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Author Topic: Patriot SAM replacement  (Read 107023 times)

Offline sferrin

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #495 on: October 25, 2018, 04:13:53 pm »
That nice fancy radar isn't going to accomplish much without a PAC-2 replacement for longer ranges.  (No, SM-X won't work.)
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Offline bring_it_on

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #496 on: October 25, 2018, 04:20:21 pm »
LTAMDS is needed for the full envelope of the MSE anyways, and there is probably some benefits to be derived from IBCS connecting THAAD and Patriot. The Radar is the primary expense driver relative to a new missile the overall cost of which is quite small relatively speaking. The path they are on is MSE-->IAMD/IBCS-->LTAMDS. They probably need to look at the launchers and interceptors next. I'd think they'd focus on the hypersonic glider threat first. I am not sure shooting down cooperating fighters or AEW aircraft 300 km out is their primary concern although that is likely to come into consideration later.

Does the PAC-2 truly outrange the PAC-3 MSE in the ABM role?
« Last Edit: October 25, 2018, 04:41:49 pm by bring_it_on »
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Offline sferrin

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #497 on: October 25, 2018, 06:47:16 pm »
Does the PAC-2 truly outrange the PAC-3 MSE in the ABM role?

No idea.  It significantly outranges it in the SAM role though.  For the BGRV defense I really wish they'd keep developing THAAD-ER.
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Offline bring_it_on

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #498 on: October 25, 2018, 06:54:12 pm »
Does the PAC-2 truly outrange the PAC-3 MSE in the ABM role?

No idea.  It significantly outranges it in the SAM role though.  For the BGRV defense I really wish they'd keep developing THAAD-ER.

From what I have heard, the MSE outranges the PAC-2 in the BMD role with a fairly decent margin. As far as a long range SAM, I don't think a very long range SAM is what the Army needs as a priority in the short-medium term. That is likely a long term need though. Looking at the cost, the Army needs to finish developing, testing and fielding IAMD, and then buying 6-8 dozen LTAMDS sensor it needs while also upgrading Sentinels to the A4 standard for both IFPC and to extend the capability of PATRIOT. At some point they will also need to develop more modern launchers and then likely new interceptors. With IBCS and dispersed Sentinel's you do however extend the range of your sensors so as these capabilities are fielded longer ranged intercepts Over The Horizon (and against targets which may be harder to detect) targeting would begin to make a lot of sense.

THAAD-ER makes sense and I think that MDA is looking into that capability so that is not something that the Army will be developing (thank god) so I think that capability either in the form of a THAAD-ER or something different will come by the medium term.

The Army needs to focus on the areas it has determined are essential with the Air Defense modernization programs -- IAMD/LTAMDS/MSE, M-SHORAD, and IFPC. These will keep their budgets busy for half a decade if not more.
« Last Edit: October 25, 2018, 06:56:47 pm by bring_it_on »
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Offline bring_it_on

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #499 on: October 30, 2018, 01:23:48 am »
Sense-Off for Lower Tier Air Missile Defense Sensor (LTAMDS)


Quote
This is an initial announcement that the Army is conducting a Sense-Off for Lower Tier Air Missile Defense Sensor (LTAMDS) solutions during 3QFY19. It is the Army's intent to use the Sense-Off as part of the evaluation to select a single vendor to build and deliver LTAMDS to the Army, supporting achievement of an Initial Operational Capability (IOC). The Government will conduct an Industry Day and expects interested participants to respond to this announcement and commit to the Sense-Off.

A.   Purpose of the Sense-Off


The Government will provide industry the opportunity to demonstrate Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD)-like LTAMDS systems at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico, in 3QFY19. The demonstration event, hereinafter termed a "Sense-Off", is a critical element of the acquisition strategy to procure and field LTAMDS. The vendor solution will interoperate with the Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Battle Command System (IBCS) Engagement Operations Center (EOC), and provide weapon guidance support for the family of PATRIOT Advanced Capability (PAC)-3 interceptors. Results from the Sense-Off, digital simulation performance, and the evaluation of the FY19 ROTI proposal will culminate in a DOTC OTA award to a single vendor who will produce six LTAMDS for qualification and fielding to support an IOC in 4QFY22. This will be followed by a follow-on contract for additional quantities.

Program Strategy


The Government is pursuing an accelerated fielding of mature technology (see attached LTAMDS schedule).



The Government will use the Sense-Off, digital simulation results, and the FY19 ROTI proposal to measure vendor performance and assess LTAMDS capability growth potential. A vendor's sensor solution must be a mature design to support fielding LTAMDS in 4QFY22. The Government will award a Firm Fixed Price (FFP) DOTC OTA to the vendor who can demonstrate holistic system level performance closest to the prioritized and weighted P-Spec threshold requirements, while also granting additional consideration to those vendors whose system potentially meets or exceeds threshold performance values. There will be a subsequent fixed price production contract or OTA for the production and fielding phase. It is anticipated this follow-on contract will be for an additional 16 systems.



Following the Sense-Off, the winning vendor will deliver 6 Production Representative Units (PRUs) via the FFP DOTC OTA for Developmental Testing/Operational Testing (DT/OT) and rapid fielding. The winning vendor will deliver three PRUs by 3QFY21, and three additional PRUs by 1QFY22. The six PRUs will be a mature design and establish the product baseline that supports follow-on production and fielding. The Government will refurbish 4 of the initial 6 PRUs to support a UMR IOC fielding in 4QFY22.

B.   Industry Day (14-15 November 2018)


Vendors will provide the Government a presentation (up to 60 minutes) demonstrating their ability to participate in the Sense-Off. The Government will use this presentation to determine a vendor's eligibility to participate in the Sense-Off. These will be closed one-on-one sessions, where the vendor describes how they will meet the following to participate in the Sense-Off: 1) How you will meet size, weight, and power (SWaP) constraints (described below); 2) How you will demonstrate required LTAMDS design maturity to rapidly fabricate PRUs at OTA award; 3) Inform the Government on Sense-Off and accelerated LTAMDS fielding readiness; 4) Establish a "need to know" to receive the LTAMDS P-Spec; and 5) Evidence of ability to meet minimum range safety and operational approvals. A maximum of five participants per company will be allowed to attend Industry Day.



Vendor presentations will include the aforementioned mandatory items and include the following at a minimum:



1.   Describe how the proposed LTAMDS multi-function radar solution provides search, track, classification, discrimination, identification, and weapon guidance support for the family of PAC-3 interceptors contained in a single sensor platform.

2.   Describe how the proposed solution interoperates with the IBCS EOC (via Plug and Fight Kit AB-interface) architecture.

3.   Describe how the proposed solution meets transportability and mobility requirements per MIL-STD-1366E on a single truck or trailer pulled by a HEMTT class prime mover.

4.   Describe how the proposed LTAMDS solution meets power and cooling requirements to support up to 400 KW of prime power.

5.   Describe how the proposed solution will operate using commercial generator power (minimum 400KW) and interim tactical power of 150KW maximum (via current PATRIOT EPP).

6.   Describe how the proposed solution provides capability against Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) and non-TBM Air and Missile Defense threats.

7.   Describe the proposed solution's functionality/performance against the threat across the battle space.

8.   Describe how the design incorporates Modular Open Systems Architecture (MOSA) requirements in accordance with DoD Policy and Guidance.

9.   Describe capability growth of the design architecture.

10.   Describe program approach for participation in the LTAMDS Sense-Off.

11.   Describe how the proposed solution addresses PAC-3 Missile Flight Alignment.

12.   Describe digital simulation and target injection capabilities.

13.   Describe P-Spec compliance crosswalk. (Vendors not participants in the previous CD Phase are exempt from providing a P-Spec crosswalk as part of Sense-Off entrance criteria).

14.   Describe ability to meet minimum approvals for range Operational (e.g. radio frequency authorization, security classification guidance, test plans/procedures, test support requirements), Safety (e.g. hazard analysis, safety analysis report, hazard classifications, hazardous materials, standard operating procedures) and Environmental (e.g. input to environmental review).

Anticipated Sense-Off Demonstration


1.   Vendor will demonstrate radar emplacement and displacement process with alignment accuracy.

2.   The Sense-Off occurs May-June 2019, with each vendor provided two weeks of range time.

3.   The Government is responsible for the WSMR and live target related costs of conducting the Sense-Off.

4.   The vendors are responsible for specific costs for participation including, but not limited to, transport, set-up, calibration, target emulators, sustainment, data collection and transfer and system operation.

5.   The Government will assess operational viability via Soldier touch-point opportunities.

6.   The Government will provide the following Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) and Government Furnished Information (GFI) at the Sense-Off to demonstrate operation with various prime power sources: commercial generator power, PATRIOT EPP, and related interface documentation.

7.   The vendors are required to operate, and provide their own integration/interoperability solutions using government furnished commercial generator power (minimum 400KW) and interim tactical power of 150KW maximum (via current PATRIOT EPP).

8.   The vendors will provide a target injection unit to facilitate testing of their system. The Government will provide the A/B Interface Test Tool (ABITT) as GFE to demonstrate operation with AIAMD equipment (to support integration and tests).

9.   The Government will provide the following GFI to demonstrate operation with AIAMD equipment: Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Plug and Fight (P&F) B-Kit to A-Kit Interface Control Document (ICD) and prime power interface documentation (to support integration and tests).

10.   For the Sense-Off demonstration, the Government will provide non-TBM and TBM type live targets, Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) jammer, pole jammer and PAC-3 MSE Radio Support Unit (RSU) Test Set.

11.   The vendors will provide all necessary Risk Mitigating Framework (RMF)/Information Assurance (IA) credentials so that approvals are granted (i.e. Interim Authority To Operate (IATO, a test specific ATO), etc.) to connect to WSMR networks. The vendor will satisfy all network connection requirements prior to setup at WSMR.

12.   The vendor will support all range requirements to ensure the system can be emplaced (safety, environmental, etc.) as well as authorization to radiate/operate.

13.   The vendor will conduct a Test Readiness Review (TRR) at WSMR prior to the Sense-Off demonstration.

Anticipated Sense-Off Evaluation


The Government will evaluate vendor performance against current P-Spec requirements at the Sense-Off, which will be used as part of the Government's evaluation and selection decision under the FY19 ROTI. Both live target testing and digital simulation/target injection will be required to meet these objectives. The Government will provide Sense-Off participants the Draft Sense-Off Evaluation Criteria no later than 14 December 2018. The performance specifications of the evaluation criteria will not change and will be included, for formal response, to all Sense-Off participants no later than 15 March 2019 in the 20-01 ROTI under the applicable technology sub-objective. All Sense-Off participants will receive their demonstration data. The Government will conduct an evaluation to determine which solution performed best against the LTAMDS P-Spec.



1.   Power options anticipated to be available are commercial generator power (minimum 400KW) and interim tactical power of 150KW maximum (via current PATRIOT EPP).

2.   Radar performance assessments will be prioritized against: commercial generator power and PATRIOT EPP.

3.   Radar can demonstrate connectivity and interoperability with AIAMD ABITT.

4.   Radar can demonstrate various capabilities via special measurements:

  a.   Clutter Attenuation

  b.   Jammer noise cancellation in antenna sidelobes

  c.   PAC-3 missile datalink transmit/receive

5.   Radar can demonstrate the Search/Acquisition functions (under autonomous and cued search) against live and emulated TBM and non-TBM targets across the battle space:

  a.   Demonstrate search volume or cued search functionality

  b.   Demonstrate detection range

  c.   Demonstrate firm track range

6.   Radar can demonstrate the tracking function of live targets across the battle space:

  a.   Show ability to track ballistic targets

  b.   Show ability to track non-maneuvering and maneuvering targets

  c.   Demonstrate range & angle measurement accuracy

7.   Radar can demonstrate acquisition and track capability of non-TBM in clutter.

8.   Radar can demonstrate acquisition and track capability of TBM and non-TBM in Electronic Attack.

https://www.fbo.gov/index?s=opportunity&mode=form&id=24b7712dae3dc64fd43f85717d13a010&tab=core&_cview=0
« Last Edit: October 30, 2018, 01:41:17 am by bring_it_on »
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Offline bring_it_on

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #500 on: November 04, 2018, 06:25:19 am »
Army sets 2022 LTAMDS fielding date, plans radar competition for next year


Quote
The Army is accelerating fielding of the Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor by five years and planning a radar competition next year at White Sands Missile Range, NM, as part of a new acquisition strategy for the Patriot radar modernization project.

Last week, the Army published a special notice announcing the LTAMDS "sense-off" between May and June, an event that will allow Raytheon and Lockheed Martin to demonstrate their proposed solutions in New Mexico.

"It is the Army's intent to use the sense-off as part of the evaluation to select a single vendor to build and deliver LTAMDS to the Army, supporting achievement of an initial operational capability," according to the notice.

In December 2017, the Army approved an LTAMDS acquisition strategy that pegged initial operational capability in 2027. That date did not sit well with Congress which in the Fiscal Year 2019 Defense Authorization Act moved to penalize the LTAMDS program if the initial fielding date remains later than Dec. 31, 2023.

The Army's new plan pulls the initial fielding day to between July and September of 2022, according to the notice.

In September, the Army tapped Raytheon and Lockheed Martin to advance work on their respective LTAMDS proposals, according to company representatives. The selections were made using other transaction agreements, and the Army has not announced the value of the contracts for the next phase of the program.

Both companies are proceeding into the technology maturation and risk reduction phase of the program, which requires multiple demonstrations as the Army continues to refine its requirement for the Patriot radar replacement.

At press time (Nov. 2), the Army did not respond to a question about whether the updated acquisition strategy opens the sense-off competition to additional vendors.

"The government will provide industry the opportunity to demonstrate engineering and manufacturing development (EMD)-like LTAMDS systems at White Sands Missile Range, NM, in 3QFY19," the notice states. "The demonstration event . . . is a critical element of the acquisition strategy to procure and field LTAMDS."

Among the items the Army will provide for the sense-off are non-tactical ballistic missile targets and tactical ballistic missile type targets and a Digital Radio Frequency Memory jammer, according to the notice.

Companies will be required to ensure their LTAMDS offerings can interoperate with the Integrated Air and Missile Defense Battle Command System Engagement Operations Center, and provide weapon guidance support for the family of Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC)-3 interceptors, according to the notice.

The results from radar competition early next year will be weighed along with digital simulation performance and written proposals and culminate in a single OTA award to a contractor who will then produce six LTAMDS for qualification and fielding.

"This will be followed by a follow-on contract for additional quantities," the notice states.

The new schedule calls for the winning vendor to deliver three production representative radars by the third quarter of FY-21 and another three by the first quarter of FY-22.

The Army then plans to refurbish four of these six radars for initial fielding in 2022, according to the notice.

The Army plans an industry day for the sense-off event Nov. 14-15, according to the notice. -- Jason Sherman
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Offline Mark S.

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #501 on: November 04, 2018, 09:46:29 am »
This article speculates that it may not be a 360 deg. sensor:

https://www.defensenews.com/land/2018/10/31/armys-missile-defense-radar-sense-off-attempts-to-hit-reset-button/

If it won't be what will?

Offline bring_it_on

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #502 on: November 04, 2018, 12:24:28 pm »
I think you will have to wait till next year to find out. OEMs have plans for both a sectored and 360 degree sensor from what I gather so in the end it will come down to what capability the Army needs, and what it decides to prioritize (coverage over range for example, or rotator vs staring sensor etc.) and what it expects to pay (and time-frame) for around 100 radars that it will likely need (although they have identified 20 odd for the current LTAMDS need till 2027).
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Offline Mark S.

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #503 on: November 04, 2018, 01:18:03 pm »
What I like is that they may fund two radars based on the results of the demonstrations next year.  We could if costs allow we may end up with a hybrid system of starring arrays and a rotator.

Offline bring_it_on

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #504 on: November 04, 2018, 01:56:52 pm »
With the twists and turns that we have had, you can't really rule anything out. We should know more when we get to see what the US Army has included in its FY20 budget materials next year. Currently we have some idea on what Raytheon is planning to offer and it appears that it is a staring radar with 360 degree coverage. Lockheed has so far only shared its Dual aperture antenna proposal and hasn't really shared anything in terms of how it will configure its proposal which it should be fabricating under the TMRR award. My understanding is that the sense off is open to all competitors while the TMRR is only for Raytheon and Lockheed. Maybe the sense off is for them to craft requirements for early fielding but that is just my guess.
« Last Edit: November 04, 2018, 02:04:39 pm by bring_it_on »
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Offline Moose

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #505 on: November 04, 2018, 07:58:04 pm »
Looks like they're still wrestling with what they want NOW versus what they want over the long term. A plan which embraces an interim radar in the near term could, and likely would, give on 360 in order to field something off-the-shelf in a workable timeframe.

Offline bring_it_on

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #506 on: November 04, 2018, 08:26:13 pm »
What workable time frame are we talking about here? 8 years, 10 years , 15 years? DARPA and the OEMs have invested a significant amount of money to mature their Gallium Nitride capabilities and capacity to support high performance radars. This is not something that the Army is stuck with in terms of getting the industrial base ready. Even the protracted 3DELRR program expects to begin LRIP by FY21, and FRP by late FY22. The LRDR, Space Fence and AMDR would have been fielded by then as well and the G/ATOR program would be working through its increments and enhancing capability through upgrades. The MDA and export customers too would have received the GaN TPY-2 radars. At some point, the blame for the schedule has to go to the Army. At this pace, we won't get around to actually upgrading the launchers and adding missiles until the 2030s. I wouldn't be surprised, if this ambiguity continues, if the Congress decides to simply put the LTAMDS in the MDA's lap.
« Last Edit: November 05, 2018, 03:28:14 am by bring_it_on »
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Offline bring_it_on

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #507 on: November 06, 2018, 03:57:46 am »
US Army solicitation suggests new path forward for LTAMDS acquisition



Quote
Several weeks after awarding Lockheed Martin and Raytheon contracts to continue developing the Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor (LTAMDS) system, the US Army appears to have changed course and is re-opening the competition.

On 29 October the army issued a solicitation seeking to conduct a ‘sense-off’ as part of the evaluation to select a single vendor to build and deliver LTAMDS.

An industry day is scheduled for 14–15 November and will be used by the army to determine a vendor’s eligibility to participate in the ‘sense-off’.

Earlier in October, Lockheed Martin and Raytheon announced they had received contracts for the Technology Maturation and Risk Reduction (TMRR) phase of the programme. During TMRR, the two companies were to demonstrate LTAMDS performance through multiple technology demonstrations. The TMRR was scheduled to end in the fourth quarter of fiscal year 2020 (FY 2020) and would coincide with Milestone B. However, it appears the army is changing course.

The army did not provide a comment for this article.

The solicitation, however, appears to have caught Lockheed Martin and Raytheon by surprise.

“We are currently evaluating the army’s recent announcement on the LTAMDS programme. We look forward to our continued involvement in the programme and providing a robust sensor solution to support the army’s evolving needs,” a Lockheed Martin spokesperson said.

“Raytheon is in the process of reviewing the FBO [Federal Business Opportunities] solicitation and looks forward to participating in the process that will rapidly offer the army a brand new, full 360° radar that meets the warfighter's requirement for Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense,” Raytheon said in a statement.

The new solicitation could enable Northrop Grumman and Technovative Applications – the two teams the army did not select – as well as radar companies that did not participate in the original LTAMDS competition, an opportunity to develop the system.

Under terms of the solicitation, the army will “provide industry the opportunity to demonstrate engineering and manufacturing evelopment [EMD] like LTAMDS systems at White Sands Missile Range [WSMR], New Mexico”, during May to June 2019, the solicitation said.

Each company will get two weeks of range time during the ‘sense-off’. The army will provide non-Tactical Ballistic Missile (TBM) and TBM-type live targets, Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) jammer, pole jammer, and Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) Missile Segment Enhancement (MSE) Radio Support Unit (RSU) Test Sets.

The ‘sense-off’, is a critical element of the acquisition strategy to procure and field LTAMDS, the solicitation said.

A key objective of the LTAMDS acquisition programme is to upgrade or replace the current Raytheon Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target (Patriot) radars fielded by the army. LTAMDS will interoperate with Northrop Grumman’s Integrated Air and Missile Defense (IAMD) Battle Command System (IBCS) Engagement Operations Center (EOC) and provide weapon guidance support for the family of PAC-3 interceptors.

Results from the ‘sense-off’ and the evaluation of the FY 2019 Request for Ordnance Technology Initiatives proposal will culminate in a Defense Ordnance Technology Consortium Other Transaction Agreement award to a single vendor who will produce six LTAMDS for qualification and fielding to support an initial operational capability in the fourth quarter of FY 2022. This will be followed by a follow-on contract for additional quantities, the solicitation said.

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Offline bring_it_on

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Re: Patriot SAM replacement
« Reply #508 on: November 08, 2018, 04:02:03 am »
Army scraps 360-degree detection LTAMDS requirement, opens competition to all


Quote
The Army's newly announced radar "sense-off" in New Mexico will be open to all interested vendors, marking a significant change of plans that effectively opens up a second competitive track in tandem with the Lower Tier Air and Missile Defense Sensor program of record while jettisoning the requirement for 360-degree detection, according to service officials.

On Nov. 7, Army spokeswoman Lisa Hunter said the planned radar competition next year at White Sands Missile Range, NM, will not be limited to Lockheed Martin and Raytheon, which last month were selected by the Army to proceed into the technology maturation and risk-reduction phase of development.

This comes after Brig. Gen. Randall McIntire, Air and Missile Defense Cross Functional Team director, told reporters last month that the Army was fundamentally rethinking the need for a sensor with the ability to detect in all directions.

"360 degrees is not a threshold requirement, it is not a threshold requirement," McIntire told reporters Oct. 10 at the Association of the U.S. Army annual conference. "Increased battle space is of interest to us. What is important? Range and accuracy," the Army one-star general said.

McIntire's comments during meetings with reporters at the AUSA convention last month take on new significance in light of the Army's Oct. 29 notice announcing the LTAMDS "sense-off" which omits any mention of 360-degree detection.

"We've got a really impressive missile: Patriot MSE," the one star general said, referring to the Army's Patriot Missile Segment Enhancement. The Army needs a radar system that can match the "significant capability" of the new interceptor, McIntire said.

The new Patriot interceptor "presses the envelope in terms of what our present-day radars can do for us, so getting a radar that we can get max[imum] benefit out of our newer missiles" is one objective of the LTAMDS, he said.

"We can do defense designs with all of our sensors to create a 360-degree effect; we don't have to get it out of one sensor," McIntire said.

Last month, the Army tapped Raytheon and Lockheed Martin to advance work on their respective LTAMDS proposals, according to company representatives. The selections were made using other transaction agreements (OTA) through a competitive process within the Defense Department's Ordnance Technology Consortium (DOTC). Northrop Grumman and Technovative Applications were both dropped from this part of the LTAMDS competition.

However, since the Army on Oct. 29 announced plans for a new LTAMDS "sense-off," these companies and others, including foreign defense contractors such as Saab or Thales that might team with a U.S. company, have a chance to compete.

The Fiscal Year 2018 National Defense Authorization Act required the Army secretary to deliver an LTAMDS acquisition strategy report to Congress mandating "an acquisition strategy for a 360-degree lower-tier air and missile defense sensor" that address operational requirements and plans to achieve initial operational capability by 2023.

The Army delivered a report, dated September 2018 and marked "for official use only," in response to that directive, according to service spokesman Lt. Col. Jason Brown.

"The Army provides wide technical flexibility via a single top-level LTAMDS Performance Specification based on approved operational requirements," according to an executive summary of the report. "The Army established a competitive environment in the material solutions analysis development phase to improve acquisition outcomes for cost, schedule, performance, and risk management."

"An innovative DOTC OTA contract approach, in conjunction with a competitive radar 'Sense-Off,' captures all trade-off advantages to determine the LTAMDS best-value materiel solution," the report summary states. "All logistics test, systems engineering, and contracting functions are unchanged from the original program plan.  Each functional area is adapting minimally to execute a rapid prototyping and rapid acquisition approach."
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