Secret Projects > Early Aircraft Projects

Mozharovski MV Kombain (Shturmovik) aircraft

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the Mozharovski Mk Kombain was a single-seat armoured attacker
aircraft of 1940,it was powered by one AM-38 engine,driving pusher
propeller at rear of central nacelle,it had low-wing,twin tail boom
and tricycle landing gear,but it was never built.

from m-n's :"AviO" , "Airplanes of the world"


 Thank you my dear Borovik very much.

The project is designed for parity, together with Ivan Venevidov.
Since Mozharovskii Venevidov and had no experience in creating aircraft, then presented their preliminary design was brought to the final stage of A. Archangelsky.

In essence, the project "MV Kombain" was the prehistory of postwar contest for "Armoured attack aircraft with controlled cannon armament"   see please,9238.0/all.html

--- Quote ---   George Mozharovskii and Ivan Venevidov designers aircraft armament. Their specialty was weapons on planes: all kinds of turrets, reloading, sights, suspension, and dropping bombs, etc. G.M. Mozharovskii done this with 1929, after V.V.I.A, had dozens of patents. I.V. Venevidov older age, came to adopt later, and before that was engaged in equipped aircraft. They worked together, and products with brand M.V. belong to them.

In late 1940, they proposed a draft, attack aircraft, single-set, twin-boom pusher schemes, with the single-engine M-88 (or close to it)/AM-38/. The cabin came forward, could be armored. At the base of the tail beams were gun barrels speakers front of the wing. Behind them were small compartments for the smallest fission bomb. Next came mounting the landing gear wheels, retractable by turning back to the same beam. Nose wheel was removed back under the cockpit. The radiator was located under the wing, was for the fan airflow to the engine under the hood.

Small arms anticipated very powerful: two or four guns and as many guns SHKAS in the nose in front cabin. In short, this preliminary project much has been provided, but many people do not take into account (for example, leaving the aircraft in the air), its scheme in three projections were only approximate, with no precise alignment is not final. It provided space and people, was built a model airplane, equipped with all devices. Incidentally, the machine guns in front cabin were movable and could rotate in the vertical plane by tens of degrees (This idea was realized V. Jordan back in 1916, a machine gun mounts on the aircraft Nieuport XI). Demonstration of this prototype representatives N.I.I. V.V.S.  took place in late March and April 1, 1941

--- End quote ---
V.B. Shavrov. "History of aircraft construction in the USSR 1938-1950"

As borovik said - Mozharovsky/Venevidov, not only Mozharovsky. Georgy Mozharovsky and Ivan Venevidov were two renowned weapon specialists, known for "MV" series of aircraft turrets. In late 1940, they invented an original gun mounting for attack aircraft which allowed to fire on ground targets from horizontal flight and simplified the pilot's work very much. Two 20-mm ShVAK cannons and four ShKAS machine guns could pivot downside on angle 30 deg max, and the mounting had some kind of follow-up mechanism to compensate changing angle of sight. The cannons pivoted electrically, and were connected with the sight mechanically. The pivoting speed was variable, in relation to aircraft speed and altitude. The weapon could also be fixed in every intermediate position. The system allowed to supress the target with fire and perform bombing strike during one run-in. Therefore the system was called "combine" - "Kombajn".

But the problem was that this mounting (named KABB-MV - "Combined artillery/bombing battery by Mozharovsky & Venevidov") didn't suit very well for any aircraft already existing. So, the weapon designers decided to create an aircraft they need... by themselves! The correct name of their project was BSh-MV: BSh for Bronirovannyi Shturmovik (armoured attack) and MV for the designers. Also they called it MV-4 - this index was "in line" with their other designs which weren't aircraft, only turrets.

In December 1940 they built the mockup of KABB and represented it to Aircraft Industry Minister A. Shakhurin. He quickly assessed its capabilities and became an enthusiastic supporter of it, as well as his vice-minister - renowned aircraft designer Alexander Yakovlev. At December 29, 1940 the BSh-MV preliminary design was presented to NII VVS (Air Force Scientific & Research Institute); in March 1941 the full-scale mockup was built and represented to the experts. But the designers' lack of experience in aircraft construction was clear: the gun battery was the most "elaborated" part of the project, all the rest was vaguely - the center-of-gravity position wasn't determined, the whole aircraft layout was only approximate. The mockup even lacked engine assembly and a propeller. Also the question of pilot rescue wasn't solved. Because of this, the team was supplemented with experienced aircraft designers and the general management was assigned to renowned designer Alexander Arkhangelsky. At March 25, 1941 the Government (SNK SSSR) and Communist Party Central Commitee came with Decree No. 687-296; it required to build two BSh-MV prototypes, to deliver the first one to factory tests at September 1, 1941 and the second one at November 1; for the official tests - at October 15 and December 1, 1941 accordingly.
The aircraft obtained official designation - MoV-2 (Shakhurin himself wrote this index in the Air Ministry order instead of "MV-4"). Only at June 23 the deputy chief of GU VVS approved the conclusion on the BSh-MV AM-38 mockup; it was the second day of the Great Patriotic War. The construction of MoV-2 prototype already started at Zavod No.89, but the war events made impossible to finish it.

Borovik already posted the drawings, so I add only the comparison sketch of how Il-2 and BSh-MV could perform an attack on the same target (in this case, a tank). While Il-2 attacks from diving flight, BSh-MV (MoV-2) can do it from horizontal flight. It has more time for the aiming fire during an attack (T2 instead of T1), and its minimum fire distance is shorter (D2 instead of D1 - it is limited only by scattering radius of the splinters, while Il-2 ceases fire on D1 distance when it begins to recover from the dive).

1. Perov V.I, Rastrenin O.V. Red Army Shturmoviks. Vol.1. - Moscow, Aviko-Press, 2001. Page 105-111.
2. Medved' A.N., Markovsky V.Ju. The "combine" Shturmovik by Mozharovsky & Venevidov // AviO - Aviation review, Issue No.4 (1995), pages 2-6.


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