Book and Magazine Requests

overscan (PaulMM)

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27 December 2005
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A thread to post about books and magazines we would like access to, and see if other members have these books.

I need this article:

GEC REVIEW, Volume 8, No.2, 1993
Page 67

The Foxhunter Radar

Now that the production of the radars for the Air Defence Variant of the Tornado Aircraft and their delivery to the Royal Air Force has been completed, it is possible to tell some of their story. The article starts with a simplified explanation of how a radar on a moving platform such as an aircraft can detect other aircraft without being swamped by ground clutter, discusses alternative solutions to this problem, and concludes with descriptions of the eventual radar hardware and displays.
Anyone have interesting Tornado books or articles, especially more recent ones. I am looking specifically for Tornado F2/F3 avionics information.


WAPJ Winter 1997: Tornado Variants Part 2
Dude. I have the ENTIRE run of World Air Power Journal!
Well, if you get a chance to check any Tornado ADV articles over for me...

I started writing a small Word document on Tornado ADV avionics, but the radar section alone has run to a number of pages. However, a lot of the sources are from 1985/86. Obviously a hell of a lot has happened since that time (Foxhunter actually WORKS these days) and I feel I might be missing some info.
Volume 3's focus aircraft feature was on the Tornado. I'll mess with the scanner this weekend and scan those two articles, and anything else that might be either in there or in International Air Power Review. I'll see what, if anything, else I have around here also.
Dude. I have the ENTIRE run of World Air Power Journal!

What would it take for you to scan the entire lot and send them to me, or better yet, just send them to me? Just kidding.


Can't find the stupid scanner's USB cable, so here's the relevant info.

WAPJ Volume 3 (Autumn/Fall 1990): Panavia Tornado-Paul Jackson
From page 69:
"Other changes (he's talking about in the first F.3s as opposed to the F.2s) include a second Ferranti FIN1010 inertial navigation system for increased accuracy, as the ADV does not have the same opportunity for confirmatory radar fixes as its companion IDS."
...some BS about adding AIM-9s and other junk...
"Delays in the development and production of the GEC Avionics (Marconi) AI.Mk 24 Foxhunter pulse-Doppler radar resulted in the Tornado ADV gaining IOC much later than planned. Following trials in a Canberra and Buccaneer, Foxhunter first became airborne in a Tornado on 17 June 1981, almost a year after the target date. The third prototype, ZA283, was the test aircraft and by March 1983 was on to its third version of the radar, known as 'B' Series. Production F.Mk 2s were due to begin rolling off the line with Foxhunter that year, although it was not until July 1983 that the first of 20 pre-production radars was received. As a result, Tornado deliveries to the RAF began on 5 November 1984 with lead ballast in their noses, and not until mid-1985 did aircraft begin leaving Warton in a complete state.
Acceptance of Foxhunter did not imply complete RAF satisfaction with the equipment. Early radars were delivered below specification, partly as a result of the RAF demanding greater capability after the development contract had been agreed. No tail-chase programming was initially requested, and this had to be added later. Principal shortcomings were large sidelobes increasing vulnerability to jamming and substandard multi-target tracking capability - the specification apparently calling for 20 aircraft to be tracked while continuing to scan. A three-year program of improvement was initiated with the intention of having all Tornado ADV radars up to the required standard by the early 1990s.
The original allocation of radars was Foxhunter Type W (70 built) in 62 Block 8-10 aircraft and Type Z (80 built) in 80 from Blocks 11-12. The final 76 sets (comprising 50 for 46 RAF aircraft and 26 for 24 Saudis) have been fitted in Block 13-15 aircraft from early 1989 onwards. Type Z radars meet the original ASR 395 specification before the RAF asked for additional capabilities, so to obtain this minimal performance, all but 26 Ws have been upgraded to Zs, beginning in 1988. Type Z includes improved range and tracking, whilst the new Stage 1 standard, though having better cooling, relies mainly on revised software to give improved ECCM and close-combat capability. Manufacture of Stage 1 radars began in September 1988, and their software is also being installed in 124 Type Zs (including those modified from Type W). Finally, modification kits will be delivered in 1991 to upgrade Type Z Foxhunters to Stage 2, with the addition of a new processor giving automatic target acquisition and tracking and discrimination between head-on targets by analysis of their first and second stage compressor blades."
From page 70:
"The Tornado ADV is equipped with a GEC Avionics AI-24 Foxhunter airborne intercept radar. Early problems with this radar have now been mostly solved, although RAF aircraft presently have a variety of radar standards. THe radar operates in the I-band using a pulse-Doppler technique known as frequency modulated interrupted continuous wave. The advanced cassegrain antenna gives good performance even in a high-clutter or jamming environment, and the hydraulic servos that drive it give precise and stable beam pointing even under heavy g."
GTX said:
Dude. I have the ENTIRE run of World Air Power Journal!

What would it take for you to scan the entire lot and send them to me, or better yet, just send them to me? Just kidding.



HAHA! Nice try! ;D

Seriously though, if you can find an index or know of an article you want or something specific you'd like some material on, feel free to let me know. May take me a few days, bit I'll get it sorted. That goes for the rest of you sorry lot as well!
WAPJ Volume 31 (Winter 1997): Panavia Tornado Variant Briefing: Part Two by John Lake
Again, here's the relevant bits on Foxhunter:
From page 118-120:
"The first and most critical change to the basic Tornado was the provision of a new dedicated fighter radar. This was the newly developed GEC Marconi AI-24 Foxhunter, a frequency-modulated interrupted continuous wave (FMICW) set operating in the 3-cm I-band. Marconi-Elliott (with Ferranti as a major subcontractor) received a contract to develop the radar in 1976, building on existing radars which had been flying in experimental and trials aircraft for years. The radar consisted of eight (not 12, as often stated) liquid-cooled LRUs clustered around a central transmitter. The front-end was predominantly analog, with a coherent travelling wave tube transmitter giving high power over a range of bandwidths. The conventional twist-cassegrain antenna was light and simple, and gave greater consistency and lower sidelobes than the new planar arrays which were in vogue with the latest teen-series US fighters. The radar incorporated a J-band illuminator for SkyFlash or similar semi-active radar homing missiles. A modern pulse-Doppler radar was not used, the choice being a compromise based on the performance required.
High PRFs were used to maximise detection range, while low PRFs were used against targets with little Doppler shift (e.g. tailchase targets). The radar incorporated sophisticated track-while-scan capabilities, and was extremely user-friendly, with its synthetic symbiology clearly displayed and easy to manipulate. A built-in processor suppressed ground clutter and the radar also incorporated an integrated Cossor IFF-3500 interrogator, whose dipole antennas were mounted on the surface of the main reflector. The new radar necessitated the provision of a new cold air unit to cool it, and a pop-up ram air turbine (RAT) was provided to power essential emergency systems for use in the event of a high-altitude engine flameout, in place of the one-shot battery fitted to the IDS.
The Tornado ADV was originally envisaged as having an electro-optical Visual Augmentation System, which would have given the crew a TV picture of the target sufficient for positive identification in time to allow a front-hemisphere missile shot by day, or in a starlight-only night. The equipment would also permit an interceptor to safely shadow a target by night, or to make passive, emission-free intercepts in some circumstances. In late 1978 Marconi Avionics received a contract to develop the equipment, which was to be expanded from existing low-light-level TV systems. The VAS was to have been carried on a retractable mounting just in front of the cockpit, and was intended to be steerable. Quite what happened to the VAS (which never reached service) remains a mystery. The deletion of this feature was reportedly more due to cost than technical performance. At around the same time, the RAF was officially optimistic that Tornado ADV crews would have a helmet-mounted sight, but this optimism proved sadly misplaced, and RAF fighter pilots will have to wait for Eurofighter before they gain a piece of equipment which their Russian counterparts (and even Israeli and South African pilots) take for granted. The non-appearance of a helmet sight was due to the importance placed on BVR operations, and the relative unimportance of short-range capability in the ADV."
...some BS about SkyFlash...Sidewinder...drop tanks...
From page 121-122:
"The figher variant had a very different avionics and instrument fit to that of the IDS. The Tornado ADV was given double the original IDS's computer power, going from 32k to 64k, and also introduced a GEC-Marconi TACAN, Cossor ILS and IFF, though these were also being incorporated in IDS aircraft, as was the revised communications suite. The latter consisted of a GEC-Plessey VHF/UHF, Rhode and Schwarz HF/SSB, and SIT emergency UHF, with a Comms COntrol Unit by Ultra and an Epsylon CVR. As well as lacking the IDS's Texas Instruments TFR, GEC-Marconi LRMTS and Lital Secondary Attitude and heading Reference System, the Tornado ADV also lacked the Decca 72 Doppler of the bomber. The provision of IFF was essential, of course, but caused delays, since NATO was then caught in a major impasse over what the next-generation IFF should be. The US wanted to stick with a D-band (1-2 GHz) system (since it already operated a large number of D-band IFF equipped aircraft), while most European nations favored an E/F-band (2-4 GHz) system. Eventually, the participating nations agreed on a D-band IFF system which incorporated a radar mode, allowing a radar pulse to interrogate the IFF transponder, and not just a dedicated interrogator."
From page 124:
"The ADV's Foxhunter radar was delayed by a multitude of technical problems, and by the RAF 'moving the goalposts', demanding progressive improvements in capability beyond that detailed in the initial contract and specification (such as a tailchase capability). Shortcomings from the original specification included unacceptably large sidelobes (which brought increased detectability, and vulnerability to countermeasures) and a severe shortfall in multi-target tracking capability. Technical problems with the AI.24 were unexpected and unwelcome. The radar had been flying in an MoD(PE) Canberra since 1975, and had proved reliable and impressive in that (somewhat limited) environment.
It was not until June 1981 that ZA283 became the first Tornado to fly with the new radar. Test versions of the radar had flown previously in Canberra and Buccaneer testbeds. ZA283 (the third of the three F.Mk 2 prototypes) remained the only radar-equipped Tornado ADV for some time, flying with B series radar (the third incarnation flown on ZA283) in March 1983. The first of 20 pre-production radar sets was delivered in July 1983, but radars were not fitted on the Warton production line until mid-1985, by which time the radar was four eyars late and more than 50 percent over budget. Tornado F.Mk 2s were delivered to No. 229 OCU at Conningsby between 5 November 1984 and October 1985.
All F.Mk 2s are understood to have eventually flown with PP radar fitted, allowing a limited degree of realistic role training. Few aircraft arrived on the unit with radar, however. The aircraft had sufficient combat capability to allow the unit to be declared to NATO as an emergency air defense unit in May 1985. In December 1986 the declaration was increased in scope and the unit took up the shadow squadron identity of No. 65 Squadron."
From page 125:
"The single crucial difference between aircraft from differrent blocks lies in radar standard although, as earlier radars have been upgraded, the differences have reduced or in some cases disappeared.
The first AI24 Foxhunter radar sets delivered were well below even the RAF's original specification, and were known as Type W (or W standard) radars. Although the W standard radar was below specification, early Tornado F.Mk 3 crews were publicly enthusiastic about the new radar's resistance to jamming, its look-down performance and multi-target track-while-scan abilities.
Seventy Type W radars were produced for the first 62 ADVs (those from batch 4 and some of those from Batch 5, which is to say all of the 18 production F.Mk 2s and the first 44 F.Mk 3s). Forty-four of the Type W radars (presumably those fitted to the F.Mk 3s) were subsequently upgraded to Type Z standards, in a programme which began in 1988.
The next 80 RAF Tornado ADVs received Type Z (or Z standard) radars, which had increased tracking capability and increased range, and effectively met the RAF's original specification before additional levels of capability were requested. Most of the original Type W radars were brought up to Z standard from 1988, and all the Z standard sets (including those which had begun life as Type W radars) were themselves subsequently brought up to Stage One standard.
The last 46 RAF Tornado F.Mk 3s and the 24 aircraft delivered to Saudi Arabia were fitted with the new Stage One radar, manufactured from September 1988, with revised cooling and new software."

Whew! More of this one later.
Thanks a lot Sean, that is quite helpful. Might have been less work to scan the pages, though!
overscan said:
Thanks a lot Sean, that is quite helpful. Might have been less work to scan the pages, though!

You'd think so, right? But I can't find the freaking cable! That is irritating for a few different reasons, there's some new documents I'd love to scan in and get on here as well.

Anyway, here's the rest of the bit from Volume 31:
From page 126:
"An interim modification state, known as Stage One Plus, was hurriedly rushed into service on those aircraft deployed to the Persian Gulf in 1990 for participation in Operation Desert Storm. The Stage One Plus upgrade combined a series of modifications intended to enhance the Tornado F.Mk 3's combat capability and survivability, together with modifications which allowed the aircraft to operate in the Gulf's harsh climatic conditions.
The Foxhunter radar was upgraded to AA standard, with improved cooling and revised software which gave much enhanced ECCM and close-combat capability. The Tornado's high-PRF radar is ideally suited to the long-range stand-off engagement of enemy bombers, but is not optimised for colse-in dogfight type engagements. Marconi reportedly began working on a Medium PRF version of Foxhunter to remedy this deficiency, but the Type AA radar was a useful interim step."
From page 127:
"The planned introduction of a new processor will bring all surviving RAF Tornado F.Mk 3 radars to Stage Two (AB) standard (also known as Stage 2G), allowing automatic target acquisition and tracking, and discrimination of head-on targets through analysis of first- and second-stage compressor discs. Modification kits were to have been delivered in 1991, but there have been delays."

That actually appears to be the end of the radar bit, I thought there was a little more to it yesterday. Guess not.
International Air Power Review No.13 Summer 2004 has an article on the Tornado too.
Yeah, you're gonna be SOL on that subscription managed to die out after the first 10 volumes. I haven't gotten around to getting the back issues and resubscribing...yet.
They don't seem to be offering back issues anymore :'( I have 20 or 30 WAPJ and maybe a dozen Wings of Fame but I was hoping they'd be around long enough to get them all. Oh well. Got most of the ones I was really interested in.
Air Force Magazine March 1985 , Vol. 68, No. 3

Article called "MiG-2000", which was a prediction what the
MFI might look like.

I'm interested in obtaining a copy of the article.
Not sure about the article, but is this the image you were refering to?



Anyone can scan for me AW&ST cover/article with LM Polecat UAV photos? I've been late with my AWST subscription this year.
Thanks in advance!
flateric said:
Anyone can scan for me AW&ST cover/article with LM Polecat UAV photos? I've been late with my AWST subscription this year.
Thanks in advance!
Has someone taken care of your request yet, Gregory? If not, I think I still have my issue I can scan.....
If there is at whom book "Lockheed aircraft since 1913" by Rene J.Francillon, please Appendices: A: Lockheed aircraft model designations and projects show us.
Dreaming of a good scan of Northrop YF-23A ad from one of 1990-1991 AWST - two page foldout with Northrop ATF team leaders stanfing in front of PAV-2. Any help would be appreciated. Thanks!

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