Mozharovski MV Kombain (Shturmovik) aircraft

hesham

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Hi,

the Mozharovski Mk Kombain was a single-seat armoured attacker
aircraft of 1940,it was powered by one AM-38 engine,driving pusher
propeller at rear of central nacelle,it had low-wing,twin tail boom
and tricycle landing gear,but it was never built.
 

hesham

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Thank you my dear Borovik very much.
 

borovik

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The project is designed for parity, together with Ivan Venevidov.
Since Mozharovskii Venevidov and had no experience in creating aircraft, then presented their preliminary design was brought to the final stage of A. Archangelsky.

In essence, the project "MV Kombain" was the prehistory of postwar contest for "Armoured attack aircraft with controlled cannon armament" see please
http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,9238.0/all.html

George Mozharovskii and Ivan Venevidov designers aircraft armament. Their specialty was weapons on planes: all kinds of turrets, reloading, sights, suspension, and dropping bombs, etc. G.M. Mozharovskii done this with 1929, after V.V.I.A, had dozens of patents. I.V. Venevidov older age, came to adopt later, and before that was engaged in equipped aircraft. They worked together, and products with brand “M.V.” belong to them.

In late 1940, they proposed a draft, attack aircraft, single-set, twin-boom pusher schemes, with the single-engine M-88 (or close to it)/AM-38/. The cabin came forward, could be armored. At the base of the tail beams were gun barrels speakers front of the wing. Behind them were small compartments for the smallest fission bomb. Next came mounting the landing gear wheels, retractable by turning back to the same beam. Nose wheel was removed back under the cockpit. The radiator was located under the wing, was for the fan airflow to the engine under the hood.

Small arms anticipated very powerful: two or four guns and as many guns SHKAS in the nose in front cabin. In short, this preliminary project much has been provided, but many people do not take into account (for example, leaving the aircraft in the air), its scheme in three projections were only approximate, with no precise alignment is not final. It provided space and people, was built a model airplane, equipped with all devices. Incidentally, the machine guns in front cabin were movable and could rotate in the vertical plane by tens of degrees (This idea was realized V. Jordan back in 1916, a machine gun mounts on the aircraft Nieuport XI). Demonstration of this prototype representatives N.I.I. V.V.S. took place in late March and April 1, 1941
V.B. Shavrov. "History of aircraft construction in the USSR 1938-1950"
 

redstar72

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As borovik said - Mozharovsky/Venevidov, not only Mozharovsky. Georgy Mozharovsky and Ivan Venevidov were two renowned weapon specialists, known for "MV" series of aircraft turrets. In late 1940, they invented an original gun mounting for attack aircraft which allowed to fire on ground targets from horizontal flight and simplified the pilot's work very much. Two 20-mm ShVAK cannons and four ShKAS machine guns could pivot downside on angle 30 deg max, and the mounting had some kind of follow-up mechanism to compensate changing angle of sight. The cannons pivoted electrically, and were connected with the sight mechanically. The pivoting speed was variable, in relation to aircraft speed and altitude. The weapon could also be fixed in every intermediate position. The system allowed to supress the target with fire and perform bombing strike during one run-in. Therefore the system was called "combine" - "Kombajn".

But the problem was that this mounting (named KABB-MV - "Combined artillery/bombing battery by Mozharovsky & Venevidov") didn't suit very well for any aircraft already existing. So, the weapon designers decided to create an aircraft they need... by themselves! The correct name of their project was BSh-MV: BSh for Bronirovannyi Shturmovik (armoured attack) and MV for the designers. Also they called it MV-4 - this index was "in line" with their other designs which weren't aircraft, only turrets.

In December 1940 they built the mockup of KABB and represented it to Aircraft Industry Minister A. Shakhurin. He quickly assessed its capabilities and became an enthusiastic supporter of it, as well as his vice-minister - renowned aircraft designer Alexander Yakovlev. At December 29, 1940 the BSh-MV preliminary design was presented to NII VVS (Air Force Scientific & Research Institute); in March 1941 the full-scale mockup was built and represented to the experts. But the designers' lack of experience in aircraft construction was clear: the gun battery was the most "elaborated" part of the project, all the rest was vaguely - the center-of-gravity position wasn't determined, the whole aircraft layout was only approximate. The mockup even lacked engine assembly and a propeller. Also the question of pilot rescue wasn't solved. Because of this, the team was supplemented with experienced aircraft designers and the general management was assigned to renowned designer Alexander Arkhangelsky. At March 25, 1941 the Government (SNK SSSR) and Communist Party Central Commitee came with Decree No. 687-296; it required to build two BSh-MV prototypes, to deliver the first one to factory tests at September 1, 1941 and the second one at November 1; for the official tests - at October 15 and December 1, 1941 accordingly.
The aircraft obtained official designation - MoV-2 (Shakhurin himself wrote this index in the Air Ministry order instead of "MV-4"). Only at June 23 the deputy chief of GU VVS approved the conclusion on the BSh-MV AM-38 mockup; it was the second day of the Great Patriotic War. The construction of MoV-2 prototype already started at Zavod No.89, but the war events made impossible to finish it.

Borovik already posted the drawings, so I add only the comparison sketch of how Il-2 and BSh-MV could perform an attack on the same target (in this case, a tank). While Il-2 attacks from diving flight, BSh-MV (MoV-2) can do it from horizontal flight. It has more time for the aiming fire during an attack (T2 instead of T1), and its minimum fire distance is shorter (D2 instead of D1 - it is limited only by scattering radius of the splinters, while Il-2 ceases fire on D1 distance when it begins to recover from the dive).

Sources:
1. Perov V.I, Rastrenin O.V. Red Army Shturmoviks. Vol.1. - Moscow, Aviko-Press, 2001. Page 105-111.
2. Medved' A.N., Markovsky V.Ju. The "combine" Shturmovik by Mozharovsky & Venevidov // AviO - Aviation review, Issue No.4 (1995), pages 2-6.
 

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Avimimus

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So this was the same system as tested on the Yak-4 KABB? Was the same system used on the Tu-2Sh or was it manually operated by a gunner?

Thanks,
 

borovik

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Tu-2Sh (version 1944) A. Nadashkevich - install 88 machines PPSh at an angle of about 45 degrees.
Tu-2Sh (version 1944) the second, with the installation of 75mm cannon for use against trains.
Tu-2Sh (version 1946), in the nose installed 2 x 45mm (NS-45) and 2 x 37mm (NS-37) plus kept two cannons ShVAK and one UBT in the upper back of the installation.
Tu-2Sh (version 1946), OKB-16 - with a 57mm anti-tank cannon RShR
 

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redstar72

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Avimimus said:
So this was the same system as tested on the Yak-4 KABB? Was the same system used on the Tu-2Sh or was it manually operated by a gunner?
Yes, it was the same KABB: the Yak bomber (it was actually Yak-2, the earlier version with M-103 engines, not the later Yak-4) was used as a testbed for it. The system wasn't manually operated by gunner, and it couldn't because there was no gunner: both the BSh-MV and Yak-2 testbed were single-seat (in case of the Yak, the former gunner's position was occupied by ammunition boxes). As I wrote before, the weapon in KABB moved electrically. The traction mechanism consisted of electric motor (350 W), two worm reduction gears and a system of pull-rods. The angular rate of weapon pivoting was depended on aircraft speed and flight altitude, which were pre-assigned by the pilot before attack using special toggles on the KABB control panel. The K-8T gunsight was mounted on arc joined with weapon's movable frame; so the aiming point moved in step with cannons pivoting, and the pilot could correct the fire.

Borovik already posted the drawing of BSh-MV armament, but I repost it with descriptive data translated into English.
Also here are some pictures regarding Yak-2 KABB testbed. On the cockpit photo, the digits are:
1 - ESBR-3PA electric bomb releaser;
2 - KABB electric motor start button;
3 - scale of weapon pivoting angles;
4 - angle indicator arrow;
5 - KT-8 gunsight;
6 - cannons reloading thumb buttons;
7 - machine guns reloading thumb buttons;
8 - safety lock button;
9 - machine guns launching;
10 - cannons launching;
11 - gunsight pivoting frame.

Regarding Tu-2Sh: did you mean "Fire hedgehog", that terrible system with 88 PPSh submachine guns mounted in the bomb bay? No, these guns were fixed and neither Mozharovsky nor Venevidov weren't involved in that concept. Its author was A.V. Nadashkevich, Tupolev's chief of weapon brigade.
 

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Avimimus

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I've always found the Soviet emphasis on depressible armaments fascinating - from the earliest experiments to the modern SPPU series of mobile gunpods.

I know that there also existed depressible systems on the I-16 TsKB-18 and the much more modern Il-20 and Mig-17 SN. Wasn't the smoothbore 45mm proposed for the Su-25 also intended to have been depressible? I'm very curious if there were other aircraft equipped with depressable cannons (either as prototypes or paper proposals).

I assume the earlier I-16 TsKB-18 would have used a manually operated system (ie. non-automatic)?

Thanks for the info.
 

borovik

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I-16Sр (TsKB-18): / 1934-35 / - experienced attack aircraft. Notable for the increased wing span of 10 m, armored cockpit, 4 wing guns SHKAS, or PB-1, bombs, up to 100 kg., Is not produced commercially.

I-16Sh Type 9 (ser. # 9211): / 1936-37 / - experienced attack aircraft. Work was carried out at the plant № 21 under the leadership of Borovkov and J. Florov.
(Some sources erroneously listed as type 5 or 11)
With diverging in a vertical plane down at 9 degrees of flexing of six guns ShKAS / housed in two groups of three machine guns in the joint with a detachable part of the console Wing / (according to VB Shavrov. They could deviate by 20 degrees). Bombs up to 150 kg. Serially not produced.
There was no evidence of manual or automatic control system is unknown.
- I-16Sh Type 9 (ser. # 9211)
- I-16Sh Type 9 (ser. # 9211) equipped with swinging triple ShKAS machine gun mount.
from M.Maslov "Fighter I-16"
 

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redstar72

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Some more info. As borovik said, the I-16 with movable guns wasn’t TsKB-18.

Actual TsKB-18 was built in 1935, and was based on I-16 type 4. So, it was powered by M-22 (license Bristol Jupiter) engine. Compared to type 4, TsKB-18 had longer wings (10 m wingspan, instead of 9 m typical for all I-16s) and was armed with four ShKAS or PV-1 machine guns (I-16 type 4 had only two). All four were wing-mounted (unlike the type 10 and later I-16 versions also armed with 4 guns), but they were NOT movable. Also TsKB-18 had some armor protection of the pilot; the bomb weapon was also provided for it. It was tested in July 1935 but was recognized as non-perspective because of old, low-power engine.

And now about the aircraft you asked – the attack I-16 with movable machine guns. Its actual name was I-16 type 9 or Aircraft No. 9211, and it was designed and built at Zavod No.21 (Gorky city, today’s Nizhniy Novgorod) by eng. Alexei Borovkov – future author of I-207 biplane fighter and amazing twin-boom “D” fighter project. The type 9 was first flown at December 27, 1937. It actually had a battery of 6 ShKAS machine guns which could turn downside on angle to 9 deg. As far as I know, the movement was operated by pilot, i.e. not automatic (and, AFAIK, the KABB by Mozharovsky/Venevidov was the first Soviet design of automatic movable gun mounting). Another distinctive feature of I-16 type 9 was fixed landing gear with trousers-like fairings. Thanks to these fairings, the aircraft’s directional stability increased – it was a pleasant surprise for the pilots. The place usually occupied by the wheel bays was now used for bomb crutches – now the aircraft could carry six 25-kg bombs. The type 9 also didn’t come into production, maybe because of Borovkov’s transfer to former Dirizhablestroy which now became Zavod No.207.
 

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Avimimus

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Thanks guys - for the information and for setting me straight ;)

As always, it is very much appreciated.
 

visvirtusvoluntas

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Hi all.
I resume this topic because, according to my data, I found a mismatch. Aleksey Andreyevich Borovkov designed with Ilya Florentevich Florov the diminutive I-207 biplane fighter in 1935. Built in Gorky as Samolet 7211 (Type 7, Plant 21, Aircraft 1) in 1937, it flew on May 6. In summer 1938 both designers were transferred at Zavod No. 207, so I argue the designation I-207 was applied later.
 

blackkite

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Hi! Arkhangelskiy BSh/M-V.

http://ourairports.biz/?p=6422

"The idea was that of Mozharovskiy-Venevi – dov, who called their project the Kombain (combine) because of its versatility. They were long-time specialists in aircraft arma­ment, among other things being responsible for all the early gun turrets in the Soviet Union. Arkhangelskiy increased their political power and got them a separate design office and factory for what became called the BSh (ar­moured assaulter, the same designation as the Ilyushin Stormovik) and also KABV (com­bined artillery-bomber weapon). The eskiz – nyi proekt (sketch project) was submitted on 29th December 1940, long-lead materials were sanctioned on 25th January 1941 and the project was confirmed at the NIl-WS by AIFilin on 12th March 1941. Despite being (on paper) superior, it was terminated in the evacuation of the designers from Moscow to Kirov later in 1941, all effort being put into the Ilyushin aircraft (which was built in greater numbers than any other aircraft in history)."

BSh-MV
when the Ilyushin suffered heavy attrition from German fighters a backseater was put in to defend it, and this would have been diffi­cult with the BSh/M-V.
Dimensions : Span, Length, Wing area ; 14m, 11.26m, 27.0m2
Weights : Empty ; 3,689kg Maximum loaded : 5,130kg
performance : Maximum speed ; 532 km/h
Time to climb to 1, 3, 5 km : 4.8,9.7, 19.2 min
Minimum landing speed : 120 km/h

Another information.
http://warfiles.ru/show-119911-shturmoviki-dvuhbalochnoy-shemy-s-tolkayuschim-vintom-bsh-mv-i-sh-218-sssr.html

http://coollib.com/b/114822/read

https://aviaforum.ru/threads/neizvestnye-krylja-pobedy.42078/

Radiator and engine ram air intake are located bottom of the fuselage? She had a large window at the nose.
http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php?action=dlattach;topic=10038.0;attach=103673;image
 

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