Command and Control, Soviet Style: "The Web"


ACCESS: Confidential
28 December 2005
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This thread is for detailled studies of the Soviet derived command and control themes, doctrines, equipments, stations and so. I will post all the info I have about this soon, I would really like people to share opinions about this topic, one of the most under-researched topics about Soviet Air technology I think!
About basics of Command and Control Systems for controlling air situation, but specially about Vozdukh-1 system of C2BM.

Information came from different sources:

General Data of the AFLS

The automated guidance and control system AFLS served the fulfilment of the following major tasks:

1. Automated collection of the information about the air situation as well as its transmission both from down upward and message over the air situation and from above downward as information about the air situation
2. Automated guidance and reporting activity as well as Aufgabensellung
3. Automated fighter guidance

The AFLS consisted of the components:

• ASPD - "PAUTINA" (spider net) air situation collection, treatment and transmission, as well as guidance and reporting activity as well as setting of tasks
• APN - fighter-guidance equiment ARL "LASUR" for the transmission of the control commands to the fighters
• AS - "KLYUTSCh" (key) message equipment


The ASPD had capable multitasking display terminals of the type ZVESDA (star). Contrary to the display terminals of older Radio Stations, which had a swivelling deflection coil system, the deflection coils were immovable in the ASPD. The deflecting voltages were produced over relaxation oscillators, whereby the slope and concomitantly the maximum value of a serrated pulse depended on the position of the Drehmeldewiederholers and thus on the antenna position of the respective Radio Stations.

The clarification of the primary information took place via the refelktierte and strengthened signal of the Radar Station. This was the primary information. The reinforcement and treatment for representation took place with an at that time still pure electron tube technology with Germinium diodes in individual places. Additionally interrupted by means of INTERUPT the Primary-information-representation and represented occasional secondary information.

To the Secundary informtion, the return-control of the piece of information sent themselves at other objects belongs, the MARKER (comparably with a mouse-pointer), the Informtionen of other objects as well as pay-commands.

The MARKER was moved on the display terminal with a kind MOUSE, which was fastened to the end of a lever. By variable resistors coordinate tensions for X and Y were removed and from this the moving tension was formed. With manipulation of the MAUSTASTE, the two current X- and Y- tensions on two condensers stored with the help of a relay cascade were formed gradual reference stresses and evaluated with reaching the correct tension the operated relays as coordinate-code. Thus an analog-digital transformation took place into in each case 9 a digit coordinate for X and Y.

For those, mean 9 places are too inaccurate, the following computation:

Place Standard 600 km Standard 300 km Standard 150 km
= > 1200 km X/Y = > 600 km X/Y = > 300 km X/Y
1 600,00 km 300,00 km 150,00 km
2 300,00 km 150,00 km 75,00 km
3 150,00 km 75,00 km 37,50 km
4 75,00 km 37,50 km 18,75 km
5 37,50 km 18,75 km 9,38 km
6 18,75 km 9,38 km 4,69 km
7 9,38 km 4,69 km 2,34 km
8 4,69 km 2,34 km 1,17 km
9 2,34 km 1,17 km 0,59 km
ERROR 1,17 km 0,59 km 0,29 km

These information was processed into 32 digit information telegram. The transmission speed amounted to 50 Baud. Also commands from two numbers could be conveyed on a certain point.
The information telegram had the following form:

• Place 1-9 x-coordinate
• Place 10-18 Y-coordinate
• Place 19-21 information telegram characteristic
• 0 0 0 number command
• L of 0 0 opponents
• L L of 0 opponents with height
• 0 0 L of own ones
• 0 L L of own ones with height
• Place 22-28 height
• Place 29-32 synchronisation of the information telegram.

This information with a data transmitter were mailed and converted and represented at the receipt location. Exactly the same as the primary information also the Secundary information could be covered and entered with the MARKER. The entire treatment of information of the secondary information took place by means of a electrical-mechanical technology with cam shafts and relays as well as electron tubes.

The information transfer was made with the VP and VP-U by dedicated lines or KW radio. Always two connecting kinds were present.

This was the function with the VP, thus VP-02(2B), VP-03(8D) and VP-04 (15D). With the VP-03 and VP-04 there was in each case 1 EOP in the trailer and 1 EOP in the command post equipment as additional representation means EOP (electron-optical planchet). There on a special tube the secondary information was red-brownishly represented and brought by means of mirrors on a horizontal disk. After some time the information on the EOP had to be deleted by heating the tube. This EOP at the beginning of the 70s however no longer were already used. Instead in the command post equipment additionally display terminals were attached.

With the objects of the VP-U, thus VP-02U (2BU), VP-03U (8DU) and VP-04U (15DU) there were the following


• The improved display terminals STRELA (arrow) were introduced.
• Instead of the height-finder equipment existing in the VP-02 paddock equipments for 2 PRV were present in the VP-02U. On two jobs (per one in the trailer and one in the GS) PRV could be represented remote controlled and the information. These paddock equipments consisted partially of a then new technology - the ferrite transistor technology. (the ferrite transistor technology was unmiitelbar the technical conditions before the introduction of the first IC.) A ferrite ring can be magnetized on the right of or left around. Thus 0 and L write -, as well as a transistor for the reinforcement of the output signal and one 1-Bit memory element has reading and output winding in addition, from which one - exactly the same as from the many triggers in a today's IC - storage register to build can. This technology was strongly used both in the large computing technology and before all in the military equipment.

Up to smaller improvements the remainder of the objects agreed VP-U with the VP.
In the NVA were there two newer ones improvements developed:

1. Opponents could be explained only with point, line and circle. This did not hand FuTB-33 in some VP-02U and into all VP-03U for the distinction of the sources aus.(e.g.: 4 FuTK, LVD, FuTB-23)

2. Therefore the circle was divided in the representation into 4 different semi-circles: right, left, above, down. An automated breakdown bearing was not intended. Therefore the objects were re-tooled: Into the VP-02U the formation of an information telegram with a new characteristic became makes possible. In addition the not assigned characteristic 0 L 0 was used. On a verbal or with numeric code given command to the VP-02U points were covered in the center of the breakdown sector and dispatched as breakdown information. In the VP-03U at a display terminal the breakdown lines one represented, one evaluated mentally and one entered the goals resulting from the intersections. Afterwards an individual improved VP-02U was introduced. It served as paddock object for the ASURK and as VP-03KS was designated. In this object the electromechanical receivers had been replaced by ferrite transistor receivers. Since there was with the FRT of the NVA only a ASURK, gave it also only a VP-03KS. Whether this object with the VP-08M taught in Vladimir as ouple object to the ASURK agreed or whether the VP-08M was already improved, could not be determined. It gave then an improved VP that however to the NVA one did not introduce. It seems to have been completely developed on ferrite transistor technology, had however probably neither computers nor mass storages. At this generation the free characteristic L 0 L was used and it was possible for breakdown bearing thereby e.g. also. Possibly also a VP-15 belonged to, (why there should be otherwise a VP-15 "M"?). It does not seem to have been however probably also in the Soviet army all too far common. During the first training course of VP-02M in Vladimir, the technology of this system built in the cabinet was scrapped anyhow.

The objects VP-02U and VP-03U
To the existence of the objects belonged:
• 1 two-oh trailer with the equipment
• 1 aggregate GAD-40 with ZVK (central junction box) and ULU (unterbrechnungsloser load transducer)
• 1 Sil-157k with cab, therein message battery and groups of replacement buildings
• 1-Krass 214 loaded as drawing means for the object trailer and Gefechsstandapparatur and sets of cables
• ZVK and ULU were NVA developments. Originals were integrated the functions in the ESD-30 trailer.

In December 1976 the first VP-02M training course in Vladimir began. The VP-04M training took place then via Soviet training officers in the GDR. The technology was nearly completely developed on ferrite Trasistor technology up to the picture tubes and some few solderable tubes in building groups and with exception of the display terminals. Because of electronics the trailers had air conditioners. The entire treatment of the secondary information took place computer controlled. The data input took place at the fastened MOUSE by means of code disks. With the free characteristic L L L new possibilities of the information transmission before all of management informations as well as target allocations became possible. Important information such as goal new applications and management informations was transmitted 3fold and evaluated then according to the principle 2 from 3, i.e.. 2 of 3 information had to agree.

Only in the VP-01M and VP-02M radarmen were necessary. Starting from VP-04M the goals were only once seized and accompanied then far by the equipment after the information of the FuTK.

In the VP-01M, the same calculator was in the principle as in the WP-04M installed. The BUMERANG-1 had an increased RAM that served simultaneously as memory for the target information. The Bumerang-3 in the VP-04M, stored its targets (60 opponents, 40 own, 20 points of intercepting) in a magnet-drum-storage. The VP-02M was differently designed. It had a magnet-drum-storage in fact, but the arithmetical treatment was distributed on several cabinetes. Beside it, there was another coordinate-transformation-calculator, that those
received information converted.

In the VP-04M there was a new EOP. The representation was produced in a special tube and reflected on a perpendicular Planchet. Whereupon knew by means of a kind still-picture projector background like land and/or tactics maps and flight warning net to be represented. For treatment that a goal gave it a photo customer, whom one had to hold only the correct place on the Planchet, in order to work on information. There were likewise screens with air situation and combat-ready shank information.

Around co-operation with old objects to ensure one had remained however with slow 50 Baud information telegram.

To the VP-M belonged still the ECM pinpointing object VP-15M, which is separately described here. The computer equipment had m.E. the designation AVT??.


The automated fighter-guidance equipment APN was inserted in the trailer 54. Technically it was based up Jobs with ever a display terminal for the RBS information and a display terminal for the elevator information. It was not also the direct coupling of a PRV possible, since the PRV were never sufficiently present however for all tasks, is for me a long-term realized coupling well-known. On the display terminals only in each case a magnifying glass-like cutout of the primary and the secondary information was represented and by the radarmen by means of a JOYSTICKS with a marker (pointer of mouse corresponds) covered and with it entered. For each opponent and each own one in each case a job was intended. A fighter controller pursued those/those on a STRELA interception display terminal. Beside it the hunter master computer stood. This was an electromechanical analogue computer. The guidance task was realized in form of a complicated resistance network with actuators, which operated again further of resistances, - i.e. the positions of a goal and fighter came as X and Y voltage level to the computer and this gave the necessary control commands for the fighter out (as well as control command for e.g. the radar).

In the system VP-U an object VP-11 consisted of two trailers 54. Both guidance possibilities were usable - on the other one however only 1 guidance possibility in a trailer 54. This hung also with the capacity of the equipment ARL together the primary information received the VP-11 from the VP-02U and the secondary information from the VP-03U.

With the system VP-M the designation was changed. A VP-11M consisted of only a trailer 54. But could be coupled both to the VP-02M and to the VP-04M up to 3 VP-11M.


The in such a way determined data for the own fighter were transmitted binarily to the fighter and indicated there with pointers of desired value. The pilot had to then bring only the pointers of actual value in concorance with the desired value and without a word over radio with switched off radar into a promising attack position was in such a way brought. There the radar was switched on and shot immediately. The transmission took place via a duo R-824LPM, whereby one transmitted the information as LPM switched and second served the voice transmission for the guidance control officer as reserve for the information and as LP switched.


With introduction of the MiG-23 in the middle of the 70's was improved opposite the MiG-21 also the armament. After it was only possible before to intercept targets from the rear it gave with the MiG-23 also rockets for reciprocal heading interception. If one considers oneself the fact that during reciprocal heading interception with a goal and interceptor speeds of about 2000 km/h an approach velocity of approximately 4000 arises km/h becomes clear that with the Fleugzeugfuehrer much time does not remain for recognizing the goal and for shooting. About with 100 km it must the goal recognize and between 40 and 100 km distance the rocket release.

Since the enemy fighters for tactical reasons does not fly usually in the same height as the target recognizing of the target is additionally difficult. Therefore the FuMVisier of the MiG 23 was pre-adjusted. The taxable value for this advance-direction the MiG 23 from the system APN. defiance obtained to that us today and before 30 years appearing vorsinntflutlich technology this accurately already functioned. The fighter guidance with the APN worked also in the DHS well. Some F-4r pilot in the Oderbucht was frightened by the first word of our Fleugzeugfuehrers by the JG-9 over radio after the DHS start: "target recognized!" and width then rather searched.

Something similar applies to the ASPD. Despite age-old technology it worked partly quite well. It could have still better worked, if not in different levels people had been, how a political deputy in the FuTK-333, which explained before met crew: "I never sit down as an on-duty company commander into the VP-02M!"

Automated objects and its radar numbers

4101 - 4199
VP VP-02 2B Radio-Technical Company
4201 - 4299 VP-U VP-02U 2B-U Radio-Technical Company
4301 - 43?? VP-U VP-03U 8D-U Radio-Technical Batallion
43?? - 43?? VP-U? VP-03KS 8D-KS Coupling Asurk-1m
43?? - 4399 VP-U 15D-U Air Defense Division and ZGS
4401 - 4499 VP-U VP-11 6B-U Fighter guidance
4501 - 4599 VP-M VP-1M Radio-Technical Company (Orientation low-flat steel bar-goal)
4601 - 4699 VP-M VP-02M Radio-Technical Company (in the Soviet army RTB)
4701 - 4749 VP-M VP-04M Radio-Technical Batallion (in of the Soviet army RTBr o. JFD)
VP-M VP-11M Fighter guidance (unchanged 6BU)
4751 - 4799 PORI RTB b. SAM-R/SAM-Br with VECTOR
4801 - 48?? VP-M VS-11M Air Defense Division
4901 - 49?? VP-M VP-15M ECM pinpointing object (attached to VP-04M)

Not in the NVA VP-03M JG
VP-05M Air army
VP-07M Air-defense army
VP-08M RTB with SAMR-R with ASURK
VP-12M Coupling of FuM airplanes
VP-16M Photo laboratory for background slides EOP

Nr. - Area
FM – Stationstyp Remarks
3201 - 3299 P-15
3501 - 3599 P-15M2

4101 - 4199 Objekt 2 B (Vozdukh-1)
4201 - 4299 Objekt 2 BU (Vozdukh-1P)
4301 - 4399 Objekt 8 DU, 15 DU (Vozdukh-1P) Batallions- and AIZ-VP
4401 - 4499 Objekt 6 BU (Vozdukh-1P – Trailer 54) Fighter-guidance equipment
4501 - 4599 Objekt 01 M (Vozdukh-1M)
4601 - 4699 Objekt 02 M (Vozdukh-1M)
4701 - 4749 Objekt 04 M (Vozdukh-1M) Batallions- and AIZ-VP
4751 - 4799 Objekt PORI RTB SAM-R/SAM-Br with VEKTOR
4801 - 48?? Objekt VS-11M (Vozdukh-1M) AIZ LVD
4901 - 4999 Objekt 15 M (Vozdukh-1M) Object to the ECM-bearing (connected at 04 M)

5301 - 5399 P-37
5901 - 5999 Kabina K-66

6101 - 6199 PRV-9
6201 - 6299 PRV-16
6501 - 6599 PRV-11
6601 - 6699 PRV-11
6701 - 6799 PRV-13
6801 - 6899 PRV-17

7001 - 7999 Mikro-36 / SGV-71 Training-equipment for FO / sturgeon-generator

8301 - 8399 P-12NP
8401 - 8499 P-18
8701 - 8799 P-14
8801 - 8899 5N84A

9101 - 9199 ST-68U
Technical. Data to the AFLS "Vosdukh-1M"

Description object VP-01M and VP-02M

The objects VP-04M, VP-03M, VP-05M and VP-07m

The objects VP-04M, VP-03M, VP-05M and VP-07M were directly in principle developed. Different was only the number of jobs:

Trailer Use 03M 04M 05M 07M NR. 6 Jobs gs JG/JFD available available Nr.6 K Jobs gs LA/LVA available available Nr.6 I Jobs C JFK available available Nr.6 B Jobs C JBFK available available Nr.7 ASPD and AS available available available available Nr.8 Computing equipment available available available available Nr.9 Jobs gs FuTB/C FuTT available available available

Use 03M 04M 05M 07M
Nr. 6 Jobs GS JG/JFD existing existing
Nr.6 K Jobs GS LA/LVA existing existing
Nr.6 I Jobs C JFK existing existing
Nr.6 B Jobs C JBFK existing existing
Nr.7 ASPD and AS existing existing existing existing
Nr.8 Computing equipment existing existing existing existing
Nr.9 Jobs GS FuTB /C FuTT existing existing existing

In the NVA was there only the VP-04M. On the territory of the GDR however zumindestens in a VP-05M (air army) [note of the editorship - stood in Wuensdorf near Zossen on GS the LSK/ LV ] and possibly also a VP-07M (air-defense army). The JFD might have had VP-04M and the JG VP-03M.

The objects had 2 computers. One was everywhere responsible for the air situation. Second served in the VP-03M and VP-04m by computation of points of intercepting as setting of tasks for the JLS with VP-11M and in the VP-05M for the computation of courses for fighter-bombers of air forces.

To the existence of the VP-04M belonged:
• four semitrailers 6, 7, 8 and 9
• Cab RK on the Urals-375 with jobs "building group repair" and "aggregate price increase" and a multiplicity current supply connections for the elements of the VP-04M, VP-15M as well as the communications technology,
• 2 diesel sets ESD-100 in two-oh trailers,
• 1 diesel set Gad-40 (or original ESD-30),
• 4 Urals-377S semi-trailer,
• 2 Krass-255B loaded as drawing means for the ESD-100 and sets of cables for the connection of the elements of the VP-04M and a connection ouple set for a P-40.

The object PORI

The object PORI (Punkt Obrabotki radiolokationy Informazia) came from completely different manufacturer. It was very similar to the guiding system VECTOR of the FRT and probably came from a manufacturer that manufactured FR instrumentation. Basis of the technology were ICs. It is to have given also a company object from same production. Whether this was the POLYE, is not well-known to me. The connections between PORI and VECTOR and between 2 PORI ran with 1200 Baud.
In the VECTOR fighter guidance with secondary information was possible.

ECM pinpointing object VP-15M

General information

For the automated bearing of active radar jammings the object VP-15M was developed. The object make the automated collection of jamming aircraft and its automatic far company possible. It can work on pinpointing information of several sources of pinpointing and several jamming aircraft. In contrast to the conventional not-automated bearing thereby a bearing on command is not necessary. It hands the input in the company objects during a screen turn as with normal goals. The object is based in the main on ferrite Transitor technology. It has one digital computer and 3 jobs. These jobs were equipped with display terminals STRELA and input equipment with TRACK BALL. (one considers the supposed development time in the middle of the 60's).

General function

By the company objects the FuMInf becomes to the acceptors of data of the VP-04M conveys. The acceptors of data of the VP-15M are communications-engineering parallel to the acceptors of data of the VP-04M geschalten. The objects evaluate only in each case the information, which can process them, i.e. the VP-04m ignores all Inf. telegrams with characteristic "pinpointing information" and the VP-15m ignores all Inf. telegrams without characteristic "pinpointing information". Commands receive both and represent them on the display terminal.

The VP-15M represents the beams on the display terminals. In the case of three sources of pinpointing and meheren interference sources "three-fold intersections" result a multiplicity.Is a larger number of fictitious intersections, since the sources of pinpointing cannot assign, which disturbance comes from which interference source. The editors seize the intersections as a goal. The now following computation is made by the computer:
The intersections are normally no accurate intersections, but cut triangles. The computer compares now the change of the size of these cut triangles between two bearings. With the fictitious intersections the size of the cut triangles changes strongly and these intersections is excluded. The correctly recognized breakdown goals are sent with a data transmitter to the VP-04M and continued to process there with priority.


Since with the relaxation process starting from beginning of the 70s no more material breakdown exercises with Tu-16 were accomplished, never correct practical work on the VP-15M took place. In addition the Dislokation was badly suitable both the FuTB-33 and the FuTB-23 for an effective bearing. The FuTK of both FuTB is approximately in each case on a line toward to the supposed main approach direction northwest. Thus the fact explains itself that even UaZ, which served on the object know few from its function.

Data to the AFLS "Vosdukh-1M"and fighter direction post

The AFS "Vosdukh-1M" the fighter direction post is intended to the automated guidance of the fighter direction post and for the fighter guidance. It ensures:
• The automated guidance of the fighter direction posts of the set forward Command Post (GS), which is equipped with the AFS "Vozdukh-1M"
• Simultaneous automated leading of maximally 3 fighters, which are equipped with the command-installation ARL-SM or ARS-S

1,1 Fighter Direction Post

The fighter direction post is equipped with an object VP-02M, two objects VP-11 and appropriate means of communication.

To the existence of the object VP-02M belong:
• the apparatus trailers (semitrailers) 1 and 2 of the type 936 with drawing means Urals 377
• an electric generator 5E93 with drawing means KrAZ-255B
• the distributor cab RK on Ural-37Ä
• an aggregate Gad-40
• a trailer for the cable equipment with drawing means KrAZ-255B

To the existence of the object VP-11 belong:

• Trailer 54 of the type 770 I
• Trailer 1
• Trailer 2
• an aggregate Gad-40
•two drawing means of the type KrAZ-255
• a EWZ vehicle of the type ZIL 157 with box-type van body

Means of communication:
• two radio stations R-824 LPM
• a radio station R-824
• the communications technology of the trailers 1, 2 and 54

1.2 object VP-02M

The object VP-02M belongs to the automated guidance and control system VP-1M and ensures:

• the representation and treatment of the information from the radar stations (FuMS) of the local radio company (FuTK) at the location of the object,
• the representation and treatment of the information from three pre-aged FuTK, which are equipped with the objects VP-01M and VP-02M,
• the transmission of the worked on information to the superordinate and the cooperating command post (GS),
• the receipt of the combat task to the fighter direction post (JLS), placed by the superordinate GS, as well as the information for the guidance and notification,
• the transmission of the characteristics of the combat operations and combat-ready shank at the superordinate GS.

The object becomes VP-02M

• the air surveillance as GS of an automated radio battalion (FuTB) with local FuTK and no more than three pre-aged FuTK,
• to the radar funkmesssicherstellung of the Fla rocket troops (FRT) and flighter pilot forces (JFK) and to the air surveillance as GS of a local or pre-aged FuTK,
• to the radar radar garantue of the JLS and for air surveillance as GS of a FuTK with JLS asigned.

1.2.1 components of the object VP-02M

The object VP-02M consists of:

• Apparatus trailers 1 and 2
• these are semitrailers of the type 936 with drawing means Urals 377,
in these the equipment for the receiving, working on, representing and transferring of the information as well as the equipment are for the controlling of the process of the treatment of information and for the guidance of the subordinate FuTK

• Distributor cab RK
• on basis the Urals 375 A with box-type van body K 375
the current supply of the object serves ULUe m and Zvk m over the additional device for the transport of the EWZ sentence and regulates

• Drawing means for the electric generator set GAD 40
• Drawing means KrAZ 255 B
in the existence of the object VP-02 M two KrAZ are 255 B as drawing means for the electric generator set 5 E 93 and for the kabelanhaenger on basis MAZ 8926
• Electric generator set 5 E 93
Box-type van body on basis of the chassis MAZ 5207 W
• Electric generator set type GAD 40
in the context of the object VP-02m an aggregate is present,
• Means of communication
Communication link with pre-aged FuTK and gs takes place by wire means or radio relay link station of type R 405 or R 409

1.2.2 combat characteristics

The object VP-02m can with three the following Radar Stations at the same time to be coupled.
• K-66, P-14F
• P-14
• P-12M, P-12NA, P-12NP, P-18,
• P-15M
• P-35M, P-37
• P-40, P-40A
• and with two of the following height finders
• PRV-9, PRV-16
• PRV-11, PRV-13, PRV-17

On the eight screens of the automated jobs the representation of the primary information takes place on a scale 300 km or 600 km. The information about the height of the radar targets on the two automated jobs on a scale 32km or 64km one indicates.

The equipment of the object ensures
• the semiautomatic tracking of 31 radar targets with writings of the coordinates into the memory and following machine treatment
• those uniquely (direct) information transfer without writings into the memory
• the receipt of information of the notification about 62 radar trackings and the guidance of combat operations on two message channels of the superordinate GS on a scale 600 km,
• the coupling with two objects of the type VP-11.

The treatment of the radar information takes place in the object in the range
• after the distance 600 km
• after the height of 0… 64 km
• after the speed to 4,500 km/h

1.2.3 sequence of the structure

The object is to be unfolded in following order:
• Set up the trailer 1 and 2 in the intended places with structure-moderate drawing means. After setting up the trailers drawing means are uncoupled and turned off on the fixed places;
• Set up the electric generator sets 5E93 and GAD 40 with structure-moderate drawing means;
• Set up RK to the distributor cab;
• Transfer and connection of the cable connections between trailers, FuMS, altimeters and radio station;
• Grounding of all elements of the object and creation of a general erdungskreises.

1,3 object VP-01M

The object VP-01m is used as automated command post of a pre-aged radio company (FuTK). It serves here primarily as source for air situation information for the air surveillance and radar guarantee in the entire AFL system of the LSK/LV and thereby also with other objects of the automated guiding system VP-M and VP can co-operate.

1.3.1 the object VP-01M consists of:

Vehicle NR. 1 - Apparatus vehicle
• on basis Urals 375A with box-type van body K 375 in that the entire equipment of the object are
• Drawing means for the electric generator set type GAD 40

Vehicle NR. 2 - Auxiliary vehicle
• on basis the Urals 375 A with box-type van body K 375 and serve as
• Drawing means for the transportation trailer 2 pns 4
• to the keeping and transport of the complete EWZ sentence, the documentation and the communication cable,
• as workshop vehicles for the examination and repair of defective printed circuit boards,
• as quiescent place with 4 couch places for the personnel and for the transport of a part of the engagements crew

Transportation trailer 2 pns 4

• fourwheel, on the chassis type 810 developed trailer with deep plank and tarpaulins
• serves of the cable drums, cable supports, the receiver with refrigerant and other accessories for the transport

Electric generator sets type GAD 40
• in the context of the object VP-01m two aggregates are present
• during transfer an aggregate of the vehicle becomes NR. 1 pulled that second aggregate transported in the existence of the radar complex of the FuTK
• Zvk m ensure the current supply of the object over the additional device ULUe m and

For task fulfilment structure-moderately at the same time two panorama act ions and an altimeter can be attached. At FuMS this is from the "meter range" the stations P-12, P-18, the "decimetric range" the stations ST-68U and P-15 and from the centimetric range the station P-37. As altimeters all PRV inserted into the FuTT is connectable.

The object VP-01M ensures the treatment from 5 to 6 missiles with one information period concerning the coordinates "X" and "Y" from 10 s and concerning the height of 40… 50 s. the middle error of the acceptance and transmission of the coordinates amounts to with the company of 5 to 6 missiles:
• with the surface coordinates "X" and "Y" 1,200 m
• with the height of 550… 750 m

1.3.2 crew

The engagements work on the object VP-01M is accomplished according to the degree the combat-ready shank of the company with engagements crew or on-duty crew. Five crew member are needed. These are at the engagements crew: the KC, the object leader, the radarman of the display terminal of the coordinate acceptance, the radarman of the display terminal of the elevator acceptance and the electromecanician motorist. The DO leads the on-duty crew of the object VP-01M and fulfills the obligations of the KC. of the moreover are still the on-duty object leader, the radarman of the display terminal of the coordinate acceptance, the radarman of the display terminal of the elevator acceptance and the electromecanician motorist active.

1.3.3 sequence of the structure
The object is to be unfolded in following order:

• Set up the electric generator sets GAD 40 and the trailer 2 pns 4 with the cables;
• Set up the vehicles Nr.1 and 2 on the assigned surfaces (covering);
• Transfer of the cable connections between the electric generator set and the vehicles;
• Transfer of the cable connections between the vehicle NR.1, the radar station and the altimeter;
• Grounding of the vehicles and the object.
Is it known how many Watts of RF power were pushed from the R-824L/LP/LPM's to make the system work?

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