Photonic Integrated Circuits and Radar Developement.


ACCESS: Secret
6 October 2019
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What it is and how it differs from current electronics

“Conventional integrated circuits(MMICs) work by conducting electricity, or allowing electrons to flow easily through the circuit. Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles that interact with other electrons as well as other particles. These interactions slow electrons down as they move through ICs, limit the amount of information that can be transmitted, and generate heat, which causes energy losses. A heat sink or other cooling technique is often required to regulate heat generation, otherwise the electrical components may become irreversibly damaged.

Photonic integrated circuits utilize photons, massless fundamental particles representing a quantum of light, instead of electrons. Photons move at the speed of light through the transmitting medium with almost no interference from other photons. This greatly increases the bandwidth and speed of the circuit while drastically reducing the amount of energy loss, making PICs more power efficient. With multiplexing techniques, an extremely large number of signals can be sent through a single-mode fiber that is orders of magnitude larger than the number of electrical signals that copper can transmit. A single fiber strand in a submarine transatlantic fiber optic cable can carry millions of simultaneous phone calls almost 100 km before needing amplification, and the amplifiers themselves are optically pumped lasers: no electronics involved.”

Aircraft Radar Claims

"Now the research is a full-fledged model of this radio-optical photonic antenna array, which will work out the characteristics of a production model". We understand what it (the radar) must be in any geometric size, on what bands and what power should work, he added. Kret also fulfills the technology specific elements of the new radar its emitter, photonic crystal, foster tract resonators. Serial sample locator do when we move to the stage of experimental design work (okr), for example, by order of the war department, said mikheyev. He explained that "Conventional radar station (radar) radiation is generated by vacuum-tube or semiconductor devices, the efficiency is relatively low – 30-40%". The remaining 60-70% of the energy is converted into heat. The new radar a radar signal is obtained by converting photonic crystal laser coherent energy in a microwave radiation.

This transmitter efficiency will be not less than 60-70%. That is a big part of laser energy will be converted into a radar, with the result that we can create a radar of high power, said the deputy director. The locator will not be a separate module in the nose of the aircraft, it will be a distributed system. Something similar can be seen today on the fifth generation fighter t-50 radar which operates in different bands and in different directions. In fact it is a single locator, but he exploded on the plane. It turns out about three or four different radars, which are comfortably placed around the fuselage and can simultaneously observe all the space around the aircraft, said mikheyev. Radiophony radar will be able to see, according to our estimates, far beyond the existing radar.

"The official propaganda of the Russians is generally the same: the detection distance is too far, the energy conversion efficiency is as high as 60%, the traditional radar is only 30%, and the noise is 100 times lower than the conventional radar, which greatly improves the signal-to-noise ratio, and the theoretical detection distance for the stealth target. More than 500 kilometers!"

“The Russian army may soon get a new type of radar that is able more effectively than traditional radars to identify targets even under conditions of jamming. The fundamental difference between radiophonic locators is that the signal processing is realized with the aid of optics, and not by the microwave electronics.

New technology creates a 3D image of the object, its three-dimensional portrait, and allows to determine its type. It is expected that in the next few years radiophotonic radars will be installed on the promising multifunctional fighters of the new generation.

The first prototype of the radar based on discrete radiophonic elements already created, has informed "Izvestia" the head of JSC "RTI" Maxim Kuzyuk. According to sources of "Izvestiya", the Ministry of defence takes part in trials of the new type radar.

The promising technology has several advantages. First and foremost, it is the size of the new locator – it is assumed that their size will be substantially less. In addition, they are reliable. Thirdly, more resistant to electromagnetic radiation.

At the moment the company develops the technology and carries out tests while looking for a new component database. In particular, the developers talk about the need for photonic integrated circuits.

Satellites from Same Company claim to track low altitude targets

“Alexander Osipov. - The institute has the necessary scientific and technical, software-algorithmic and technological for
matters for creating on a single structure the latest radar systems for spacecraft. Information technology enhancement technologies occupy an important place in the MRL, which was created at the institute: the use of innovative designs of sounding signals, the method of expanding the shooting band, innovative methods for detecting moving objects, super-resolution algorithms, methods for processing and integrating radar data. - The basic principles of radar are well known to scientists around the world. It is very difficult to come up with qualitatively new solutions in this area, but we succeeded. With the help of a supercomputer, we have developed algorithms for deep mathematical analysis that can detect moving targets. This is a very difficult task that no one has been able to solve before us, ”says Anatoly Leukhin. - The fact is that when we look at the Earth with a locator, we see not only rivers, oceans and cities, but also a huge amount of interference. Because of them, it’s sometimes very difficult to see even moving objects. The ability to monitor moving objects is an essential step in the development of radar. This technology can be widely used both for military and civilian purposes. For example, to create tracking systems Niya aircraft from space. This will bring the level of flight safety around the planet to a whole new level. RTI conducts tests of its space-based ballistic missile systems in flight experiments at the created experimental flight test complex.”

“Moreover, one should not expect that in the coming years all traditional radars will be replaced by photon radars - the capabilities of modern radars based on microwave paths are not completely exhausted.

Recall that the RTI also developed the Elik flight test complex, thanks to which radar stations will be able to classify aircraft of air, surface, low-flying and space objects. Real-time radars will be able to tell the operator what type of aircraft, cruise missile, satellite or ship appeared on the screen of the station.”


"In the interests of the task of monitoring the air situation at KIMS, software and algorithmic support is being developed for detecting and measuring the characteristics of air and surface objects, including at extremely low altitudes.”

Main Discussion Points for this Topic.

  1. The claim of lowering noise 100 times lower than conventional radars suggest a -20 decibel drop in receiving signals a whole lot better. The process is explained as to why that is of why light is a better medium than a electronic signal offer less noise loss which results in signals being better heard or targets being better tracked or detected depending on frequency.
  2. powerful SAR resolution such as their satellite prototype claiming to have a smaller SAR resolution than 10 cms and Chinese researchers have also claimed that ultra-high resolution SAR is achievable with this.
  3. Their satellite project is to be used for ballistic missile defenses it also has the capability to track low altitude targets and they explain their reasoning as huge interference from earth not allowing this capability to happen for them. Its a firecontrol band radar is said to classify targets such as if it is a cruise missile or aircraft and through civilian usage such as better airliner safety avoiding collisions to a whole new level around the globe. Their plan is to have a constellation of these satellites which basically means they are going to more aware of what military operations are being done in the skies and ground, etc. However performance results of tracking targets with these have yet to be revealed and depending on what they find for example some 5th gen topside being tracked and info relayed to other 4th gen aircrafts with tracking capabilities can result in a very huge problem, so far monitoring moving targets at very low altitudes or classifying them does not tell us that much.
  4. Their is a possibility that although the West is ahead of the Russians in MMICs, I think there is a current problem with their progression in FICs. "The radar system, part of a project known as PHODIR (Photonics-based fully digital radar) is an effort to improve the tracking and speed calculation abilities of current electronic signal based systems. It's well understood that making improvements in such a system will require higher frequency signals, something that can't be done with current systems due to an increase in noise that creates more uncertainty in the signals received. For that reason, scientists have been looking to use lasers—such signals are much more stable. The radar system the team built is still just a prototype, though it does appear feasible. The team tested its abilities by monitoring real aircraft taking off at a nearby airport and then comparing what they observed with data from traditional electronic signal based systems. They report that the systems matched very closely. That of course is just an initial test, as McKinney notes, much more research and testing will need to be done before the researchers will know if such a system could provide better results than conventional systems. Also, another area of concern is range, which could impact jitter, and thus the accuracy of the system. " Raytheon has shown interests in producing FICs But I believe from this 2014 test result shows that if we get better test results than a conventional we can start planning mass production of these circuits. 2022-2025 are Russia's plans to start a mass production line.
Anything else can be added in this thread such as performance results of circuits, beneficial claims, reasons of becoming a huge hindrance to other foreign military projects, radar tracking performance and SAR resolution, etc.
More interesting news updates on photonic radars. Google translated the pages.

"Then comes to mind
a person born in the Soviet Union when he hears the word
"Elik"? Possibly: “What has I reached?”
progress? To unprecedented miracles! Sank to the depths
and rose to heaven! ”In this children's film with a philosophical
the subtext of the android Electronics, or Elek, freed a person from routine duties, and Seryozha’s personality
Syroezhkina began to develop rapidly. About
the ELIK project can also change the development of modern business, science and defense
Institute of Radio Engineering
(RTI) named after academician Mints
and Mari State University.
"ELIK" stands for experimental
flight test complex. Scientists took up their development in 2013. To date, specialists
fully mastered the technology, created a workable layout and tested it
In action.
- The main value of the ELIK project is that
we have now created a completely new, unconventional
direction for RTI named after academician Mints, ”explains Anatoly Leukhin, Deputy General
Director of the Institute for Scientific Work. - Everyone knows that
we produce large ground stations, superradar. A competency
on the development of airborne radar systems
we did not have. Now it is -
we created inside the institute
such a technology. We can say that we will soon be ready to move to the production stage of the experimental
sample, and then serial
In the framework of the ELIK project
developed hardware and software complex, one
part of which is installed on board an airplane or helicopter, the other is stationary
is on the ground.
The hardware part of the airborne radar consists
from several large building blocks. It is active
phased array X- and P-bands.
- In the X-band we reach a resolution of 30 cm
inclined range
and in azimuth. In the P-band
we achieve resolving
ability of 2.5 m in azimuth and range, - clarifies
Deputy General Director of the Institute.
Also in the side of the radar there are transmitting
modules, a device for transferring frequency to an intermediate frequency with subsequent
digitization of data, a device for recording holograms and the formation of radar images, block
recording navigation information and digital signal processing unit.
- We have right on board
it is possible to form a radio hologram and build radar
images, - says Anatoly Leukhin.
On the ground is set
complex simulation

modeling stand - high performance computing servers. It is used for computer
modeling, testing
all algorithms and the formation of model radar images.
- The software part of the onboard radar is
a large set of different procedures for the formation of radio holograms and radar
images, - reveals the details of Anatoly Leukhin. -
Given two polarizations,
excluding two polarizations,
with the construction of a pseudo-color or monochromatic radar image, with different functions
display dynamic alignment
on the screen, with a different set of autofocus algorithms, taking into account navigation information and without it
accounting, with adjustment of the horizontal component
speed and the vertical component of speed, etc.
That is, it is a very multifunctional program.
works in real time and allows you to create a radar
image and even video data stream right on the screen
This summer, onboard
radar project "ELIK"
passed tests at the Malino airport in the suburbs. He fully confirmed
scientists' calculations: equally
clearly sees objects in the fog,
in the rain, through dense foliage and tarpaulin, night and day.
As experts noted,
this is a great tool for
border control
and air reconnaissance.
- We counted on such results - they
were not news to us, -
says Anatoly Leukhin. -
But completely unexpected
in the radar pictures we saw large shields laid out by each
after another. There was nothing on earth, so first
did not even understand what it is.
It turned out that we got
underground vision results. These were stainless steel sheets. During World War II,
as the head of the airdrome later said, they served
Runway times
World War II was
covered in 30 centimeters
a layer of earth. Scientists continued the experiment and discovered cables of the same pore at a much greater depth.
However, airborne radar systems are inferior to optical instruments
remote sensing accuracy. Moreover, they
have a number of obvious advantages. The first is the absolute correlation between
radar images and humidity that
allows you to talk about the application in agriculture.
Secondly, in the optical range it is difficult to build
three-dimensional image, and in the radio range you can form a three-dimensional image with a very high
in height, and much easier than in optics. Therefore, where you need three-dimensional
scanning, a radar is preferable to optical. Another major benefit: sounding
land by airborne radar is much cheaper. It opens wide
opportunities for civilian use. For example, in archaeological
- If ELIK comes out
to the market and will be available,
then in archeology will happen
revolution! - Vladimir Poryvaev admires the opening opportunities,
military archaeologist and the first
officially recognized treasure hunter in Russia. - First of all, it will be possible to detect all the lost
military equipment of the Great Patriotic War and bury soldiers of all armies. And it’s not going to take decades to search,
but a few days. Next year is the 75th anniversary of the Victory,
and we could already put
point in that war saluting
to the last soldier.
Archaeologists work with
with small ground-based georadars, and in principle, devices
cope with their task.
For example, using a radar, a cave was discovered at the pyramid of the moon in the legendary ancient Mexican
the city of Teotihuacan. In Austria
under modern houses found archaeological
the remnants of the city of Karnunt are
the largest settlement of the ancient Romans in these places.
But the main problem of georadars is that you need to know where
to search. Endless steppes or
thick taiga with it
practically scan
impossible. A radar
the ELIK project gives an opportunity for carpet archaeological exploration: one flight -
and almost all the secrets of history
the world at a glance.
- The oldest cultural layer is located

at a depth of 30−35 m. But the ancient Roman, Mexican,
Russian settlements are located just 2 m below the surface of the earth, although they date back to 2-3 millenniums
BC. "ELIK" would allow in the literal sense of the word to look deep into
centuries, - so Vladimir Poryvaev imagines which
opportunities will open for
science and culture. - If we talk about point discoveries, then we can find a treasure
Kolchak (he is somewhere in Siberia), the treasure of Napoleon (in the vicinity of Vyazma). Guns, ancient weapons, decorations
Kremlin and the Cross of Ivan the Great - according to legend, trophies were taken out of Moscow burned
huge convoys.
The advantages of airborne radars are also obvious.
"ELIK" when controlling the sidebars
pipelines and inspection of oil pipelines underground and underwater at shallow depths. Airborne radar
can detect deposits
light oil, monitor the thickness of ice and monitor the ice situation in the North
sea way.
Now RTI named after Mints
is in negotiations with the holding
Russian Helicopters on the acquisition of on-board radars of the ELIK project. And although
the airborne radar market has not yet been formed,
according to Anatoly Leukhin,
their mass use
not far away. Firstly, because the best of them allow you to carry out all-inclusive
and round-the-clock observations, and secondly, all technologies are deeply developed, experimentally confirmed
and understandable their practical
It is only necessary to formulate it on the legislative
level. As soon as appropriate decisions are made, mass demand will not be long in coming. &
Underground Vision Results
"ELIK" - sheets
steel serving
during the great
runway wars
At shallow depths"

P-band The radar frequency band between 225 and 390 MHz. It is commonly used in remote sensing because of its good vegetation penetration.

Apparently pilots will become archaeologists. Same said company.

"The RTI Joint Stock Company, a developer and producer of high-tech products, will create new radars that operate in terahertz frequency range and are capable of pinpointing the smallest drone, RTI CEO Pavel Laptayev told TASS.

"The terahertz technology [featuring radio wave length below one millimeter] will be converted into a product within five years. These radars can detect small drones, and function in space," Laptayev explained.

According to the CEO, the submillimeter radar enables a beam to be aimed on a relatively small object with extraordinary precision, impossible for other ranges, and identify its shape, material, speed and trajectory.

Laptayev admitted that RTI managed to achieve significant success in the terahertz range only in 2019, with the company mastering the components for such stations, and learning to identify objects and materials. According to the CEO, the RTI specialists now work on radar software that would swiftly and effectively classify a target and relay this information to the operator.

"This task will take more time than creating a prototype, because it requires accumulating data and implementing machine learning methods," the CEO specified.

Small drones are considered a serious threat because they can go unnoticed by conventional radars, especially when flying at low altitudes and low speed. For instance, drones rigged with explosives, attacked Saudi Aramco’s two largest refineries on September 14, 2019. The blasts and fires caused by the strike sent the world’s biggest oil exporter’s daily extraction plunging from 9.8 million bpd to 4.1 million bpd."



"Within the framework of the international forum “Security Technologies”, RTI JSC will present a demo sample of a dual-band inspection complex operating in millimeter (mm) and terahertz (THz) wavelengths. The complex is designed for secretive remote detection of potentially dangerous objects and prohibited substances. The use of the complex is expected at inspection points, crowds, in the railway infrastructure.

The created dual-frequency streaming screening complex allows for reliable detection and discrimination of weapons, narcotic and explosive substances. Thanks to the use of mm and THz radiation, the complex will determine with high resolution and distinguish between types of recognizable potentially dangerous objects using the element of artificial intelligence - machine learning. The penetrating ability of mm and THz radiation, as well as the structural features of the complex, allows you to place all the elements behind the walls of the corridors.

The technologies used will be able to reliably determine the coordinates of potentially dangerous objects, their radio images under clothing, and identify prohibited substances. The screening process using the technologies used is non-ionizing, unlike the X-ray screening systems currently in use.

“The installation of modern inspection systems built on new wavelengths will minimize the risks of terrorist acts. It will also increase the ability of customs, border and security services to curb smuggling traffic to Russia, ”said Kirill Makarov, deputy general director for intelligence and information systems at RTI JSC.

It is worth noting that the complex being created is characterized by a higher resolution, in comparison with the inspection systems operating in the centimeter wavelength range."

"On the other hand, the development of microwave photonics technology and its application in radar are potential subversive technologies in related fields, which will bring changes to radar and other electronic equipment technologies and forms. And China Electric Power Research Institute 14 has now completed the phased research and developed a millimeter wave large dynamic wideband radar. Compared with the internationally reported microwave photon radar prototype, the reception dynamics are increased by 4 times, and the resolution is increased by 100 times. "

The Vega concern of the Ruselectronics holding (part of the Rostec State Corporation) has completed tests of a prototype demonstrator of an active phased antenna array based on radio photonics (ROFAR).
Still curious whether this ROFAR is a AESA but instead of phase shifter it use a True time delay for beam steering.

Implementation of true time delay beamsteering involves use of optic fiber and laser, where waveform is transmitted via laser to each TRM which later convert it to EM wave and amplified it as what AESA usually did. Or it's something else entirely.

My search however doesnt really yield anything while searching in forums.. well unproductive to say.
Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator - 'The Sapphire Clock' | Institute for Photonics and Advanced Sensing | University of Adelaide

The culmination of 20 years of leading-edge fundamental research, combined with cutting-edge engineering, has led to a disruptive technology that is now revolutionizing a vital Australian defence asset. The Sapphire Clock offers a 1000-fold improvement in timing precision, which delivers an improved capability for Australian Defence to identify threats to Australia using the Jindalee Over-The-Horizon Radar Network.

The Cryogenic Sapphire Oscillator has a 5 cm cylinder-shaped sapphire crystal that is cooled to about -267 °C, or about 5 or 6 degrees above absolute zero. At this temperature, the microwave energy lost in the sapphire crystal is the lowest of any substance on Earth. Microwave radiation is injected into the sapphire crystal and propagates around the circumference of the crystal (just inside the surface). The way the microwave radiation moves around the crystal is called a “Whispering Gallery”. Lord Rayleigh first discovered this concept in 1878 when he could hear someone whispering far away on the other side of the church dome at St Paul’s Cathedral.

There is one particular frequency that will excite the natural resonance of the sapphire crystal – this corresponds to the signal that reinforces itself after one round trip around the crystal surface. A good analogy might be to imagine hitting a bell and using its regular oscillations to count time. The losses in sapphire are so low that if it were a conventional bell then it would keep ringing for millions of years. However, in the sapphire crystal the resonant frequency is so high—10 billion cycles per second—that the electromagnetic signal rings only for a hundred milliseconds."

Heard that KRET was also designing an airborne photonic crystal which I do not know if it was sapphire as well. But I guess it makes sense why that company has interests in cryogenic cooling КРЭТ провел «круглый стол», посвященный концепции развития технологий криоэлектроники (

"Within the framework of the meeting, industry experts reviewed the report "On the concept of development of cryoelectronics technologies", discussed the conditions for improving electric propulsion systems for air and sea transport, the state and prospects for the development of the production of electronic component base and converter technology with cryogenic cooling.

Representatives of enterprises - end users of the products being developed took part in the meeting. They stressed their readiness to take part in the testing of experimental samples.

Nikolay Kolesov, General Director of KRET JSC, Chairman of the Novgorod and Mariysk branches of the Union of Mechanical Engineers of Russia, emphasized the importance of the work of industry expert platforms that allow specialized experts to exchange experience, substantively consider key issues of their work, and jointly develop an optimal development strategy."
credit to LMFS for news source

На Чукотке к 2030 году построят радиолокационную станцию "Яхрома" - Армия и ОПК - ТАСС (

"MOSCOW, January 12. / TASS /. The newest radar station (radar) "Yakhroma", which will be included in the missile attack warning system (SPRN), will be built by 2030 in the Chukchi Sea region. A source in the military-industrial complex told TASS about it.

"By 2030, it is planned to build the Yakhroma radar station in the Chukchi Sea region. The station will operate fully automatically, without the constant presence of people at the facility," he said.

At the end of December 2020, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, during the final collegium of the military department, announced that in 2021 the Ministry of Defense is to begin work on the construction of the Yakhroma radar in Sevastopol.

A source in the military-industrial complex then told TASS that the Yakhroma radar station has no analogues. The station will operate in four bands: meter, centimeter, decimeter and millimeter, the station will have a view of 270 degrees."

To date, the Russian early warning system consists of two echelons: a space one, which currently includes four Tundra satellites, and a ground one, consisting of a network of Voronezh-type stations, covering all missile-hazardous directions with its radar field. The main purpose of the system is to detect and escort ballistic missiles fired at the territory of the Russian Federation or its allies as soon as possible.

meter 30-300mhz, decimeter 300mhz-3ghz, centimeter 3-30ghz, millimeter 30-300ghz. Seeing the construction dates and the frequency these radars will operate in sound like ground photonic radars if I was to take a lucky guess.
FPI's radio optical AESA demonstrator model on display.

So RTI, KRET,VEGA and i suppose FPI have prototypes, and we finally have an appearance of the antennas which are said to be a little thicker than paint and lacquer when applied. Intriguing appearance thanks for the very amazing source, it sucks i cant put heart eyes right now on phone.

One of the fancy techs have a construction date, and probably about a 2 days ago that fancy tech was shown, so why are you feeling offended when I ask the same in return from you regarding Japan and the U.S.? I am interested in your sources, I have plenty to offer if you have any questions for me?

The PHODIR project was done by Italy but Italy could not get such a radar to surpass a conventional radar in performance that even the U.S. Navy research team in that 2014 article stated we are on the same boat. "A team of researchers in Italy has developed the first fully photonics-based coherent radar system. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their new radar system and what it might mean for the future of radar systems. Jason McKinney of the US Naval Research Laboratory offers a News & Views perspective piece on the development of the radar system in the same issue and outlines issues involved with attempting to implement such a system into real world applications." I am not being full of shit but this here can be a concerning issue if other countries stick to the same routine while another starts to spice things up. I dont think Turkey will be on this level but for their 5th gen they are trying GaN MMIC AESA and current 5th gen programs AFAIK know might not have this, or have yet to upgrade existing 5th gens for it.

One of the fancy techs have a construction date, and probably about a 2 days ago that fancy tech was shown, so why are you feeling offended when I ask the same in return from you regarding Japan and the U.S.? I am interested in your sources, I have plenty to offer if you have any questions for me?

The PHODIR project was done by Italy but Italy could not get such a radar to surpass a conventional radar in performance that even the U.S. Navy research team in that 2014 article stated we are on the same boat. "A team of researchers in Italy has developed the first fully photonics-based coherent radar system. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their new radar system and what it might mean for the future of radar systems. Jason McKinney of the US Naval Research Laboratory offers a News & Views perspective piece on the development of the radar system in the same issue and outlines issues involved with attempting to implement such a system into real world applications." I am not being full of shit but this here can be a concerning issue if other countries stick to the same routine while another starts to spice things up. I dont think Turkey will be on this level but for their 5th gen they are trying GaN MMIC AESA and current 5th gen programs AFAIK know might not have this, or have yet to upgrade existing 5th gens for it.
Firstly, I've asked to bring anything on operation, not just built. If you are a member of 'this' forum you would know until any equipment is actually deployed en masse, we still don't know anything concerning its effectiveness. Thus the reason we differentiate TRL 7 from 8m

Secondly, like you have said before, you are valuing Russian claims amd sources fundamentally more credible than the US an Japanese ones. It makes zero sense for me to do all the work to get you every legitimate arguments to only get turnned down because you think "Russians are mor credible"

Thirdly, any claims that describes FIC to have dimensional gains compared to the traditional radars and real life application of FIC comes from Russia. They are almost always just a mere article or interviews without actual thesis that has gone through peer reviews to back it up. If anything those claims are a "propaganda" as the Chinese claims and is more of an extension of current radio technology as showcased by the results of the Italians.

It is quite clear that the FIC is a change of radar backend. Yes it might give an advantage in SNR and latency but it ain't something revolutionary. That is a description reserved for the likes of quantum entaglement radar or other future radar technologies that are yet far away from deployment.

Also we have already seen how technologies like SDR and digitalizing the radar backend could make significant difference. Furthermore since the software side of radar is still largely valueable, the lack of Russian espertise in fielding and operating their PAR compared to the west is still a problem regardless if it's FIC or not, as it is still a phased array radar afterall.
Firstly, I've asked to bring anything on operation, not just built. If you are a member of 'this' forum you would know until any equipment is actually deployed en masse, we still don't know anything concerning its effectiveness. Thus the reason we differentiate TRL 7 from 8m

Secondly, like you have said before, you are valuing Russian claims amd sources fundamentally more credible than the US an Japanese ones. It makes zero sense for me to do all the work to get you every legitimate arguments to only get turnned down because you think "Russians are mor credible"

Thirdly, any claims that describes FIC to have dimensional gains compared to the traditional radars and real life application of FIC comes from Russia. They are almost always just a mere article or interviews without actual thesis that has gone through peer reviews to back it up. If anything those claims are a "propaganda" as the Chinese claims and is more of an extension of current radio technology as showcased by the results of the Italians.

It is quite clear that the FIC is a change of radar backend. Yes it might give an advantage in SNR and latency but it ain't something revolutionary. That is a description reserved for the likes of quantum entaglement radar or other future radar technologies that are yet far away from deployment.

Also we have already seen how technologies like SDR and digitalizing the radar backend could make significant difference. Furthermore since the software side of radar is still largely valueable, the lack of Russian espertise in fielding and operating their PAR compared to the west is still a problem regardless if it's FIC or not, as it is still a phased array radar afterall.
Of course there are a bunch of time tables these radars have been created by 3 seperate companies and I do not know if Saber's research organization will count as the 4th. I am just saying where are the sources that the U.S. or Japan have any photonic radar prototype or even have dates for a mass production to start PICs? There is something that I need to get clear with you on MMICs and PICs, just because someone is an MVP in basketball that they will be Tom Brady in football. "With all the advances occurring in
emerging PIC technologies, Raytheon
researchers and engineers are actively
pursuing both internal research and
customer-funded development programs
to investigate applications of PIC
technology in next generation products,
as well as to develop lower cost, higher
yield PIC packaging and manufacturing
processes" 2019
RTI stated 3-5 years that mass scale production for PICs would begin, however no projects for radars are shown for Raytheon or set dates. No. 1 (20) of 2018 As for semiconductor
modulators in microchip
performance, then in 2019 the research
work on this topic in which
OKB-Planeta OJSC is an industrial partner.
Within three to five years is possible
organization of the development, design and production of photonic
integrated circuits (FIS) both in packageless execution, and in the case.
The implementation of these plans will allow
JSC "RTI" take a leading position
in development and production
advanced domestic radio systems based on component
radiophotonic bases.

Having you do all the work as in me giving you a raytheon source above, stating multiple Russian companies working on their prototypes, setting construction and production dates while still I cant find that P-1 photonic radar source? I only think they are more credible because no such projects have been demonstrated from the U.S. or Japan other than them.

Those claims are by the radar companies who even admit they are behind in the MMIC field so you cant accuse them of all being full of shit or nationalistic when they talk about their field.

"Unlike traditional radars, it will not be physically possible to silence ROFAR by traditional means of EW. The dynamic range of the photon crystal is about 200 DB. Modern electronic receiver, for comparison, has a range of 40 - 60 DB, and we modern EW complexes provide a signal to the entrance of the radio receiver - in 70-80 DB relative to its threshold sensitivity. Thus, the device that needs to receive the signal is displayed from a healthy state. Even after the interference in his inside there are still processes that do not allow him to work. But on Earth there is simply no energy source for a signal with a capacity greater than 200 DB, so this logic in the case of ROFAR simply does not work. It can be confused by so-called intellectual opposition, but this is a different story."

КРЭТ - Концерн Радиоэлектронные Технологии news 10249

“Radio optical phased array antennas greatly expand the capabilities of modern-day communication tools and radars. The resolution will increase by a factor of tens. A modern radar gas a 10 GHz frequency (3 cm wavelength) and a 1…2 GHz bandwidth while a ROPAA radar uses the 1 Hz…100 GHz bandwidth concurrently. It means that a ROPAA radar generates a detailed 3D image of an object being hundreds of kilometers away. For instance, at a 400 km range we can not only see a person, but identify his or her face.”

КРЭТ - Концерн Радиоэлектронные Технологии news 3768

“for example, take ground-based radar. Today, this radar is the size of a multi-story home, but using microwave photonics, the station can be installed on a standard KAMAZ truck. The effectiveness and range of the radar would be exactly the same, namely thousands of kilometers. Several of these mobile and small radar systems can be networked, which will only increase their characteristics.”

Same source from OP, among other sources

Kret also fulfills the technology specific elements of the new radar its emitter, photonic crystal, foster tract resonators. Serial sample locator do when we move to the stage of experimental design work (okr), for example, by order of the war department, said mikheyev. He explained that "Conventional radar station (radar) radiation is generated by vacuum-tube or semiconductor devices, the efficiency is relatively low – 30-40%". The remaining 60-70% of the energy is converted into heat. The new radar a radar signal is obtained by converting photonic crystal laser coherent energy in a microwave radiation.

This transmitter efficiency will be not less than 60-70%. That is a big part of laser energy will be converted into a radar, with the result that we can create a radar of high power, said the deputy director.

So you don't believe any of this as in its too groundbreaking? Or that its aggravating watching an adversary viewed country starting to get the jump on you kind of way?


There have been no major airborne radar characteristics for aircrafts from the U.S. made other than the latest an/apg-83. So what makes you think Japan or U.S. have to be ahead of in PICs just because they are ahead in MMICs?
Old info but good info since it pretty much predicted the Yakhroma radar operating in 4 bands to further increase evidence that it is indeed a photonic radar since I was unsure before.

A team of specialists on the basis of the Research Institute of long-range radar is developing a fundamentally new X-band radar station, operating on the basis of radiophoton technologies

For example, the basis of radar systems for missile defense and tracking of space objects are huge radar systems. The rooms in which the equipment is located are multi-storey buildings. The use of photonic technology will fit all the control and processing systems in much smaller dimensions - literally in several rooms. At the same time, the technical capabilities of radars to detect even small objects at a distance of thousands of kilometers will only increase. Moreover, due to the use of photonic technologies on the radar screen will appear not a mark of the target, and its image, which is unattainable by classical radar. That is, the operator instead of the usual glowing point will see that it is really flying - a plane, a rocket, a flock of birds or a meteorite, it is worth repeating, even thousands of kilometers from the radar.

Now all radar systems - military and civilian - operate in a strictly defined range of frequencies, which complicates technical design and leads to a variety of radar range. Photon radars will achieve the highest degree of unification. They are able to instantly adjust in a very wide range of working frequencies - from meter values to millimeters.

It's just about location. Revolutionary changes will take place in electronic warfare, in the transmission of information and its protection, in computing and much more. It's easier to say it won't affect radio photography.

In fact, a fundamentally new branch of high-tech industry will be created. The task is complex, so many leading research centers of the country, university science, a number of industrial enterprises are involved in its solution. According to Shulunov, the work is in close contact with the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Economic Development, the Ministry of Science and Education. Recently, they were taken under control by the President of Russia.
Love finding old but new info page 24

Sintering approaches are also used layers of structure or combining through polyimide layers and selective epitaxial growth of active layers in areas formed topology on the plate. Here flexibility of technologies is combined with high technology and complexity, the need for precise control of material parameters and critical dimensions of topology elements. An increase in the performance, functionality, and reliability of radio-photonic circuits is possible only when switching from discrete elements to integral. Construction of complex radio-photonic systems in the frequency range more than 30–40 GHz on the basis of discrete components becomes problematic and ineffective; therefore, the increase in the frequency range is typical for the FIS. For instance, a combination of the А3В5 / Si heterogeneous integration technology and the use of micro ring resonators as part of a PIS modulator recently allowed to create by developers record superlinear modulator with free dynamic range in the USA 117 dB · Hz2 / 3 [3]. FROM THE CENTER OF COMPETENCE TO CLUSTER One of the most important active elements of the radio-photonic component base is a microwave modulator. When using radio-photonic schemes with external modulation, the laser emits in a continuous mode, and the modulation of the signal is carried out by the modulator. This is currently the approach made it possible to achieve maximum modulation frequencies of 100 GHz and data transmission rates up to 400 Gbit / s. The development of a component base for radiophotonics has begun in Russia. For example, a modulator based on lithium niobate was developed at the Physicotechnical Institute (FTI) named after A.F. Ioffe RAS. However, until now, there was practically no groundwork in the country integrated radio-photonics technologies for formation of FIS. As a result, NRNU MEPhI became one of the leading centers of excellence for creation of a cluster for integrated radio photonics. It has great scientific and technical potential for research and developments in this extremely important area. Firstly, NRNU MEPhI has an experienced technological line for the development of electronic and optoelectronic devices for microwave electronics based on non-silicon heterostructures А3В5. Most of the processes on the creation of integrated radio photonics components on the InP technological platform

One of the leading developments of the holding "Shvabe" is a disc active element made of neodymium phosphate glass, designed for for high precision large active elements. Its unique composition, which amplifies laser radiation, is protected by several patents in Russia and other countries, as well as awarded the 2016 Prize of the Government of the Russian Federation in Science and Technology. In Munich on exhibition Laser World of Photonics - 2017 it became the main exhibit of "Shvabe". Another interesting development of the holding - new stereoscopic microscope MBS-16 for the study of volumetric objects, thin film and transparent objects. The guests of the Munich exposition were able to test it in action, having studied the structural features of the matrices photodetectors, the creation of which also represents one of the most active developing activities holding. - On the territory of Russia in an innovative sphere - photonics - "Shvabe" is the leader and a system integrator. Currently the holding develops several directions in this industries, including lasers, optical materials and photodetectors. In Germany there were samples of these products are presented, including know-how - an absolutely new element base superpower laser complexes. This is a breakthrough achievement in Russian optical science. and technique, which since the beginning of its use will solve the problem of creating energy complexes of the future, - notes the first deputy General Director of Shvabe Holding - Deputy for R&D and Innovative Development Sergey Popov.

logic of microelectronics and photonics, as well as completely new ones based on the growth of heterostructures and microlithography. One of the flagship models is a photodetector device that operates in shortwave parts of the infrared range (0.9-1.7 micro meters of SWIR range). This range is not thermal, the image is built due to reflection of radiation from objects, and not due to their own radiation. Therefore, the images of objects will be comparable to the visible image - the contrast of the reflected radiation obtained due to the difference between the reflection coefficients of the object and the background. This camera is capable of functioning in fog and smoke. This was shown by the results of its testing in Obninsk at the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information - the World Data Center, where artificial fog was created in a very large room. So, at first I stopped A regular video camera, then observers, and the SWIR camera continued to record not only the object, but also specially applied labels. Cameras operating in this range are promising for the fleet, aviation, in the operation of cars and armored vehicles. SWIR camera is able to detect soldiers dressed in camouflage uniforms, military equipment under camouflage nets. It is impossible to hide dummies of missiles and tanks from her, another military equipment. The device is also capable of detecting the trail of a mortar projectile in the sky, from which it is possible to quite accurately determine the coordinates of the gun. Demonstrated by Shvabe specialists and optical surveillance systems for Russian drones, which are actively developing towards a decrease in weight and dimensions, including for middle class UAVs. Working with aspherical optics, designers "Shvabe" instead of seven conventional lenses, only two. As a result, the mass of the lens has decreased. one and a half to two times. The second area of activity is the stabilization of equipment for drone board. And most importantly - very necessary for the military - the creation of a laser illumination, which provides accurate guidance of guided munitions. As part of the further improvement of the military equipment, Shvabe created an all-day portable reconnaissance device and a portable reconnaissance device. This is a new class of devices which allow you to see in the infrared range, determine the coordinates of the target; in them built-in compass and positioning system. All information goes into a single system tactical level management (ESU TK). But Shvabe does not stop at the fact that done today, and is developing the elements equipment of the soldiers of the future, many of which can be attributed to devices taken from science fiction books. In particular, we are talking about about helmet-mounted eyecups and monitors with infrared and television components, as well as augmented reality systems - when a fighter's points receive an additional information about the coordinates of the place, the nearest to him objects, the intended direction enemy attack. As a result, the picture that the warrior sees in front of him, is combined with target indications, electronic maps, incoming teams. And this is not fiction - "Shvabe" is already does. And to counter terrorists, the holding plans to create a thermal imaging complex contactless remote control of the emotional state of a person by his heat field. By the way, a similar "lie detector" could be used for admission to work. For example, SWIR cameras can distinguish between a face made up, which cannot be done visually. Psycho-emotional state the thermal field can also be determined: it seems that outwardly the person did not blush, but pinkness is visible in the infrared range his cheeks. In this way, a person can be distinguished even in a crowd. THE POWER OF ENERGY In laser ranging systems, ranging and target designation, as well as for the solution of civil tasks (cutting, drilling, welding, engraving) ready to the use of a new pulse solid state diode pumped laser. Thanks to the original design, the pump efficiency is increased by 30% and the output laser energy is increased by 90%. The novelty was created by a subsidiary holding - by specialists of the Research Institute "Polyus" (Research Institute "Polyus") named after M.F.Stelmakh. Their development consists from a rod - an active element, two powerful diode arrays acting as a pump source, as well as a Q-switch, responsible for the operation of the laser in a pulsed mode. In this unit, near the laser bar beveled ends. Through them, radiation from powerful diode arrays freely penetrates into the active element, which increased by 30% laser pumping efficiency. Specialists Research Institute "Polyus" named after M.F.Stelmakh also used a Q-switch in the product, which made it possible to obtain pulses at the laser output nanosecond duration.

Having yielded to foreign countries leadership in the field microelectronics, Russia plans to bypass competitors in another area - radio photonics and defense technologies in its basis. Today, this is supposed to be done through support the state and attracting large investors to the industry. The Russian school of photonics is considered one of the best in the world. Nobel Prize for physics in 1964 was awarded to Alexander Prokhorov and Nikolai Basov for the research that led to the creation of the laser, and in 2000 - to Zhores Alferov for development in optoelectronics. Currently, no one in our country is engaged in a wide circle of research institutions and manufacturing plants in Moscow, Petersburg, Novosibirsk and other cities. At the same time, the recognized leader in this area is the Concern "Radioelectronic Technologies" (KRET). It is KRET in cooperation with the Fund Advanced Research Projects (FPI) established laboratory of radiophotonics, which allowed domestic scientists to advance far forward in a promising scientific direction and designate the transition to the sixth technological order, in other words - to a new level of evolution of industrial production, when its appearance will be determined by the use of "smart" information

networks and materials created at the nano level. In November 2014, KRET and FPI signed agreement on the implementation of a promising scientific and technical project "Development active phased array based on radiophotonics ", including conducting research on the basis of the enterprises of the concern, as well as the development of a universal technology that will form the basis for the created radars and systems of radioelectronic fight (electronic warfare) of a new generation. - Radiophotonics is a promising scientific direction that will determine the vector of development of dual technology in the future. destination all over the world. For Russia it is there will be a huge scientific breakthrough, - notes advisor to the first deputy general Director of KRET Vladimir Mikheev. Today, the laboratory is carrying out a whole range of research activities, testing samples of the elemental base of radiophotonics and a wide range of devices for it. basis. In addition to basic research, KRET specialists are engaged in the expansion of areas application of devices and systems based on radio photonics for radio communication, mobile communications and energy. According to Vladimir Mikheeva, the latest technologies will allow in the next decade to create receiving and transmitting devices, radar stations, radio engineering intelligence and electronic countermeasures systems new generation. THESE Mysterious Rofar What kind of devices will be discussed further? In everyday life, they are unlikely will be available just like that, and only specialists know that ROFAR is an abbreviation for radars operating on the basis of radio-optical phased array antennas. Their peculiarity lies in the possibility of regulating the amplitudes and phases of the excitation fields of each radiating element directly in the grating itself and obtaining the required radiated power on the canvas without power-consuming "closet" transmitting equipment. Phased array antennas have a whole range of undeniable advantages. Among them, we will single out, first of all, high reliability. If at least one fails from the transceiving elements of the lattice, then the chart parameters will worsen a little antenna directionality, but the locator will continue to function. At the same time, the use of radio-photon technologies, especially in integral design, will significantly reduce the weight and size parameters compared to "traditional" solutions. In addition, the use of radio photography will significantly increase the bandwidth of emitted signals without losses at large angles of deviation of the radiation pattern from the normal of the antenna array. It is fair to say that phased array antennas are not cheap, affecting the price of the entire radar system. However, technology is not worth on site, and the cost of transmitting and receiving elements are steadily decreasing, giving grounds for their wider application. Developments in this area are carried out by specialists both in the USA and in Europe. Not out of place mention the AN / APG 77 radar station built in the USA, which is equipped with fifth generation fighter F-22 Raptor. Carrying a station on board, the F-22 Raptor can search for planes against a nick in such a way that they won't even notice, that they are being irradiated with radio signals. Unlike from conventional radars emitting powerful energy pulses in a narrow frequency range, the AN / APG 77, on the contrary, emits low energy pulses in a wide frequency range. When the reflected signals return from the target to the radar, it is optimal processes them, providing the pilot with accurate information about distance, speed and angular parameters of the target. "RADAR VISION" Of course, KRET takes into account the realities of today and is actively working on the creation of new ROFAR, moving forward compared to overseas competitors. And there is something to fight for! With the help of ROFAR in the future it will be possible to build real networks

from synchronized space and ground radio telescopes, as well as to cover the fuselages of aircraft and helicopters Smart cladding of a new type. It is planned to equip with radars based on ROFAR, for example, the Russian fifth generation fighter, a number of other aircraft (manned and unmanned), warships and under water boats. All of them will find ROFAR very handy, because the level of resolution, the speed and efficiency of broadband radars will become so high that one can speak of “radar vision”. According to a number of experts, the radar with radio-optical phased array antennas are able to detect a plane located at a distance of more than 500 km, and give the user his volumetric radio images. With the help of ROFAR, in the future it will become it is possible to cover the fuselage of aircraft and helicopters with "smart" casing, which allows their crews to receive an integral radar picture throughout range of solid angles around the aircraft. ROFAR will be able to provide work antenna systems in active and passive radar mode, installation of all types interference, covert and anti-jamming data transmission, communication with the ground and other aircraft, state identification and a number of other functions. A few numbers. Currently the frequency radiation of modern radars is 10 GHz with 1-2 GHz bandwidth. At ROFAR she can oscillate at the same time from 1 to 100 GHz. This in the long term will provide range superresolution. Besides, the possibility of frequency tuning in a wide range will significantly reduce the effectiveness of the use of electronic struggle (EW) against complexes using ROFAR. ROFAR can also be used in civilian industries, for example, in railway transport, where they can instantly find obstacles on the way of high-speed trains. According to Vladimir Mikheev, the laboratory of radiophotonics is working on the creation of a prototype ROFAR, and if it will pass all the necessary tests, it will be launched into mass production. A full-scale ROFAR sample must be created in the near future. After that a list of manned and unmanned aerial vehicles will be formed, which are planned to be equipped with radars based on ROFAR. Possibility of restructuring frequencies in a wide range will significantly reduce efficiency of application electronic warfare equipment against complexes, using ROFAR

Only copied the texts I have found interesting but just like KRET, RTI states up to 100ghz but included the transmission data rates of 400 gigabits per second which is pretty new info to me and by transmission data rate I am assuming communication capabilities of transmitting information. Also what do they mean by that modern radars use 10ghz with 1-2ghz Bandwidth? Do they mean they can use 10ghz with a 1-100ghz bandwidth? Is bandwidth what is responsible for SAR resolution capabilities such as higher frequencies mean higher resolution such as seeing and recognizing human faces? Is that what they mean provides them super resolution? Latest RTI articles were boring currently awaiting any day now to a couple of months for their newer articles for those that have time to kill

Industry asked to develop microwave photonics components for RF and microwave applications like radar​

DARPA wants lithium-niobate field-configurable modulator arrays (FCMAs) for RF links, RF signal processing, radar, and RF spectrum management.

U.S. military RF and microwave experts are reaching out to the microelectronics industry to develop lithium-niobate field-configurable modulator arrays (FCMAs) for point-to-point RF links, RF signal processing, radar, and RF spectrum management.

Officials of the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in Arlington, Va., issued a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) opportunity announcement on Thursday (HR001120S0019-13) for the Field Controllable Modulator Array (FCMA) project.

Although microwave photonics represents an important technology for military applications, the military microwave photonic systems deployed to date repurpose commercial components for military functions.

The most recent developments in industrial telecommunications have been in specialized application-specific photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Today's military applications cannot use these devices, however, because application-specific PICs cannot be repurposed.

Related: Military researchers eye RF and microwave signal processing technologies for signals intelligence (SIGINT)

In addition, the volume of military systems is insufficient to support a dedicated PIC infrastructure at a bearable cost. Instead, the FCMA project seeks to solve this problem by developing FCMAs that can be purposed for military and commercial applications.

The FCMA concept is based on electro-optic modulators that can be programmed for different functions. Lithium niobate is considered to be mature, cost-effective, and performs well enough for military applications.

Performers will design, fabricate, and demonstrate an FCMA for electronic protection, signals intelligence, radar beamforming, and communications.

Related: DARPA asks industry to develop photonic-electronic processor for advanced signals intelligence

The FCMA must be able to operate from 1 MHz to 18 GHz, and use the nonlinear response of a Mach-Zehnder modulator to suppress a continuous-wave interference signal by 60 decibels to suppress an interference signal with 10 MHz instantaneous bandwidth by 40 decibels -- both while reducing the largest intermodulation distortion by 30 decibels.

The signals-intelligence configuration will improve the intrinsic third-order-limited spurious-free dynamic range of a Mach-Zehnder modulator by 10 decibels.

The radar-beamforming application will provide 360 degrees of RF phase shift that can be modulated at 100 kHz. The communications configuration, meanwhile, must support 10 gigabits per second of modulation on each of the in-phase and quadrature components of a lightwave.

Related: Two companies to help Navy develop SWaP low-band radar jammers to clear the way for stealth aircraft

Companies selected must demonstrate a complete FCMA design at a lithium-niobate foundry, which the company will identify. If successful, the company will package the FCMA chip in a sealed package. The final prototype will have a permanently attached fiber-optic input and output, with permanently attached RF and control connectors applied to the electrodes.

Russian researchers have discovered a way to produce nonlinear optical crystals in glass. Such crystals allow you to control the properties of light passing through them, to turn invisible infrared radiation into visible.

To obtain them, the glass was treated with intense laser pulses. According to scientists, in the future, such crystals can act as elements of the architecture of a super-productive optical computer.

As the mendeleevs explained, they first synthesized glass, which consists of germanium and lead oxides. Then, to obtain crystals with the specified parameters, the researchers processed such glasses with intense laser pulses. Laser heating caused the glass (which was not originally a crystalline material) to melt, and subsequent cooling caused it to crystallize.

The resulting crystals, scientists note, are called nonlinear-optical. These seemingly unremarkable transparent materials have a special symmetry of structure and allow you to control the properties of light passing through them, including turning invisible infrared radiation into visible light.

Such crystals are used in laser technology, the researchers explain. However, for applications in the field of photonic computing, it was necessary to reduce optical elements to a micron size and integrate them together to create optical microchips. This was done by scientists who grew crystals directly in the glass.

"We use the direct laser recording method: using a powerful femtosecond laser, we heat the glass to high temperatures, but we do it very carefully — the heating zone is limited to only a few microns. As a result, with the help of such gentle heating, it is possible to crystallize the specified micro-volumes of glass and create long tracks with an almost monocrystalline structure, which have all the properties of a nonlinear optical crystal," Sergey Lotarev explained.

This is not the first time that the rhtu team has worked on the creation of nonlinear optical crystals. Previously, scientists were able to grow lanthanum borohermanate crystals in glass, which can be used to change the wavelength of laser radiation. Currently, researchers are studying various possibilities of glass crystallization using a laser in order to create other materials with a given microstructure.

A successful combination of the properties of crystals and glass in one material will allow it to be used in the creation of an optical computer, the researchers believe. According to Sergey Lotarev, in the future, microscopic nonlinear optical crystals can function as an integrated electro-optical modulator - an element of the architecture of a super-productive optical computer."
So 4th gen radar GaAS MMIC, 5th gen GaN AESA MMIC, 6th gen photonic PIC, 7th gen quantum QIC?

Experts of the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT) and the Laboratory of Artificial quantum systems (LYCS) claim that the new quantum integrated circuit is unique and fully controlled. According to them, even at the current stage of development it can be applied in quantum machine learning.

Representatives of MIPT noted that the creation of the Russian multi-cubit integrated circuit was made possible by four factors, and the first among them is a significant improvement in the control of the geometric and electrical parameters of tunnel contacts. According to the representatives of the university, these contacts can be considered the "heart" of superconducting qubits, as the quality and reproducibility of their manufacture directly depends on the performance of the entire quantum scheme. The second factor is the setting up of the technology of making microwave resonators, the goodness of which in a single photon mode is hundreds of thousands. This is also a very important part of quantum integrated circuits - they are needed to read the quantum state of qubits. The third factor is the debugging of the process of making "air bridge" (air bridge) necessary to suppress parasitic resonant mods, which positively affects the goodness of structures. But the most important component that allowed MIPT specialists to create a multi-cobit scheme, in their opinion, is their experience in this area over the past few years. THE IFTI does not specify when the era of Russian quantum computers will begin, as well as do not disclose their future plans to develop new multi-cubit integrated circuits and their implementation. For any further action in this area, it is necessary to modernize both the CCP and the IX laboratory within the IFTI. Of Russia's large companies, Rosatom is particularly interested in quantum computing. In 2020, they were offered a plan of work - a "road map" of the development of quantum technologies in Russia
If they are using photonic crystals for a photonic radar, I think this might be another advantage atleast for the nose of the radar instead of the canopy. Article wasn't found for me to completely read so I used cached. http://webcache.googleusercontent.c.../en/article/id/8937+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Application of photonic crystal in radar crosssection reduction of scattering on airplane canopy​

  • YIN Yan1 , , ,
  • YUAN Nai-chang2
  • 1.
    Department of Applied Physics,National University of Defense Technology,Changsha 410073,China;
  • 2.
    Institute of Electronic Science and Engineering,National University of Defense Technology,Changsha 410073,China

More Information
  • Abstract​

    A metallicdielectric photonic crystal thinfilm is presented. Its reflectivity and transmissivity are calculated with the transmission matrix method. The numerical results show that the photonic crystal film has an up to 99% reflectivity for millimeter and centimeter waves and about 50% average transmissivity for the visible light in microwave spectrum. The effects of the dielectric layer thickness, the metallic layer thickness and the total thickness of metallic layers on the transmissivity are examined, and the principles of material selection and structure design are presented. Due to these characteristics, the metallicdielectric photonic crystal film can be employed in effective reduction of radar crosssection of scattering on airplane canopy.

This video probably should be included in Russia's ABM shield thread somewhere in this forum but at 31:52(english subtitles) there is an interesting bit on photonic radar operating in the Terra hertz frequency range.
old info but good info.

page 69 "Terahertz radar stations
can not only improve the accuracy of determining the coordinates and parameters of air
objects, but also to identify their type.
Small size and weight of the antenna
and devices of the terahertz range make it possible to create portable stations operating in conditions of smoke and atmospheric precipitation. Mass production
Radar of a new generation, according to the director
scientific and technical center "Terahertsy"
OJSC "RTI" by Alexey Vagin, may start
over the next 5 years. And in the structure
Concern "RTI" has enterprises that
able to master the serial production of such
devices based on the THz range: for example,
Yaroslavl Radio Plant.
In general, the comprehensive development of the THz-range is one of the key tasks of the scientific world.
It is gratifying that Russian scientists are making their own
a significant contribution to its solution. "

"Thanks to such technical features, Shoigu noted, the Russian military on the peninsula will be able to track the presence and movement of all targets that are several thousand kilometers away, including stealth aircraft, UAVs, ballistic and cruise missiles. newest radar, the construction of which was announced within the framework of the annual board of the Ministry of Defense, the head of the Ministry of Defense Sergei Shoigu, will be deployed in Crimea and will start working in four wave ranges at once," TASS reports, citing its own sources in the domestic defense industry."

At the same time, they calculated that the Yakhroma radar station would be able to cover half of Canada and reach the state of California in the USA with its sensitive devices. In addition, it will be able to monitor an unimaginably gigantic space, backing up other early warning radars. She will "see" from the Spitsbergen archipelago and Greenland to the largest Japanese island of Honshu and the entire North Pacific Ocean.

Note that in December 2020, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu announced the start of work on the construction of the Yakhroma radar station in Sevastopol in 2021. Earlier, in 2019, the newspaper "News" reported that according to the Russian military, it is planned to deploy the Voronezh radar station on the territory of the Nakhimovsky district of Sevastopol, so that "the folds of the terrain do not interfere with its work."

Don't know if there is another radar thread with integrated circuits so here.

"Gallium nitride, the semiconductor of choice for 5G electronics and large search radars, is on the cusp of transitioning into fighter aircraft’s fire-control radar, promising the single largest leap in performance since the active, electronically scanned array revolution in the late 1990s.

A technological shift from traveling-wave tubes to gallium arsenide (GaAs) chips enabled the packaging of active, electronically scanned arrays (AESA) into the cramped nose radomes of fighters two decades ago.

Now, far more powerful gallium nitride (GaN) technology is finally approaching critical mass for the same application. Advanced fabrication techniques have increased the hardiness and lowered the cost of GaN semiconductors, paving the way to introduce the monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) chips of a new generation of airborne phased arrays.

In the near term, GaN offers an opportunity to double the detection range of installed AESA radars on several fighter fleets, if power generation and cooling requirements can be met.

Longer term, the shift to GaN opens up design options for a new generation of combat aircraft. Instead of shaping the nose of a fighter around the cross section of the radar antenna, the extra power-added efficiency of GaAs’ powerful replacement may lead to installing a smaller array of transmitter/receiver modules up front and distributing networked, multifunctional apertures around the airframe.

In new fighter radars designed in France, Israel, Japan, South Korea, Sweden, the UK and U.S., GaN is already the most promising semiconductor material for the next generation of combat aircraft.

But the first fighter to enter service with a GaN-improved fire-control radar will not be an American Next-Generation Air Dominance, British Tempest, French or German Future Combat Air System, Japanese F-X, Korean KF-21 or Swedish JAS-39E/F Gripen. That distinction will instead belong to the U.S. Marine Corps’ aging Boeing F/A-18A-D fleet, an aircraft type still in service only because of delays with the Lockheed Martin F-35B/C.

In late April, Raytheon revealed that a two-year-old project to upgrade radar on the remaining F/A-18A-Ds to an AESA features the first application of GaN in a fire-control radar. As with most radio frequency (RF) device manufacturers, Raytheon has had more than a decade of experience in manufacturing the fickle GaN material; previous applications ranged from the ground-based Patriot radar to the airborne Next-Generation Jammer Mid-Band. But the APG-79(V)4 upgrade represents the first application of GaN in a fighter’s primary RF sensor.

The exact numbers are classified, but in general terms, the greater power-added efficiency of GaN compared with GaAs “roughly doubles the detection range with the same size, same aperture and the same amount of power,” Ditmars says.

In a way, the advent of GaN arrays could make fourth-generation fighters such as the F/A-18E/F more relevant as adversaries deploy ground-based air defenses and air-to-air intercept missiles with longer range. The F/A-18E/F lacks the extent of stealth technology embedded into the Lockheed Martin F-22 and F-35, so maximizing the range of the fire-control radar may become a priority.

The same principle could also apply to another service using fighters with Raytheon radars. The Air Force is now fielding the Boeing F-15EX with the APG-82 AESA radar but last December issued a request for information seeking a broad range of potential upgrades. Raytheon responded to the solicitation with ideas for applying GaN to the APG-82, Ditmars says. Follow-up discussions with the Air Force about future radar upgrades for the F-15EX began in early June, he adds

Raytheon’s forward-leaning approach to applying GaN in existing fire-control radars may not be universal. Northrop Grumman—the supplier of the APG-83 radar for F-16s, the APG-77 for the F-22 and the APG-81 for the F-35—does not comment on whether the upgrade road map for existing systems includes a transition to GaN. Greg Simer, Northrop’s vice president of air dominance and strike, says the company is committed to applying GaN where it makes sense. “I don’t know the specifics for those legacy Hornets and what were the design drivers and requirements that led to them going down the GaN path,” Simer says, referring to Raytheon. “But each of the air vehicles have unique restraints and requirements that make it possible in the right place.”

Specifications THERZ-7A

  • The detection range of large objects (hidden under clothing) is at least 15 m.
  • The throughput capacity in the mode of passage of the inspection object is at least 150 people / hour.
  • The maximum time during which the result of the inspection is issued (the presence or absence of objects provided that the object of inspection is immobile) does not exceed 2 s.
  • The results of the inspection, presented to the OPERATOR OF THERZ-7A on the monitor screen of the AWP, visualize the hidden object with its binding to the location on the inspected object.
  • THERZ-7A has the ability to work both autonomously (independently) and as part of an integrated complex of technical means of security over the Ethernet channel.
  • Storage time of recorded video information – 30 days.
  • It is possible to write stored information to external media (removable hard drive or solid-state data carrier).
  • THERZ-7A operates from a general industrial AC network with a voltage of 220 V (±10%), a frequency of 50 (±1) Hz.
  • The total electrical power does not exceed 150 W.
  • Operating temperature range from +5 to +40 ° C inside heated rooms without condensation of moisture, the degree of protection of the shell is IP20.
  • Overall dimensions of the camera unit – 660×650×245 mm.
Possible scheme of organization of the security inspection zone using THERZ-7A

Possible scheme of organization of the security inspection zone using THERZ-7A

Synergistic effect

New security systems allow law enforcement agencies working in the subway to check passengers without interfering with the movement of crowds of people, and take preventive measures if suspicious objects, explosive devices or weapons are found.

  • The use of the THERZ-7A complex at the facilities will achieve the following effects:
  • early remote detection of hidden objects on the approach to the object;
  • detection of non-metallic hidden objects;
  • improving the effectiveness of operational organizational and technical measures;
  • harmlessness to people;
  • non-invasive (without displaying the anatomical structure);
  • the possibility of organizing high-quality and effective remote inspection of people at facilities;
  • improving the overall efficiency of existing and newly created integrated complexes and systems of physical protection of metro facilities of the Russian Federation.

Terahertz technology in the future will be widely used. In particular, it will be used in the military sphere, said Pavel Laptaev, general director of RTI JSC, which develops missile attack warning systems.

Specialists of "RTI" today pay a lot of attention to terahertz technologies, interest in which, in particular, shows Rosgvardia. Representatives of law enforcement agencies reacted positively to the project of a new and more effective inspection system. Despite the fact that now there is only a mock-up sample, the appearance of a fully working station is expected at the Army-2020 forum.

In the future, terahertz technologies will form the basis of the latest radars capable of detecting small drones and working in space. According to Laptaev, this technique allows you to reduce the level of energy consumption and at the same time with high accuracy to direct the beam to a fairly small object. At the same time, the stations will be able to receive information about the speed and trajectory of the target, its shape and the material from which it is made.

"Terahertz technology will be converted into a product within five years. Taking into account the fact that only in 2019 we managed to achieve significant results, we mastered the element base, learned to identify objects and materials," Laptayev emphasized.

Now specialists have to do the most difficult work - software development. It is he who, on the basis of the accumulated information, will have to determine the category of the object in a very short time and subsequently effectively interact with the operator.

Earlier it was reported that the specialists of the company "Radar-MMS" are working on the creation of a new radar station. It is expected that it will be installed on aircraft.

About the novelty found out the journalists of "Star". Having visited the unique anechoic chamber of the company "Radar-MMS", they saw the process of debugging the latest radar. Despite the fact that the characteristics of the device are kept in the strictest confidence, journalists still managed to find out that it will be able to detect any objects within a radius of 100 kilometers. In addition, the radar compares favorably with analogues with increased noise immunity. It is also reported that the carriers of the system will be aircraft, but there is no information about specific models.

It is worth noting that Radar-MMS occupies a leading position in the development of radio-electronic systems and complexes for special and civil purposes, as well as specialized software and precision instrumentation.

In Russia, much attention is paid to the development of existing and the creation of new radars. At the same time, completely different systems are being developed. As the ex-commander of the air defense system, Lieutenant General Alexander Gorkov, said, the appearance of ultra-long-range radars will significantly increase the radar field of air defense systems. Thanks to this, the command will have more time to make a decision. And this, in turn, gives a very significant

Yuri Anoshko: Russian radars see all planes in the air

Along the bordersRussia has created a continuous radar field within the framework of the missile attack warning system (SPRN), which makes it possible to monitor ballistic targets. Work is underway to create a continuous field using over-the-horizon stations. The Russian Armed Forces pay special attention to the development of air and space surveillance systems, taking into account the concepts of multi-sphere operations and a massive air strike developed in NATO. General Director of the Concern "RTI systems"Yuri Anoshko on the forum "Army-2021" said in an interview with RIA Novosti, Dmitry Reshetnikov on the current capabilities of the Russian early warning system, the next directions of its development, modernization of stations to the level of "Yakhroma", about the effect of the use of U.S. technology "stealth", and also restrictions on artificial intelligence in radar, watching the space, and the nuances of working with space debris.
– What are the capabilities of the Russian missile attack warning system (SPRN)? Which ballistic missile launches can we track and which can't, and is the system capable of detecting hypersonic vehicles?
– In fact, Russian EWS stations can see any target that is above the horizon. We are also talking about aerodynamic objects, such as airplanes, as well as hypersonic vehicles. The question is, what size is the target, and at what distance do we need to accompany it?
– And at what maximum range are we currently able to detect missiles or other objects?
– Today, we see spacecraft in geostationary orbit using the radar stations that are part of the early warning system. This is an altitude above the Earth's surface of more than 30 thousand kilometers.
– Earlier, the Russian Defense Ministry announced plans to create a continuous radar field not only for ballistic targets, but also for aerodynamic targets. It was about the Container stations, the first of which was put on combat duty in Mordovia. How many such stations will you need? In which regions are they planned to be delivered and in what time frame?
– If the EWS stations see targets that are above the level of the radio horizon, then the Container radars are just able to look beyond the radio horizon due to the fact that they use decameter-length waves that are re-reflected from the ionosphere. How many such stations will be required is a question for the Ministry of Defense, which orders the required number, we do not make such estimates. As I imagine, these stations should be deployed along our border and cover the corresponding space.
– In addition to the" Container " in Mordovia, any other work is currently underway?
– Yes, the Ministry of Defense has decided that a whole system will be deployed, and as part of this task, work is being carried out to create new Container stations.
– Earlier it was stated that at the end of the year of operation, the Container station in Mordovia confirmed its qualities. In particular, it showed the ability to detect NATO aircraftmade using stealth technology. What kind of aircraft are we talking about? Under what circumstances were they detected?
- Stealth technology involves reducing the probability of detecting a given object in a certain range of wavelengths. And as a rule, stealth technologies are focused on the wavelength range in which radars that detect such targets operate. In particular, these are on-board radars of other aircraft, radars of anti-aircraft missile systems, and so on. The over-the-horizon station operates in a completely different wavelength range, the so-called short waves, although their length ranges from tens to hundreds of meters. In this case, the effect achieved by using radio-absorbing coatings and the shape of the aircraft itself no longer works. Accordingly, for an over-the-horizon station, the use of stealth technology is not an obstacle to detection.
– Can you use over-the-horizon stations to determine the type of target? Is it possible to say that it was the F-35 that flew?
– The task for over-the-horizon stations to identify the types of air targets is not worth it. The task is to detect changes in the intensity of aviation use over the horizon, at a distance of up to three thousand kilometers from the station's position. That is, against the background of regular aircraft traffic, you can see the appearance of something non-standard, such as the use of special aviation. The interest is to reveal the very fact of an abnormal development of the situation in the air.
– So its accuracy is low, and you won't be able to determine the coordinates from it?
– You can determine the object's location.
– And how many re-reflections of the signal occur at the maximum range of the station?
– We work on the same race.
– You say that it is impossible to determine the type of target, while how can we say that the Container in Mordovia detected foreign stealth aircraft?
"Very simple. We simply see all the planes that are in the air due to the lengths of radio waves with which the "Container" works. Accordingly, knowing from open sources where the F-35s are based, and knowing that they flew sorties, we can say for sure that we saw them and accompanied them.
– How effective do you think stealth technology is?
- It depends on what I want to achieve using this technology. If I use it in some countries that have certain classes of radars in the air defense system, including on-board radars of fighters from the air defense forces on duty, then stealth technology can be quite effective for breaking through this system.
– If we hypothetically assume that the United States has brought its B2s against us, will we see them?
– The probability of a direct breakthrough of our air defense system by these aircraft is almost zero. Some other means should make a breakout zone for them, and then it will become possible. But these planes themselves, apart from the effect of psychological pressure, in my opinion, are useless against us as a means of air attack.
– Well, at least the range of their detection is reduced due to the technology of reducing radar visibility?
– Today, where B-2BS are deployed, and this is far beyond our territory, we detect them with the help of over-the-horizon stations even on the flight route. Regardless of the "stealth" technology.
– Is the work on creating a radiophoton radar continuing?
- Work continues, we are building up our competence in this matter. Moreover, we are creating one of the competence centers for the development of radiophotonics. Moreover, we will develop it not in purely theoretical terms, but in applied terms – from the point of view of implementing these technologies in newly created locators.
– Earlier it was announced about the construction of new Yakhroma EWS stations in the Crimea and the Far East. Is this a further modernization of Voronezh stations?
– Yes, this is another step in the development of the Voronezh series of radars. These stations will have greater noise immunity and bandwidth. In addition, already in the course of their creation, the technology of an automated digital twin system will be implemented, which allows tracking the status of the radar (stages of the radar life cycle).
– Will all other EWS stations be upgraded according to the same scheme?
– Yes, of course, all the new achievements that we get at the new station, we use when upgrading existing ones. During the modernization period, we will also bring them to this level.
– And by what year will Yakhroma be built in the Crimea?
– It is better for you to contact the state customer.
– Are there plans to use artificial intelligence elements in new EWS stations, for example, to ensure their functioning without human intervention?
– It all depends on what we mean by artificial intelligence (AI). In fact, these are just mathematical and logical methods of information processing. They are required when there is more and more information available. Naturally, such methods are used in the processing of radar information, in station management, and in diagnostics of its condition. Another question is whether AI makes decisions. In this case, of course, this is out of the question and cannot be. Because the information that EWS stations give out must be evaluated by a person for reliability. Otherwise, we may get a situation where, as a result of a technical or software failure, an erroneous decision will be made about a missile attack, which may lead to irreversible consequences.
– Will the level of automation of Yakhroma allow you to reduce the combat crew?
- Of course, automation involves reducing the number of people who participate in the operation of the plant. The combat crew of Yakhroma will be smaller than on Voronezh.
– Today, the problem of space debris is acute, which, in particular, can threaten the collision of existing spacecraft of the Russian group. Are EWS stations involved in tracking debris and space debris objects? Is this data transmittedRoscosmos?
– All EWS radars continuously monitor the space situation. As I said, the radars control everything over the radio horizon. We see spacecraft that operate in their orbits, upper stages, various launch objects, and elements of destroyed space objects. Information about them is systematized in the catalog of space objects, which is used, among other things, to exclude dangerous situations in space.
– How small can you see objects?
– The thing is, we can't measure the object we're currently seeing – we can't fly up to it with a ruler. We see space objects with a certain effective scattering area. Depending on the angle of illumination, on how it is illuminated by the sun or illuminated by our radar, we can observe a variety of objects.
– That is, radar radiation from the Sun, reflected by an object in the direction of the SPRN station receiver, also allows you to see space objects, as they say, in passive mode?
– Yes, this situation is also feasible.
– The Americans have a NORAD command. They regularly observe our spacecraft and distribute their orbit parameters. Do we also track their satellites with EWS stations?
– All objects located above the radio horizon are observed, including space objects.
– Do you plan to upgrade the Don-2N missile defense station near Moscow? In what directions can its modernization be carried out?
– We just recently completed the modernization of this station, now it is undergoing testing. As a result of these works, the functionality of Don-2N has changed. Moreover, it has not only changed its quantitative characteristics, but also its qualitative ones. For obvious reasons, I can't give you specific values.
- Tell us more about the Elik complex.
– This is an onboard multi-frequency radar system. With the help of this complex, for example, during the tests, a runway from the Great Patriotic War was discovered, completely covered with a layer of earth in 10 centimeters. There was a metal grid that was then used for field airfields, it was forgotten about, and it was overgrown with a cultural layer, and "Elik" discovered it.
– For what purposes can the complex be used?
– It can be used for monitoring pipelines that may be collapsed or buried, for monitoring any other structures that may be located at some depth, for example, gas pipelines, oil pipelines. The wavelengths that Elik uses are 3 centimeters, 23 centimeters and 73 centimeters.
– What is its maximum penetration capacity into the ground?
– Such assessments have not been carried out yet.
– What kind of aircraft is Elik installed on?
– It's still a test facility. It is not put on any specific aircraft, we are conducting experiments with it. We mount it on disembodied vehicles, helicopters, and other aircraft and work out its software and algorithmic support.
– What other promising tasks do the concern face today?
– By order of the Russian Academy of Sciences, we are creating a locator for heliogeophysical research of the situation.
– And what will it do?"
– It will be a research locator that will be used for peaceful purposes in the interests of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In particular, it will allow studying solar activity, as well as its effect on the Earth's ionosphere, and will give other related results.
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