New Russian ABM master plan.


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3 June 2011
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A Layered ABM System to Be Deployed In Russia

MOSCOW --- A national layered anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system will be deployed in Russia by 2025, Sergey Boev, chief designer of the missile attack warning system, reported. It has to include long-range exoatmospheric interceptor missile systems, air/space defense missile system and short-range endoatmospheric interceptor missile systems, online media outlet Free Press writes.

Boev justified the need to develop a layered ABM system by the threat posed by land-based Euro-ABM systems being deployed in Romania and Poland. "The launchers can be covertly converted to accommodate medium-range ballistic missiles," he said. The launchers, in which the SM-3 anti-missiles are housed, are universal and can be used to launch a number of ballistic missiles prohibited by the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty. It is not mere chance that there have been recently debates in the United States on revising this treaty.

The first echelon has to provide long-range intercepts. It is based on implementing a project to upgrade the A-135 Amur ABM system that covers Moscow and the Central Industrial Area to the A-235 Nudol level. These works should be completed by 2020. In the meantime, two new short- and long-range interceptor missiles will be adopted.

When the A-135 was put on alert, the system had two missiles: 53T6 short-range endoatmospheric and 51T6 long-range exoatmospheric interceptor missiles. In 2006, the phasing-out of long-range missiles began. However, the name does not fully reflect the performance characteristics of the 53T6 missile. Its intercept range is 100 km and altitude is 30 km. Upon completion of the official tests, A. Basistov, general designer of the A-135 ABM system, announced that the missile had large margins for all its parameters with respect to those specified in the documents when it was certified.

The same can be said also about the modified long-range interceptor missile. In a number of reports from sources at the defense department and in the defense industry, its range should reach 1500 km, while the maximum intercept altitude - 750 km. It is capable of destroying not only ICBMs in the mid-course and terminal phases of the trajectory, but orbital spacecraft as well. The new systems can move on mobile launchers.

The middle echelon of ABM defense is provided by the S-500 SAM system. In fact, these are two systems, one for air defense and other for missile defense, each being quite autonomous. This stems from the fact that the system has two independent hardware parts, including different AESA radars, and two sets of missiles, for aerodynamic targets and for ballistic ones.

Some of the missiles used in the S-500 have been borrowed from the S-400 Triumph SAM. Three missiles are being developed specifically for the S-500. Of these, the heaviest missile has a range of 600 km. This missile is superior to the missile used in the US THAAD land-based ABM system. Two more missiles, developed at the Fakel Design Bureau to intercept ballistic targets, are close in performance to the short-range interceptor missile of the A-135 Amur ABM system.

The essential difference between the S-500 and the US THAAD system is predetermined primarily by the difference in the speeds of the interceptor missiles, as well as the capabilities of the target detection and missile guidance systems. The Russian systems are able to counter ICBMs, while the US one can engage only short- and medium-range ballistic missiles, which have a lower speed compared with ICBMs.

In conclusion, it is necessary to say about the missile attack warning system’s radars, which are the critical element of the national ABM system. This role is played by Voronezh-type high factory readiness radars having a range of 4500 km to 6000 km. This year, with the commissioning of three radars, Russia’s radar troops began to fully control the air space along the perimeter of the Russian border to a depth of 6,000 km.

A total of seven radars of different versions - VHF, UHF and ‘high-potential’ radars - are currently on alert. A centimeter-band radar offering the highest resolution is expected to be commissioned soon, online media outlet Free Press recalls.

Sounds beaucoup expensive.
Nuclear tipped? I haven’t heard of any kinetic energy kill vehicle work being done in Russia and both Sprint and Spartan missiles carried nuclear warheads. Spartan was pretty big but it was still engaging in terminal phase albeit well above the atmosphere.
I am interested in the success interception rate of the S-500 system compared to the results I have seen of the SM-6 I wonder how much better or how much worse it would be for real live data, or work as advertised as being a standalone system intercepting 10 ICBM classed targets than how much more targets of this class can the A-235 deal with.

"The A-235 will have missiles capable of operating at three different ranges: long-range, based on the 51T6 and capable of destroying targets at distances up to 1500 km (930 miles), at altitudes up to 800,000 m; medium-range, an update of the 58R6, designed to hit targets at distances up to 1000 km (620 miles), at altitudes up to 120,000 m; and short-range (the 53T6M or 45T6 (based on the 53T6)), with an operating range of 350 km (215 miles) and a flight ceiling of 40,000-50,000 m."

Also more radars to take into consideration later to help with the ABM shield.

"MOSCOW, January 12. / TASS /. The newest radar station (radar) "Yakhroma", which will be included in the missile attack warning system (SPRN), will be built by 2030 in the Chukchi Sea region. A source in the military-industrial complex told TASS about it.

"By 2030, it is planned to build the Yakhroma radar station in the Chukchi Sea region. The station will operate fully automatically, without the constant presence of people at the facility," he said.

At the end of December 2020, Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu, during the final collegium of the military department, announced that in 2021 the Ministry of Defense is to begin work on the construction of the Yakhroma radar in Sevastopol.

A source in the military-industrial complex then told TASS that the Yakhroma radar station has no analogues. The station will operate in four bands: meter, centimeter, decimeter and millimeter, the station will have a view of 270 degrees."

To date, the Russian early warning system consists of two echelons: a space one, which currently includes four Tundra satellites, and a ground one, consisting of a network of Voronezh-type stations, covering all missile-hazardous directions with its radar field. The main purpose of the system is to detect and escort ballistic missiles fired at the territory of the Russian Federation or its allies as soon as possible.

31:52(english subtitles)

Another perk to take into consideration besides better precision for higher frequency radars is that higher frequencies for tracking would get immediately put back quicker into service as in back to tracking after a nuclear blackout than lower frequency radars.

Also it might be noted that the S-500 and A-235 might be able to deal with more complex targets.

The founder of the military Russia portal Dmitry Kornev holds a similar point of view. In an interview with RT, the expert stressed that during the modernization the possibility of intercepting hypersonic munitions can get many Russian missile defense systems, as well as the Complex "Peresvet" and other types of new weapons, created on new physical principles and using the so-called directed energy.

"The S-500 originally laid down the function of hitting hypersonic targets, in particular the combat parts of ballistic missiles (develop a speed of more than 5 Machs. - RT),but with some refinement, the other systems, such as the S-400 and Buk-M3,will be able to shoot down hypersonic vehicles. Laser and microwave weapons will have the same properties in the future," Explained Kornev.

S-400 systems are getting newer radars like the Nioby to replace the Nebo-M in better performance. But its better recommended that they jump ahead on interception tests towards hypersonic targets that are not just ballistic related. I heard that only the long range missile interceptors for the A-235 will be nuclear tipped.
What is the rationale behind Russian spending money on this? ABM given its expenses seems something that'd only work against much poorer opponents.
What is the rationale behind Russian spending money on this? ABM given its expenses seems something that'd only work against much poorer opponents.
Better option for survivability against irrational actors as in not needing to go all out on nukes everywhere? Though these systems have yet to live up to their specs like a single S-500 has yet to deal with 10 ICBMs simultaneously or more difficult hypersonic targets considering the tests that other countries had conducted.
What is the rationale behind Russian spending money on this? ABM given its expenses seems something that'd only work against much poorer opponents.

Or you went on offensive first and hope that whoever in the receiving end of your nukes are weakened to the point that your ABM can handle their retaliation.
Defense tends to be a much more expensive prospect than offense when it comes to missile defenses. I'm a little surprised the Russians feel the need to expend funds on these systems, given that their economy is a a fraction of the US, the primary strategic competitor. The early warning radars obviously make sense, but ABM systems don't seem to have a great pay out dollar for dollar (or ruble for ruble). The US ABM systems are focused on theater threats, not ICBMs.

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