. Is in front - "front line". I carry out maneuver with a decrease to the height of one hundred meters, having simultaneously shot a series of passive jamming on the signals of defensive complex about the presence of the irradiation of destroyer by ground-based radar. After the fourth turning point SAU is derived/concluded me to the line of target run. Target/purpose (flight line) is programmed in PRNK, on panel of which instead of the signal "navigation" lights up the signal "attack". I work by conventional explosive bombs. I include jettison circuits in readiness number one. Through the front/leading bulletproof glass I attempt to see in front target/purpose, it is simple so, for the interest. 4 it must not now be mixed in the work of automation. At the frontal glass appears electron ring with the "put on" to it on top "sword". This is the director signal of out-of-plane error. The counter of distance shows the distance remaining to the target/purpose. Numbers hardly manage to change each other: 5. 4… 3 km To zhmu to the trigger button, without releasing, but itself I observe as automaton barely it turns aircraft to the right, establishing/installing "sword" strictly vertically - "on zero". Target/purpose was already somewhere under me, when on the front/leading glass appeared "clamp" - large electronic letter "s". I determine on the light agitation of my bomber that the bombs "left". I rapidly transfer/translate it into the climb to 500 m in order not to catch splinters after explosion. After seeing, that was included the regime/conditions of repeated approach to target, I transfer/translate galetnik of the selection of weapon on "UR". SAU derives/concludes me to the target/purpose from another direction. From the larger height I easily reveal control center. Smoke from the exploding bombs yet was not scattered, but wind, glory To bogu, carried it aside. The time of my relative idleness ended. I immediately press knob/button "attack", I transfer/translate aircraft to a decrease and I include I immediately press knob/button "attack" I throw view on range scale. Oho! - the current range to target approaches the minimum launching range. By the precise motion of joystick I combine stamp aiming with the target/purpose. "it is good that they hit upon" to untie "this stamp with the longitudinal axis of aircraft, flickered glad thought, otherwise it did not have time". Joystick to press - not by aircraft "to move". Height of 200 m, speed 800 - launching/starting! Two "ribbands", two "pike-perch" after each other rushed to the target/purpose. I refine aiming along the screen, where the building of control center grows on the eyes, after establishing, in addition by joystick, small electronic small cross under the very base of target/purpose. "pike-perch", as if those hypnotized, rushed, slightly wagging, precisely, there, where I wanted. Without staying on the survey of the image of explosion on the screen, by chandelle I collect/compose 1500 m, and I take course to the side of railroad bridge. I am oriented on the distance from PRNK, I search for the in front characteristic arch of bridge. Here is it! Continuing to go in the level flight, I carry out the necessary actions and I pass for the aiming along the television screen. Complex holds in the seizure target/purpose as thoroughbred boxer the throat of its enemy: small cross on the middle of flight/span stands, it will not move. I shudder from the sound signal of command "discharge/break!". After gathering of two "five hundred meter distances" I a little refine the position of small cross on the turned/made havoc image of bridge and… all, the matter is made. But it is in front - "rest to us only dreams" - one must strike very complex target - caponnier, concreted shelter for the aircraft. For this under the wing will hang the fact that already delivered to me so long ago not numerous troubles - heavy guided missile with the television head.
In spring I obtained the task of outdistancing MiG -27K to one of the polygons/ranges, located in the Ukraine.
- there is prepared demonstration for Glavnokomanduyushchego VVS, posed to me problem commander, it is necessary to show the effectiveness of new weapon.
- I with what number I will come forward?
- you have to be tele-Shaw during the launching/starting UR with the television head. - it is understandable, one disturbs. Seemingly foregoing participant did not arrange to me smoke screen, otherwise in rocket head "will become blind".
- A is here about this you and to pozabot'sya on the spot, finished conversation chief.
It is necessary to recognize that Glavkom Of p.S.Kutakhov within the prolonged period of command VVS actually much made for the technical re-equipping of aviation, in proper time using new possibilities of industry. On the arrival in the polygon/range I was presented to the substituent Of kutakhova, to General l.Supran, with whom it was well familiar thus far.
- entire polygon/range is camouflaged, elucidated situation General, under the natural green color. We want to verify our weapon under the conditions, close to the real. You should destroy aircraft, which is located inside the caponnier. This rocket we yet did not see in action. How you do think, into the gates you will fall?
- I do not guarantee, tests are not thus far finished, it is necessary to become acquainted with the polygon/range.
After carrying out flight, I ascertained that to me here it can't be helped: everything was green, even gates of my caponnier, which 4, by the way, did not manage to reveal/detect visually at the required distance before the launching/starting. But my "head" went for a walk on the spring verdure, obstinate without desiring to stay there, where 4 it directed. After returning to the airfield, I popularly explained to the General:
- this "head" as woman, does not love monotony and "will turn nose" from any dust and smoke.
however, - that you do propose?
- color gates into another, contrasting, color.
- to color not problem, but as to explain To glavkomu? - began to doubt/doubted Supran.
- nothing you will do, this in it operating principle. Next day the General led me to the side and reported by the zagovorshchicheskim tone:
- fly quietly. At night they did everything, as you wanted, winch they will be yellow.
Demonstration began, and 4 with the light heart it went to the aircraft. In the accurately assigned time it left to the combat course and started to search for yellow speck in the left angle of polygon/range. Moist May air was such dense, that the solar rays/beams, being scattered in it, created the screen effect, which strongly decreases the visibility. At the speed of 800 km/h the distance melted on the eyes. Having finally noted bright spot, I with a throw "throw" on it sighting mark and press knob/button "privyazka", and itself I feverishly search for on the screen this speck. Here is it! I harvest to "zakhvat" - it does not hold. Again. Small cross slightly twitches itself on the speck, but not "does crawl". To await there is no time. I launch rocket and, turning away to the right with the collection, I continue to observe, as the increasing image of spot it is converted into the gates of caponnier. And here I see - small cross broke into a run on them downward, to the earth/ground, then along the earth/ground on some to yellow path/track. Powerful explosion at that place, where it proved to be, it turned off with smoke entire tselekhon'kiy caponnier. Before fitting/landing itself it flew and was puzzled:
delusion and only, with this path/track. And whence it could undertake? Everything elucidated itself on the earth/ground. Of met me in the aircraft Supran it bred by the hands:
- excuse, the workers of polygon/range wanted as better…
however, - I that they did make?
- they poured from winch whole path/track of sand so that it would be more easily reveal/detect the caponnier. They worried for you.
- well, then transmit to them from me regards, I showed, what precisely. Now before me again caponnier. After "seizure" I distinctly observe on the screen dark spot its winch. "directly as in the fairy tale", happily it thought 4 and produced launching/starting. Iron "tigress", by weight about the ton, with the uterine roar is torn away from the pylon so that the small bomber "from the disturbance/perturbation" started by nose. "tigress" made a "candle" and was hidden from the eyes in order with the enormous speed to then bring down its on top fatal load. Its "head", not perestavaya, transferred to me onboard the image of target/purpose in the manner that it saw it in each second of flight. To the short moment, before the explosion itself, I nevertheless had time to note, as it "entered" into the caponnier. At this time at the high speed and the maximally low altitude I departed further from that place and it is closer to that, where they awaited me.
On the earth/ground, as always, awaited the group of military and civil/civilian specialists. I looked into these impatient, which wait with the anxiety and the interest, eyes and… did not hurry. How to transmit to them in several words the most important, that I did carry out from the flight? As to explain by them my sensation of gladness from that made and simultaneously anxiety for the fact that it becomes not so much flight vehicle, as by instrument To smerti. By instrument of death for whom?
 

Pit

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MiG-27 units on VVS FA IBA (Soviet Air Force, Frontal Aviation, Fighter-Bomber Aviation) 1989-1990:

Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, 16th Air Army, HQ Wundsdorf

105 Fighter Bomber Aviation Division (105 ADIB) - Grossenhaim

296 Fighter Bomber Aviation Regiment (296 APIB) - Grossenhaim
30 MiG-27M/D, 9 MiG-23UB

559 APIB - Finsterwalde
34 MiG-27K, 9 MiG-23UB

125 Fighter Bomber Aviation Division - Rechlin

19 GvAPIB - Lerts
32 MiG-27D, 7 MiG-23UB

Central Group of Forces, Czechoslovaquia, HQ - Millovitse

131 Mixed Aviation Divission (131 SAD) - Millovitse

236 APIB - Gradchane
45 МiG-27K, 10 MiG-23UB

Will Continue :)
 

crossiathh

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@pit

I wonder If you could please provide the original text in russian language of the description about the Ch-23?!
 

Pit

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crossiathh said:
@pit

I wonder If you could please provide the original text in russian language of the description about the Ch-23?!

Overscan passed it to me, maybe he knows where is the original text!...

Did you know about LSK/LV experiences on using Kh-23?...I heard it was a total mess!
 

airsande

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Kh-23 use - O, I had the chance to witness its use from BuAF MiG-23BNs in 1994 - so, at the firing range experienced Flogger-H drivers performed notably better than their clleagures firing the Kh-29L and Kh-25ML from Su-25 and Su-22M4 - always in the target. So, experience was the name of the game in this case, and last but not least - the calm firing range (peacetime) conditions (long flat diving passess, no air defence).
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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Beautiful pics Crossiath!

Have you got any firm information on the exact role of the two different optical apertures?
 

crossiathh

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overscan said:
Have you got any firm information on the exact role of the two different optical apertures?

This should be better answered by Alexander who made already a description in the "International Airpower Review" magazine.
 

crossiathh

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overscan said:
Text on the nose: "Izdeliyie 53 Siren-Fsh"

indicates an internal jammer?

Well, while I can confirm the SPS-141/142 was used with the MiG-23BN of the former LSK/LV I only can guess that a device of the Siren familiy (141,142,143?) is used with the MiG-27K. At least the dielectric fairing bottom-left on the this pictures is for the receiving antenna of the jammer if a Siren device is used, while in the nose is the transmitting antenna.

The open hatch is most likely for the DISS-7 doppler system.

Izdeliyie 53 can be missleading as it could belong to the SAU-23 autopilot. I've to check this.
 

overscan (PaulMM)

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I think you are correct. The hatch gives access to both Izdeliyie 53 *and* Siren-Fsh. The transmitter and recievers you identify seems very likely. I wonder if the MiG-27K had a rear facing antenna for ECM too?
 
L

lewradar

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Weather permitting I'm visiting an aviation museum on wed (lincolnshire, UK) where there is an early MiG-27. Anyone got any photo needs?
 

crossiathh

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Well, detailed cockpit and nose pictures would be intersting and like for the MiG-23M the vertical fin.
May you make some close pictures of the LERX if applied.
 
L

lewradar

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Sorry for the absence: Attached the promised photos of the Newark (UK) MiG-27.
 

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lewradar

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and more ... note that the Fon cavity is empty
 

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lewradar

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a composite of underneath
 

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lewradar

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and some very poor quality cockpit shots
 

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lewradar

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For comparison: a MiG-23BN at Brussels Miltary Museum - note the MiG-23-like intakes
 

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crossiathh

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@lewradar
Many thanks for the nice shots. Unfortunatly you weren't probably able to open the canopy. Would be great to have some cockpit pictures from inside.
To do some mappings with the existing images I've attached a drawing of the instrument panel of the MiG-23BM (MiG-27).

The picture of the MiG-23BN are also quit nice. This is one of the items from the small egypt charge (32-24B) missing the Delta guidance pod and the SPS-141 ECM system.
 

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