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Various Polikarpov projects

iverson

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hesham said:
Hi,


here is two Models to Polikarpov TB-2 bomber in different configurations.


Самолеты Н.Н. Поликарпова_Русавиа 2004

I've attached a drawing of the TB-2 that I found in my files. I don't know the source.
 

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hesham

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Hi,


here is an Info about Polikarpov 1935 project and actually built fighters,the I-17,I-18 & I-20,also
a three I-19 designs.
 

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hesham

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From Авиация и Космонавтика 1998/3,

the Polikarpov TIS variants.
 

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steelpillow

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AAAdrone said:
For the canards I see what might just be a mistake in sketching the aircraft's nose and a last minute correction being added in. For yaw I think there might be some use for those two tiny little rudder-type protrusions on the aft end but they don't look like they're far enough away from the Cg nor are they large enough in area to really do anything for yaw stability or control. It also looks like it was partially erased by the artist hinting that it was a mistake. One other thing that I see is that it has leading edge slats but no trailing edge flaps. IMO this is one heck of an unrefined sketch.

I think it's worth clarifying what I see in this sketch. here it is again:

index.php


The canard surface itself is level in both sketches, the designer refining his ideas as he goes along: first a clean bullet, then a dropped nose for better pilot visibility once he realises how far back the guy is sitting.
The mini "fin" behind the cockpit is surely the engine air intake.
A propeller has significant side area and acts as a fin. In a tractor type this has to be counteracted, making for a large tailfin. In a canard type the fin can be reduced rather than enlarged, so you gain twice. It may not even be needed. In such a case, yaw control is usually through differential drag, a technique successfully employed as long ago as 1910. One typical implementation is to use split elevons.
The leading-edge detail is the main spar line and forward wing fuel tankage - the capacities are even written in.

I would really hate to have stalled this aeroplane. Most likely it would have tried to kill its pilot the way the other canards of this period did. And it would probably not have been as directionally stable as theory suggests - just like the others too.
 

blackkite

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Hi! ITP.

http://www.wunderwafe.ru/Articles/i17/10.jpg
 

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sienar

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VIT-1 and 2

From a Tsagi book
 

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hesham

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The IL-400 variants.
 

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blackkite

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Hi!
Polikarpov SPB (Поликарпов СПБ)
http://aviadejavu.ru/Site/Crafts/Craft21014.htm
https://www.ecured.cu/Polikarpov_SPB
https://www.aviarmor.net/aww2/aircraft/ussr/spb.htm
http://www.airpages.ru/ru/spb.shtml
Wikipedia
"The Polikarpov SPB (D) (Skorostnoy Pikiruyushchy Bombardirovshchik (Dalnost)—High Speed Dive Bomber (Distance)) was a Soviet twin-engined dive bomber designed before World War II. A single prototype and five pre-production aircraft were built, but two crashed and the program was cancelled in favor of the Petlyakov Pe-2.
General characteristics
Crew: 5
Length: 11.2 m (36 ft 9 in)
Wingspan: 17 m (55 ft 9 in)
Wing area: 42.93 m2 (462.1 sq ft)
Empty weight: 4,480 kg (9,877 lb)
Gross weight: 6,850 kg (15,102 lb)
Powerplant: 2 × Klimov M-105 V-12 inline engines, 783 kW (1,050 hp) each
Propellers: 3-bladed
Performance
Maximum speed: 520 km/h (323 mph; 281 kn) at 4,500 metres (14,764 ft)
Range: 2,200 km (1,367 mi; 1,188 nmi)
Service ceiling: 9,000 m (30,000 ft)
Armament
Guns:
1x 12.7 mm Berezin UB machine gun
2x 7.62 mm ShKAS machine guns
Bombs: up to 1,500 kilograms (3,307 lb) (800 internal, 700 external)"
 

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blackkite

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VIT-2.
http://www.airwar.ru/enc/aww2/vit2.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polikarpov_VIT-2

VIT-1.
http://www.airwar.ru/enc/aww2/vit1.html
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polikarpov_VIT-1
"The Polikarpov VIT-1 (Russian: Vozdooshny Istrebitel' Tahnkov— Flying Tank Destroyer) was a Soviet twin-engined multi-purpose aircraft developed before World War II. One prototype was built in 1937, with an extremely heavy armament for ground attack duties. That was the only example built as it was decided to revise the design with more powerful engines as the VIT-2."
 

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blackkite

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At last, I found this borovik-san's super chart.
https://commissarfoxtrot.wordpress.com/2015/06/14/sejarah-program-tender-pesawat-militer-taktis-ivanov-uni-soviet/

Sorry borovik-san already post these chart here.
http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,7086.0/all.html
 

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blackkite

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Hi! Polikarpov NB. (Поликарпов НБ)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polikarpov_NB
"The Polikarpov NB (Nochnoi Bombardirovshchik—Night Bomber) was a Soviet twin-engined bomber designed during World War II. Only a single prototype had been built before the program was terminated upon the death of Nikolai Nikolaevich Polikarpov, the head of the aircraft's design bureau, in 1944."
"General characteristics
Crew: 5
Length: 15.29 m (50 ft 2 in), Wingspan: 21.52 m (70 ft 7 in), Wing area: 58.1 m2 (625 sq ft),
Airfoil: NACA-230
Empty weight: 8,843 kg (19,495 lb), Gross weight: 13,800 kg (30,424 lb), Fuel capacity: 2,760 kg (6,085 lb) (including oil)
Powerplant: 2 × Shvetsov ASh-82FNV 14-cylinder radial engines, 1,379 kW (1,849 hp) each Propellers: 3-bladed
Performance
Maximum speed: 510 km/h (317 mph; 275 kn) at 5,000 m (16,400 m)
Range: 3,030 km (1,883 mi; 1,636 nmi) with 3,000 kg (6,614 lb) of bombs
Service ceiling: 6,150 m (20,180 ft)
Time to altitude: 12 minutes to 5,000 metres (16,404 ft)
Armament
Guns: 3x 12.7 mm Berezin UB machine guns
Bombs: up to 5,000 kilograms (11,023 lb)"

http://www.airpages.ru/draw/nb.gif

http://warfiles.ru/show-85666-bombovozy-polikarpova-nb-i-bb-sssr-1943-44-gg.html
 

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blackkite

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Hi VIT-1.
http://www.xliby.ru/transport_i_aviacija/aviacija_2000_01/p4.php
 

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blackkite

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Hi! VIT-1(ВИТ-1) with M-100 engine and VIT-1 with AM-34 engine?
http://alternathistory.com/oleg-rastrenin-shturmoviki-velikoi-otechestvennoi-voiny-glava-8-vozdushnye-istrebiteli-tankov-nachal

Klimov M-100 engine.
https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/Q15452660

Mikulin AM-34 engine.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikulin_AM-34
 

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blackkite

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Hi! Polikarpov ODB(Поликарпов ОДБ) larger three side view.
https://www.aviarmor.net/aww2/projects/ussr/polikarpov_odb.htm

"Light Day bomber
At the end of 1940, when the development of twin-engine-fighter jets was still in the beginning, Polikarpov decided to develop the project toward its assault. It was simpler to do so that the trips had a reserve for modernization, including the installation of more powerful engines and missile-bomb weapons. The aircraft project, which is capable of operating without fighter cover under day conditions, was named ODB, a one-motor day bomber.
The review of the NCAP was held in early 1941. According to the scheme, the new car resembled the tees, but in a recycled fuselage that became shorter and had a smoother shape, it was performed bomb bay. The cockpit, as it had previously been on the front and had a large glazed area. We also left a large glass cut in the bow. The "raisin" of the structure was the placement of the I-38 in the central part of the fuselage and the rotation to the air screws mounted on the wing. This made it necessary to change the plane's pattern-from other it became a sredneplan. The plume was dvuhkilevoe with a relatively small amount of keeling and driving directions. The chassis Trehstoechnoe with the bow wheel. The main posts and wheels were cleaned into the wing, the tail wheel, in the fuselage.
Such a technical solution, in view of the great technological complexity, was used very rarely, but it also gave many benefits. In addition to the mass reduction, it was possible to reverse the screws, which was particularly important in live with dive and landing. In addition, the rotors rotating in different sides remove the reactive torque from their rotation, giving greater stability to the aircraft. Petrol engines am-37, am-38 or M-120, the 1300-1400 HP capacity that is being developed with the AM--38 would allow for the maximum speed of the order of 645 km h at the weight of 5238 kg. It has not yet been possible to find the ODB of accurate data, but it was composed of ShKAS and ShVAK cannons mounted in the bow of the fuselage. The bombing was likely to range from 500 to 800 kg.
Shortly before the war of the Air Force, the project was approved recommending the replacement of Shkasy with heavy machine guns Beresina. However, the development of ODB was strongly stalleded in the summer of 1941, and in 1942, the work on ODB had to be completely reduced in view of low priority."
https://www.ecured.cu/Polikarpov_ODB
"Technical Specifications(Calculated with AM-38 engine)
Function: Bomber Project, Year: 1941
Powerplant: 1 engine am-38
Accomodation: 1
DIMENSION
Span : 13 m, Length: 10.85 m
Empty weights and CARGASPeso: 3335 kg
Maximum takeoff weight: 5238 kg
Wing Load: 212 kg/m²
Power Load: 4.59 hp/kg
Maximum speed at sea level: 585 km/h
Max speed to 9000 mm: 645 km/h"
 

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blackkite

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Hi! Fighter I-153GK, equipped with a sealed cabin for high-altitude flights.
http://xn--80aafy5bs.xn--p1ai/aviamuseum/aviatsiya/sssr/istrebiteli-2/1920-e-1930-e-gody/istrebitel-i-153-chajka/istrebitel-i-153gk/

" At the end of July 1939, the government issued a decree to design Polikarpov's design bureau to equip one of the I-153 serial fighters with an airtight cabin with the simultaneous installation of turbochargers (TK) to increase the altitude of the flight. The work should be completed by the end of the year. Nevertheless, this task was never carried out.

A small Design Bureau A. Shcherbakov, as it turned out, could even then offer a completely perfect design of an airtight cabin. It was in this group that the task was changed to re-equip the Seagull.

Alexander Shcherbakov received production facilities at Moscow Aircraft Plant No. 289, where by mid-1940 they had completed the bulk of the work (turbochargers were not installed at this stage). In July 1940, the re-equipped "Seagull" (serial No. 6034) was presented for state tests. Almost without a change in the design of the aircraft, a hermachine was built in it, allowing it to fly at altitudes of more than 4 kilometers without oxygen equipment and special equipment of pilots-a thick warm overalls that restrict movement.

Structurally, the cabin was made in the form of a welded metal "cocoon" (steel C20) in the shape and size of the figure of the seated pilot. The upper folding part was a hemisphere in the form of a steel frame with a duralumin sheath and punched windows in it. The necessary living conditions in the cabin were maintained by means of oxygen supplied from a 4-liter bottle. Oxygen entered the cabin in the amount of 3-4 liters per minute and mixed with air, which, in turn, passed through special regenerating cartridges. The latter acted as absorbers of carbon dioxide. The air mixture thus purified was delivered to the front of the cabin in the amount of 50-55 liters per minute. Inside, a constant overpressure of 0.2 atmosphere and a temperature of about + 10 ° C were maintained.

The aircraft was tested from July 20 to July 30, 1940. The pilots, among whom was Hero of the Soviet Union Stepan Suprun , noted that the I-153's flying qualities remained practically unchanged. The stability of the machine, despite the shift of the centering back by more than 2%, remained the same. The review ahead through the installation of the sight of PAN-22 in a special casing worsened, but it got better back, especially since it's incomparably easier to turn around in a light overall than in a thick winter outfit.

In total, 11 flights were completed, 9 of them to the maximum altitude - more than 10 kilometers. The conducted training battles with the I-16 and the standard I-153 were more a tribute to the traditional types of tests, for it was almost impossible to identify any features other than the insignificant deterioration of the review mentioned above. But all the pilots noted a small noise in the cabin and a lack of fatigue after a flight in a depleted atmosphere. Suprun, who climbed 10 kilometers on July 30, was pleasantly surprised that he did not need a normal rest after a high altitude flight and in 20 minutes he flew to the He-100, which was tested in the Air Force Research Institute.

Although it was recommended to release a small amount of "Seagulls" with a hermetic cab for the accumulation of operational experience, it did not follow the series and, according to the data available to the author, the I-153 No. 6034 remained in a single copy."

"I-153GK
Wing span, m : Upper: 10,00, -lower: 7.50
Length, m: 6,18, Height, m: 3,00 , Area of ​​the wing, m2: 22.10
Weight, kg : Empty airplane: 1348 , -normal take-off: 1859
Engine type: 1 x PD-M-62 , -power, hp: 1 x 800
Maximum speed, km / h: 425 , Practical range, km: 750 , Max. Rate of climb, m / min: 950 , Practical ceiling, m: 11000
Crew: 1 , Armament: 4 x 7.62-mm SHKAS machine gun."
 

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blackkite

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Hi! "Polikarpov's "Bombings". NB and BB. USSR, 1943-44
http://warfiles.ru/show-85666-bombovozy-polikarpova-nb-i-bb-sssr-1943-44-gg.html

"In April 1943, a governmental decree was issued on the strengthening and development of long-range aviation. Although it was not brought to the attention of all the major designers, in October 1943, working on the draft NB, from an analysis of the trends of this type of equipment, Nikolai Nikolaevich realized that both the National Security Bureau and other long-range bombers would soon not meet promising requirements. On the agenda was the task of creating a heavy strategic bomber with good flight performance and a large bomb load. The experience of the combat use of the Pe-8, the Allied aviation against Germany and Japan, showed that air raids are successful if bombers have powerful defensive weapons capable of shooting long-range attacking enemy air defense fighters and have good survivability.

At the end of 1943, during the meetings with Colonel-General Khudyakov, the concept of a new airplane was formulated and the basic requirements for it were determined: the maximum speed is 550 km / h, the crew - five people, the bomb load from 2 to 5 tons (depending on Range). Five guns of 23 mm caliber were supposed to provide a round-fire.

Nikolai Nikolayevich always preferred instead of the word "bomber", especially when it concerned heavy vehicles, to use another - "bomb". Therefore, the design machine he received the designation BB - "big bomb".
The appearance of the BB was formed in March 1944. The take-off weight of the aircraft was 26 tons, the wing area 100 square meters, the range 24.5 meters, the four engines were to achieve the required maximum speed (at least 550 km / h) and altitude. The crew was located in the front and rear hermetic cabins, as well as in two hermetic cabins located under the wing in the nacelles adjacent to the fuselage.

Defensive weapons included: 1) twin-caliber guns of 23 mm caliber on the front and rear installations; 2) one 23 mm cannon under the wing in installations behind the gondolas of internal engines; 3) one 23 mm cannon in the middle of the fuselage on each side of the remote installation; 4) two 25 mm cannons and one 45 mm cannon in two upper turrets, placed together closer to the keel with a ledge, "as on cruisers," or - the preferred option - two upper turrets with one 45 mm cannon. The main feature of the weapons was the desire to achieve not only a circular bombardment, but also, if possible, for most sectors - cross [9] .

By mid-1944, the sketch design of the aircraft was nearing the end. It remained to determine the type of motor. The required power was not less than 2200-2500 hp. Nikolai Nikolaevich was inclined to use AA Mikulin's engines. But I did not succeed in completing my plans. "
 

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hesham

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blackkite said:
Hi! "Polikarpov's "Bombings". NB and BB. USSR, 1943-44
http://warfiles.ru/show-85666-bombovozy-polikarpova-nb-i-bb-sssr-1943-44-gg.html

Please Moderator,I want to solve this problem,Blackkite always intend deliberately to repeat
what I sending before,I sent this drawing exactly in reply # 19 ?!.
 

blackkite

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Hi! BDP glider.
 http://www.airwar.ru/enc/glider/bdp.html
http://xn--80aafy5bs.xn--p1ai/aviamuseum/aviatsiya/sssr/planery/1940-e-1980-e-gody/desantnyj-planer-bdp/
"The development of the first large glider Polikarpov began June 1941.The work was carried out in an initiative manner, although the need for gliders for the Air Force of the Red Army was not satisfied, and the number of produced vehicles was not that great. The glider, called the BDP, was designed for the possibility of airlifting 16 paratroopers or a mass similar in mass. It was planned to use airplanes of the SB or DB-3 type as towers. The forms of the glider were extremely smooth - Polikarpov built the BDP on a high-altitude scheme equipped with a ski chassis and a richly glazed cabin of pilots. Later it was abandoned and went to the usual version of the glazing, as the pilots complained about the visibility distortions in the flight.
In August 1941, the BDP passed the final assembly stage and in September began to pass factory tests at one of the Moscow airfields. The flights were conducted until October 14, until they were interrupted due to the evacuation. The report indicated that the BDP is available for pilots with low qualifications, has no specifics in flight and is simple in piloting technique. When flying to Novosibirsk, the glider was forced to land with anti-aircraft fighters, after which the car was looted by local residents. BDP had to be transported to the rear already for restoration.
The second version of the airframe - BDP-2, had some external differences, but in general its TTD did not change. It provided for the use of defensive weapons, for which the apparatus was equipped with devices for the installation of seven infantry 7.62-mm machine guns. As a passive protection, 16 armored sheets with a thickness of 55 mm and dimensions of 480 * 550 mm were mounted. After landing, they could use the paratroopers as armored combat vehicles. The glider was tested from February 6 to March 14, 1942, after which it was recommended to build such gliders serially.
The order for 100 BDP-2 was not issued. The production was considered too expensive and in July 1942 the glider was transferred for operation in the ranks of Aeroflot. BDP-2 flew in tow for a PS-40 aircraft on the route Novosibirsk-Omsk-Sverdlovsk and back.
It was supposed to build a series of such devices for civil aviation, but until the end of 1942 only four BDP-2s were assembled in the repair workshops of the Siberian VO, and the Shumerl furniture plant was handed over to several more copies. About their combat use of accurate information has not yet been found.
At the same time Polikarpov Design Bureau redesigned one of the BDP-2 for installing two M-11F engines, turning it into a motor-glider. This device, designated as MP, could carry 12 paratroopers with weapons or a similar weight load. With increasing load, takeoff was accomplished with the aid of a towing aircraft. In the summer of 1943, the MT successfully passed factory tests, but in the series it was not built because of the reduction in the number of guerrilla zones and the presence of airplanes of Shche-2, Yak-6 and Li-2 type in the air force.At the beginning of the war, the design of the BP bomber was also rejected, capable of carrying up to 1,000 kg of bombs and armed with a UBТ tower-mounted machine gun and a switch-over ShKAS. "

The tactical and technical data of the BDP-2 landing airframe:
Length - 13.35 m
Span - 20,00 m
Takeoff weight - 3408 kg
Crew - 2 people
Payload - 16 paratroopers

MP
http://avia-museum.narod.ru/russia/pol_mp.html
Data for: MP
Crew: 3, Passengers: 12, Motors: 2 x M-11f, 107 kw (145 hp), Wingspan: 20.0 m, Length: 13.35 m, Mass: 3408 kg, max. Speed: 172 km h, ceiling: 2000, Range: 700 km
 

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hesham

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From Kryl'ya 2008,

here is a drawing to I-19,also a small Info about I-172,it was intended to fit with M-103P engine.
 

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hesham

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From; Прославленный По-2

maybe there was early drawing to Po-2ShS variant ?.
 

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hesham

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From Kryl'ya Rodine 5-6/2019,

the VIT-1 original drawing and VIT-2 in details.
 

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redstar72

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From Kryl'ya Rodine 5-6/2019,

the VIT-1 original drawing

No, this is not VIT-1. This is a project named DR (Dalniy Razvedchik - long-range reconnaissance), designed in November 1938, based on the VIT-2 but with M-88 radial engines.

DR projected technical data:
Wing span - 17.0 m
Length - 11.25 m
Height - 3.713 m
Wing area - 42.93 m2
Main wheel track - 4.5 m
Takeoff weight - 6500 kg
Fuel weight (normal) - 1530 kg
Top speed - 414 km/h (sea level), 505 km/h (H=4500 m), 534 km/h (H=7000 m)
Service ceiling - 11 000 m
Range - 1660 km (0.9Vmax), 2000 km (0.75Vmax), 2580 km (V=300 km/h)
Takeoff run - 260 m
Landing run - 237 m
 

Cy-27

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Hi,


here is two Models to Polikarpov TB-2 bomber in different configurations.


Самолеты Н.Н. Поликарпова_Русавиа 2004

The book "King of the Fighters" Volume 1 by Mikhail Maslov focuses on the biplane designs of Nikolay Polikarpov.

The five pages that make up chapter 11 focuses on the TB-2 sesquiplane bomber and shows the models shown in Hesham's earlier post as well as a full page three view and a couple of photos of the sole example completed to fly.

Main details quoted:

Upper Wingspan: 27.0 m
Length: 18.2 m
Wing Area: 127.72 sq m
Weight Empty: 1,473 kg
Weight Gross: 6,770 kg
Max Speed: 216 km/h
Engine: 2x licence built BMW VI

Source:
"King of the Fighters Nikolay Polikarpov And His Aircraft Design - Volume: 1 The Biplane Era"
by Mikhail Maslov (Helion 2020) ISBN: 978-1-911628-85-9
 

blackkite

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blackkite

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In November 1940, Nikolai Polikarpov of the Polikarpov Design Bureau proposed a heavily armed fighter that could be used to escort, intercept, and attack ground armored targets.
The fighter, named ITP, used a 1650hp Klimov M-107P engine or a Mikulin AM-37 engine, equipped with one 37mm cannon and two of 20mm cannons.
The design was based on former Polikarpov fighters, such as his I-185 and his I-200 (later his MiG-1).

The first prototype (M-1) was completed in October 1941.
In the same month, fleeing the Nazi German invasion, M-1 evacuated to Novosibirsk along with Polikarpov's 51st factory.
The first flight took place on February 23, 1942.
Klimov's onboard engine was unreliable, so M-1 was replaced by the M-107A engine in late 1942, at the same time weakening M-1's armament to three 20mm cannons.
Since the M-1 was used for ground testing, it was not possible to complete all flight tests.

The second ITP (M-2) was built in 1942.
Unlike the M-1, M-2 used the AM-37 as the engine, but AM-37 also had problems with mechanical reliability, so in December of the same year M-2 replaced AM-37 with the AM-39 rated 1800hp.
The first flight was on November 23, 1943, with a top speed of 600km / h near the surface and 655km / h at an altitude of 2500m, but the engine condition was not perfect and the planned performance was not reached.
Early flight tests revealed that the ITP M-1 was more effective at defeating German light to medium armored vehicles than the Ilyushin Il-2, the flagship ground attack aircraft of the time, when piloted by a skilled pilot.

However, development was slow due to problems with the engine on board, and the plan was eventually canceled due to the death of Polikarpov in July 1944.

Specifications (M-2)
General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 9.2 m (30 ft 2 in)
  • Wingspan: 10 m (32 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 16.5 m2 (178 sq ft)
  • Empty weight: 2,910 kg (6,415 lb)
  • Gross weight: 3,570 kg (7,871 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Mikulin AM-39 liquid-cooled V-12, 1,268 kW (1,700 hp)
  • Propellers: 3-bladed
Performance
  • Range: 980 km (610 mi, 530 nmi)
  • Service ceiling: 11,500 m (37,700 ft)
  • Time to altitude: six minutes to 5,000 metres (16,000 ft)
  • Wing loading: 216 kg/m2 (44 lb/sq ft)
Armament
  • Guns: 3 × 20 mm ShVAK cannons 200 rpg
  • Rockets: 8 × unguided RS-82
 

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Grey Havoc

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Early flight tests revealed that the ITP M-1 was more effective at defeating German light to medium armored vehicles than the Ilyushin Il-2, the flagship ground attack aircraft of the time, when piloted by a skilled pilot.
If that had somehow survived to see service in the Korean War, it would have been a right headache for UN forces.
 

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Does the pilot's canopy hinge forward to open on the IG-153 high altitude research airplane?
 

riggerrob

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Dear Steelpillow,
May I disagree with your analysis of that canard's stability?
Judging by the location of its fuel tanks, its center-of-gravity is at the usual 25 percent of the main wing's chord, making it a flying wing with a forward trimming surface, like the contemporary Japanese Shinden and Curtiss XP-55 Ascender, both of which suffered both stability and control problems.
Polikarpov's canard even lacks pitch control surface on the main wings' trailing edge.

We do agree that vertical fins are way too far forward to affect yaw stability. They would only have worked as drag rudders/spoilers/air brakes. But drag rudders were not practical until Northrop introduced electronic artificial stability during the 1980s (B2 Stealth bomber.)

It was not until the 1970s that SAAB and Rutan figured out that canards needed C. of G. well forward of the main wing to fly with passive stability. See the passenger's seat in Long Eze. Rutan's canards are loaded far more heavily than main wings, forcing them to stall first. This is obvious from the airfoil on Long Eze's canard. It is a flat-bottom, lifting surface with a down-ward deflecting flap. ... Ergo Rutan's canards lean heavily on their canards. That lean creates pitch stability.
 
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