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Publication of “The Ultimate Allied Fighters of the Second World War” delayed till the second half of 2021

Justo Miranda

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Contents​



  • The American Fighter
  • Curtiss P-36 and P-40 evolution
  • Curtiss XP-53 and XP-60 evolution
  • Curtiss XP-62
  • Curtiss XP-55
  • Curtiss XF14C
  • Republic P-47 Thunderbolt evolution
  • North American P-51 Mustang evolution
  • Davis Manta Fighter
  • Gluhareff Dart
  • Lockheed L-133 and XP-80 evolution
  • NACA-Langley-Jacobs-Jeep
  • Northrop Flying Wings
  • Vultee XP-54, XP-68 and XP-81
  • The British Fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane evolution
  • Supermarine Spitfire dead ends
  • Hawker Tornado and Typhoon evolution
  • Hawker Tempest and Fury
  • Blackburn B-37 Firebrand
  • Blackburn B-44
  • Blackburn B-48 Firecrest
  • Martin-Baker M.B.3, M.B.4 and M.B.5
  • Miles M.35 and M.43
  • Early British Jets
  • The French Fighter
  • Arsenal Projects
  • Sud-Est S.E. 582
  • The Soviet Fighter
  • Golovin ‘IVS’/’ISF’
  • Jurijev KIT-1
  • Nikitin-Shevchenko IS-4
  • Bibliography
 

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Pasoleati

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Is this based on archival research? Which archives were used?
 

Justo Miranda

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Bibliography​





Books



Angelucci E., The American Fighter, (Orion, 1987).

Ashley G., Meteor in Action, (Squadron/Signal Nº 152, 1995).

Balzer G., American Secret Pusher Fighters of World War II, (Specialty Press, 2008).

Beamont R., Typhoon and Tempest at War, (Ian Allan, 1974).

Bergèse F., North American P-51 Mustang, (Ouest France, 1980).

Birch D., Rolls-Royce and the Mustang, (Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust, 1987).

Birtles P., De Havilland Vampire, Venom and Sea Vixen, (Ian Allan, 1986).

Birtles P., Supermarine Attacker, Swift and Scimitar, (Ian Allan, 1992).

Bishop P., The Fighter Boys (Harper Perennial, 2007).

Blackburn A., Aces Wild: The Race for Mach 1, (Rowman & Littlefield, 1999).

Bowers P., Curtiss Aircraft, 1907-1947, (Naval Institute Press, 1979).

Bowers P., The Curtiss Hawk 75, (Profile Number 80, 1966).

Boyer C., Hurricane at War, (Ian Allan, 1974).

Brown D., Miles Aircraft Since 1925, (Putnam & Co., 1970).

Bungay S., The Most Dangerous Enemy (Aurum Press, 2010).

Buttler T., British Secret Projects, Fighters & Bombers 1935-1950 (Midland, 2004).

Buttler T., Hawker Sea Hawk, (Warpaint Series Nº29, Hall Park Books, 2000).

Buttler T., Gloster Meteor, (Warpaint Series Nº22, Hall Park Books, 2000).

Candal Y., Le Saga des Ailes Volantes Northrop, (Air Fan Hors Série, 1998).

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Cuny J., Curtiss Hawk 75, (Docavia Nº 22, Editions Lariviere, 1985).

Cuny J., Les avions de combat français 1944-1960 Vol.1, (Docavia Nº 28, 1988).

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Davis L., P-51 Mustang, (Squadron/Signal Number 45, 1981).

Davis L., P/F-80 Shooting Star, (Squadron/Signal Number 213, 2008).

Ehrman V., Curtiss P-40, (MBI Publications, 1998).

Forsyth R., Mistel German Composite Aircraft Operations 1942-1945, (Classic Pub.2001).

Franks N., Aircraft versus Aircraft, (Crescent Books, 1986).

Goulding J., Interceptor (Ian Allan, 1986).

Graham T., Terror from the Sky (Pen & Sword Aviation, 2008).

Green W., War Planes of the Second World War, Vol.2, (Macdonald, 1961).

Green W., War Planes of the Second World War, Vol.4, (Macdonald, 1961).

Green W., War Planes of the Second World War, Vol.5, (Macdonald, 1962).

Green W., War Planes of the Second World War, Vol.6, (Macdonald, 1962).

Green W., Rocket Fighter, (Ballantine Books, 1971).

Green, W., The Complete Book of Fighters (Smithmark, 1994).

Griehl M., Luftwaffe Over America, (Greenhill Books, 2004).

Grinsell R., P-51 Mustang, (Crown and Random House, 1984).

Gunston B., World Encyclopaedia of Aero Engines, (Sutton Publishing, 2006).

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Gunston B., Back to the Drawing Board, (Airlife, 1996).

Hall C., A review of a Curtiss XP-53 Interceptor Pursuit Airplane Project, (Memorandum report Nº Exp-M-50-697, Air Corps Material Division).

Hardy M., The North American Mustang, (David & Charles, 1979).

Harrison W., Hawker Sea Fury, (Warpaint Series Nº 16, Hall Park Books, 2007).

Hess W., P-51 Bomber Escort, (Ballantine Books, 1971).

Hygate B., British Experimental Jet Aircraft, (Argus Books, 1990).

Jarret P., Faster, Further, Higher, (Putnam, 2002).

Jenkins D., Experimental & Prototype U.S. Air Force Jet Fighters, (Specialty Press, 2008).

Jones B., British Experimental Turbojet Aircraft, (Crowood Press, 2003).

Kinzey B., F-84 Thunderjet, (Squadron/Signal Vol.59, 1999).

Krause N., Flight Test on the Curtiss XP-40 Q-2, (AAF Nº 42-9987, 5 April, 1944).

Lambert B., Miles aircraft since 1925, (Putnam, 1970).

Lewis P., The British Fighter since 1912 (Putnam, 1967).

Lucas P., Camouflage and Markings Nº1, (Scale Aircraft Monographs, 2006).

Lucas P., Camouflage and Markings Nº2, (Scale Aircraft Monographs, 2006).

Lundquist G., Memorandum Report on P-40 Q Airplane, (AAF Nº 42-9987, 2 November 46).

Mc Cutcheon K., Tornado. Wright Aero’s Last Liquid-cooled Piston Engine, (Weak Force Press, 2001).

Mc Dowell E., Curtiss P-40 in Action, (Squadron/Signal Number 26, 1976).

Mc Laren D., Republic F-84, (Schiffer, 1998).

Mackay R., Hawker Sea Fury, (Squadron/Signal Aircraft Number 117, 1991).

Mason F., The Hawker Tempest I-VI, (Profile Number 197, 1967).

Mason F., The Hawker Sea Hawk, (Profile Number 71, 1966).

Mason F., North American FJ Fury, (Profile Number 42, 1965).

Mason T., The Secret Years, Flight Testing at Boscombe Down 1939-1945 (Hikoki Publications, 1998).

Moczulski L., Hawker Typhoon, (AJ Press, 2004).

Mondey D., The Hamlyn Concise Guide to British Aircraft of World War II (London; Chancellor Press, 1997).

Morgan E., Spitfire: The History (Key Publishing, 1987).

O’Leary M., Building the P-51 Mustang, (Specialty Press, 2010).

Ovcacik M., Hawker Tempest, (4+Publications, 2000).

Pape G., The Flying Wings of Jack Northrop, (Schiffer, 1994).

Pelletier A., La Grande Mutation, (Le fana de l’Aviation Hors Série Nº 12, May 2000).

Pelletier A., La première Génération Jet. L'USAAF, 1944-1947 (Le fana de l’Aviation Hors Série Nº 16, December 2001).

Pelletier A., Les Ailes Volantes, (E-T-A-I, 1999).

Pentland, G., Aircraft of the RAAF 1921-71 (Kookaburra Publications, 1971).

Robinson N., The Hawker Hurricane, (Scale Aircraft Modelling Colors Number 2, 2001).

Rys M., Curtiss P-36 Hawk, Cz-1, (AJ Press, 2000).

Scutts J., Typhoon/Tempest in Action, (Squadron/Signal number 102, 1990).

Sharman S., Sir James Martin authorised biography, (Patrick Stephens Ltd, 1996).

Shores C., Ground Attack Aircraft of World War II, (MacDonald, 1977).

Smith P., Army Air Forces, (Engineering Division Memorandum Report, April 17, 1943).

Stoff J., The Thunder Factory, (Arms & Armour, 1990).

Sutton G., History of Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines, (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2006).

Swanborough G., United States Military Aircraft Since 1909, (Smitsonian Institution Press, 1989).

Swetman B., High Speed Flight, (Janes, 1983).

Thomas C., Hawker Typhoon, (Warpaint Series Nº5, Hall Park Books, 2000).

Thompson J., Vultee Aircraft 1932-1947, (Santa Ana, 1992).

Thetford, O., Aircraft of the Fighting Powers, Vol.7 (Argus Books, 1979).

Van Pelt M., Rocketing Into the Future, (Springer Praxis Books, 2012).

Wagner R., The Curtiss P-40 Tomahawk, (Aircraft in Profile, Volume 2, Doubleday, 1965).

Whitford R., Fundamentals of Fighter Design, (Airlife, 2000).

Williams A., Flying Guns of World War II, (Airlife, 2003).

Yenne B., Lockheed, (Bizon Books, 1987).











Publications



Allen F., ‘Northrop’s Failed Fighter, Air Enthusiast/Thirty-Two.

Allen F., ‘Ascent tail-first’, Air Enthusiast, 51.

Allen F., ‘Before the B-2’, Air Enthusiast, July/August 2003.

Balzer G., ‘XP-56’, Journal, American Aviation Historical Society, Spring 1997.

Balzer G., ‘XP-55 le canard boiteux de Curtiss’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 224.

Bedford A., ‘Early American Carrier Jets’, Air Enthusiast, July/August 1999.

Bentley A., ‘Scale Plans 1/72 Hawker Tempest Mk.V’, Scale Aviation Modeller, Nov. 2006.

Bergèse F., ‘Martin-Baker M.B.3’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 73.

Berliner D., ‘Martin-Baker M.B.5’, American Aircraft Modeller, May 1971.

Bishop K., ‘The Dodo’, IPMS Quarterly, Volume 18, Number 1, fall 1983.

Bishop K., ‘Three hole Hurricane’, Australian Plastic Modellers Association Magazine, 4.98.

Blakemore J., ‘Tank-Bank-Buster Typhoon’, Scale Aviation Modeller International, Feb.2016.

Bowyer M., ‘Rammers’, Airfix Annual for Aircraft Modellers, 1978.

Boyne W., ‘Diagraming the Dream Planes’, Wings & Airpower, September 1972.

Bradley J., ‘Sea Hurricane Mk.IA’, Scale Aircraft Modelling-Vol.28, Nº2.

Brown E., ‘The Lovelorn Libellula’, Air Enthusiast Five.

Brown E., ‘The Firebrand’, Air International/July 1978.

Brown E., ‘Sea Hurricane’, Air International/September 1979.

Brown R., ‘The Davis Airfoil’, Air Trails, 1942.

Burrell D., ‘Evolucion del asiento eyectable’, Revista de Aeronautica Nº345, Agosto 1969.

Bussy G., ‘Le Blackburn Firebrand’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 361.

Buttler T., ‘Something Useful!’ Air Enthusiast July/August, 1999.

Buttler T., ‘What a Beauty!’ Fly Past, August 2000.

Buttler T., ‘Les Avions de Chasse martin-Baker’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 503.

Buttler T., ‘The beds and experimentals’, Air Enthusiast July/August 2003.

Caranci C., ‘Bombardear Nueva York’, Historia 16, Julio 1993.

Caruana R., ‘The Hawker Typhoon’, Scale Aviation Modeller International, Dec.2000.

Clark A., ‘Blackburn YA.1 Firecrest’, Scale Models International Nº 333, 1997.

Cornthwaite B.,‘Into battle under tow’, Air Enthusiast/Twenty-Three.

Correspondence with Kevin Coyne and Brian Miller.

Cubitt D.,‘Rocket Typhoon Pilot’, Fly Past, January 2001.

Cuny J.,‘Les chasseurs Arsenal VG 30 á VG 70’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation, Nº 197 to 200.

Curnel J., ‘Les tiroirs de l’Inconu’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation No. 35.

Darbyshire, D., ’Full Red Circle’, Wingspan, January 2002.

Dorr R., ‘North American FJ Fury’, Aeroplane, February 2006.

Editor M., ‘A novel fighter design’, Flight, January 1942.

Editor M., ‘Manta Fighter’, Popular Science, June 1942.

Editor M., ‘Der Davis Manta Fighter’, Luftfahrt International, 25.

Ellis K., ‘Back to the Biplane’, Air Enthusiast September/October 2003.

Farara C., ‘Gathering Strength’, Aeroplane, October 2007.

Flanagan M., ‘A trio of tropicalised Typhoons’, Air International/November 1992.

Geoge O., ‘Meredith Effect’, Aeroplane, July 1999.

Gething M., ‘Bang! You’re Alive’, Air International/January 1994.

Gluhareff M., United States Patent Office Nº 2,511,502, June 13, 1950.

Goyat J., ‘Le Spitfire qui avait un allemand dans le nez’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 353.

Golley J., ‘Holocaust at Falaise’, Aeroplane Montly, June 1998.

Golley J., ‘Rocket Typhoon versus Panzer Tank’, Aeroplane Montly, May 1998.

Goodman W., ‘Republic F-84 Thunderjet’, Aeroplane Montly, December 1976.

Grant J., ‘Sabre Rattling’, Model Aircraft Montly, October 2004.

Grant J., ‘Sabre Rattling’, SAM Publications, October 2004.

Green, W., ’Antipodean Finale’, Air Enthusiast/October 1972.

Gunston B., ‘Martin-Baker Fighters’, Wings of Fame Volume 9, 1997.

Gunston B., ‘Mr. Martin’s Memorable M.B.5’, Air International/February 1979.

Gunston B., ‘The All-wing Northrops’, Aeroplane Montly, January 1974.

Gunston B., ‘The Arsenal VB.10, un chasseur vraiment unique’, Air Enthusiast/July 1971.

Guttman J., ’Aerial Oddities’, Aviation History, May 1997.

Guttman J., ’Aerial Oddities’, Aviation History, January 1996.

Hagedorn D., ‘What the heck is going on here?’, American Society Journal, Spring 2017.

Hallion P., ‘Lockheed P-80, Air Enthusiast Nº72, 1997.

James D., ‘Hawker Sea Hawk Database’, Aeroplane, September 2002.

Jarret P., ‘Nothing Ventured’, Aeroplane Montly, January 1992.

Jarret P., ‘Hawker Dodo-The Flightless Hurricane’, Aeroplane Montly, December 2001.

London P., ‘Martin-Baker’s Aeroplanes’, Air Enthusiast September/October 1995.

Lake J., ‘Blackburn Firebrand & Firecrest’, Wings of Fame, Volume 17.

Marchand A.,’Arsenal VB.10’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 246-247.

Marrand M., ‘Hawker Tempest II’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 11.

Marchi I., ‘Les Canards de Sergio Stefanutti’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 161.

Mason K., ‘The Hawker Typhoon’ Profile Number 81, 1966.

Mason K., ‘The Hawker Typhoon’ Profile volume 2, Nº 17, 1972.

Maynard J., ‘Hawker test pilot’, Aeroplane, May-June 2002.

Méal X., ‘Des P-51 sur la Japon’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 585.

Messing H., ‘Kampfflügzeüge der Zükünft’, Die Deutsche Sportflieger, September 1942.

Meyer C., ‘Compressibility’, Flight Journal, August 2001.

Meyer C., ‘1944 Fighter Conferency’, WWII Fighters, winter 2000.

Millot B., ‘Les Ailes Volantes Northrop’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 29-31.

Miklusev N., ‘Ikarus LVT-1 Hurrischmitt’, Yasig’99 Yearbook, October 1999.

Moulin J., ‘Un brevet d’invention! , Le Trait d’union Nº 214, March 2004.

O’Leary M., ‘Keep it simple’, Aeroplane, May 1999.

O’Leary M., ‘Conquering the Sky’, Air Classic, 27.

O’Leary M., ‘Trials & Compressibility’, Aeroplane, October 2004.

Patterson D., ‘The office, Hawker Typhoon Mk.I’, Aeroplane, December 2006.

Pelletier A., ‘Northrop XP-79B le chasseur secret ’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 587.

Pelletier A., ‘Le premier jet de Lockheed’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 266.

Price A., ‘A Spitfire so far’, Aeroplane, July 2001.

Price A., ‘Supermarine Spiteful et Seafang’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 319.

Price A., ‘Clipping the Eagle’s Wings’, Aeroplane, August 2006.

Price A., ‘The Long Aerial Mine’, Air Enthusiast Six.

Prius F., ‘A Spiteful tale’, Aircraft Illustrated, December 1994.

Robert R., Brevets d’intervention No. 931.251, 8 Juin 1942, 6 Octobre 1947, 18 Février 1948.

Rosselli A., ‘People & Planes’, Aviation History, January 2004.

Shorer C., ‘Les chasseurs lourds de Hawker’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 181 to 188.

Smith J., ‘Modeling the Supermarine Spiteful’, Finescale Modeler, March 1998.

Stroud N., ‘Cata-fighters’, Aeroplane, September 2002.

Sunday T., ‘The Black Bullet’, Wings, December 1988.

Tillman B., ‘Technical Advances in Fighters’, WWII Fighters, winter 2000.

Thomas C., ‘Le Tempest, prototypes et développment’, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 202.

Thomas C., ‘Hawker Typhoon Database’, Aeroplane, June 2004.

Thompson J., Journal, American Aviation Historical Society, Winter 1995.

Vernisse M., Brevet d’intervention No.830.714, 23 May 1938.

Walters B., ‘What a let down’, Air International/August 1999.

Wallsgrove R., ‘Red Radial Hurricane Revisited’, Mushroom Model Magazine 8/2.

Williams A., ‘Cannon or machine gun’’, Aeroplane, September 2004.

Wixey K., ‘Hawk with a Q’, Air Enthusiast Number 73, 1998.

Wright K., ‘Operation Bodenplatte’, Aeroplane, October 2017.

Zichek J., ‘Unknown North Americans’, Air Enthusiast September/October 2002.
 

gatoraptor

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Are you excluding types that didn't get to fly until after the war, even though they were designed during the war? I am thinking about the Commonwealth CA-15, the de Havilland Hornet, and the Doflug D-3803.
 

Justo Miranda

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.

Nothing on the DeHavilland Hornet and Sea Hornet ?

.
I like the “Hornet” but it is a well-known airplane that entered service with nine RAF squadrons and twelve Fleet Air Arm squadrons and was manufactured in seven different versions. Many articles and monographies have been published about the subject.
 

Justo Miranda

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Are you excluding types that didn't get to fly until after the war, even though they were designed during the war? I am thinking about the Commonwealth CA-15, the de Havilland Hornet, and the Doflug D-3803.
The evolution of the CA-15 and DOFLUG projects was already published in the book “Enemy at the Gates”.



Australia (21 December 1941–15 August 1945)​



In July 1940 the hounded British government warns the Australians of an imminent embargo of any aviation materials.

On 10 December 1941 the capital ships of the Royal Navy H.M.S. Prince of Wales and H.M.S. Repulse are sunk by Japanese airplanes. On 21 December of the same month, the firm Commonwealth Aircraft Corporation (CAC) receives the order from the Australian Government to design a ‘Panic Fighter’ starting from the ‘Wirraway’ trainer airframe (the Australian version of the North American T-6 produced under licence by the CAC) and from the most powerful engine available in the country, the 1,200 hp Pratt & Whitney R-1830 S3C4-G.

On 15 February 1942 Singapore surrenders to the Imperial Japanese Army. On 18 February, the Australian War Cabinet authorized an order for 105 units of the new ‘stop-gap’ fighter under the designation CA-12 ‘Boomerang’ (490 kph). The next day, Japanese naval airplanes attacked Port Darwin causing serious damage. On 9 March of the same year, the island of Java is invaded by Japanese troops and the Allies dissolve the naval force ‘ABDA’. On 9 April 1942, Japanese naval airplanes attacked Ceylon and the British Eastern Fleet must move to the base of Kilindini in the eastern coast of Africa.

The ‘Boomerang’ first flight tests were performed on 29 May 1942. The new fighter showed excellent performance for low altitude flight, being superior to their American equivalents NA-50 and NA-68. On the other hand, its engine (originally designed to go with the Beaufort torpedo bombers) was optimized to operate at low altitude and reached highest power at 4,900 ft. However, the ‘Boomerang’ proved to lack the right performances for medium altitude interception of standard Japanese bombers and was used for ground attack duties only.

In August 1942 the RAAF received four P-43 A-1 and two P-43D ‘Lancers’ from the USAAF, plus two more P-43D in November. These airplanes had the same engine than the ‘Boomerang’ but they were also equipped with a belly mounted turbo-supercharger General Electric B-2 that considerably improved its performances at high altitude. Unfortunately, the Americans had been extremely reluctant to provide B-2 superchargers, 125 of which had been approved by Lend-Lease at the beginning of 1942. The reasons behind this political attitude were the plans of the North American company to manufacture the P-51 Mustang, propelled by a British Merlin engine, in Australia.

Even so, the CAC continued improving the ‘Boomerang’ afraid that the unstoppable advance of the Teikoku Kaigun through the Pacific could interrupt the supplying routes with the USA. By the end of 1942 the CA-12 was modified by installing a B-2 turbocharger (coming from a ‘Liberator’) and a Harrison intercooler (coming from a ‘Fortress’) mounted in the rear fuselage on the starboard side. The prototype flew on 13 January 1943 as CA-14, reaching a maximum speed of 560 km/h at 8,600 m powered by one 1,700 hp Wright Cyclone R-2600 engine, driving a 3.35 m diameter Curtiss Electric, three-bladed, constant-speed propeller. By comparison, the standard CA-12 could achieve just 490 km/h at 4,700 m.

In May 1943 the engine was replaced by a non-turbocharged R-2000 (basically a wartime modification of the R-1830 extended to 2000 cubic inch capacity) with a General Electric B-9 turbocharger, square fin and rudder and geared engine cooling fan ‘Fw 190 style’. This version was named CA-14A.

On 28 May 1942 the CAC proposed to build an ‘improved Boomerang’ named XP-17, with modified tail surfaces and completely new wing, propelled by a 1,700 hp Wright Cyclone R-2600-12 (with ten-bladed cooling fan and B-9 ventral turbo-supercharger) driving a Hamilton Standard four-bladed wooden propeller.

On 8 August 1942 the P-176 project sees the light, a new and more conservative model based on a ‘Boomerang’ airframe with new streamlined leading edges, 1,900 hp R-2600-20 engine, four-bladed wooden propeller, cooling fan and B-13 ventral turbocharger. The project was discontinued in February 1943.

To meet the RAAF Specification 2/42, the CAC was instructed to design a new fighter named CA-15 in October 1942 to be propelled by the 2,000 hp Pratt Whitney R-2800-21 air cooled radial engine with single-stage/single-speed supercharger and General Electric B-9 exhaust-driven turbocharger. It would soon be available as it used same power plant than the American Thunderbolts, Hellcats, Corsairs and Marauders. On 4 November 1942 ‘Report No. A-87’ was published depicting a first design of the CA-15, fitted with semi-elliptical wings, R-2800-21 engine with four-bladed wooden propeller, four 0.303 in Browning Mk II machine guns and two 20 mm Hispano Mk II cannons.

As it turned out, the R-2800-21 was not available by the beginning of 1943 and the design was modified to adapt it to the 2,100 hp R-2800-43 engine, optimised for medium altitude operations, with single stage/two speed supercharger and liquid cooled Airesearch intercooler. The engine-cowling adopted a more streamlined shape, the propeller was three-bladed, and the ‘Boomerang’ standard armament was replaced by four 20 mm Hispano Mk II cannons and two 0.303 in Browning Mk II machine guns.

By early 1943, the CA-15 was redesigned as high-altitude interceptor, with NACA 66 laminar flow wings and 12.19 m wingspan. The power plant was one 2,180 hp R-2800-10W (with two-speed/two-stage General Electric Type C turbocharger and liquid cooled intercooler) driving one CAC four bladed, hydraulically operated, constant speed, wooden propeller of 3.89 m diameter. The proposed armament was six 0.50 inches Colt Browning machine guns mounted on the wing and the estimated maximum speed was of 702 kph.

To meet the RAAF Specification 2/43, calling for a low-medium altitude long range fighter, the CAC proposed the August 1943 design, the turbocharger was removed, and the engine was fitted with a single-stage, two-speed supercharger. Four months later, the supercharger site was changed, being installed under the engine in one enormous cowling with large exhaust pipe under the fuselage. A configuration that had already been tested in the Curtiss XF14C.

On May 1944 the CAC was disappointed to learn that the 10W engine was no longer in production and considered its replacement by a 2,800 hp R-2800-57W with single-speed/ single-stage supercharger and GE Type CH-5 turbo-supercharger. On June, the cooling fan was replaced by a ‘Thunderbolt style’ airscoop placed under the engine. The estimated maximum speed was 796 kph.

On August the CA-15 prototype was around 50 percent complete and the availability of 57W engine became doubtful. The 2,500 hp Bristol Centaurus engine was considered but its performance would have been substantially reduced from that of the R-2800-57W. They finally selected the 2,440 hp Rolls-Royce Griffon 125 twelve-cylinder, Vee, liquid-cooled engine (with two-stage/three-speed supercharger) driving three-bladed contra-rotating airscrews. For its installation in an airframe that had been designed for a radial engine, it was necessary to build a new streamlined cowling.

The cooling system consisted of a Morris single-row intercooler, with a three-row main radiator, and was packaged in a large ‘Mustang style’ ventral fairing with frontal scoop. The Griffon 125 turned out to have the smallest frontal surface, but when the CA-15 prototype was completed, the engine had not yet reached its serial production stage and Rolls-Royce decided to replace it by two copies of the weaker version Griffon 61. The two available engines arrived in Australia in April 1945.

The Griffon 61 (2,035 hp) was fitted with two-stage, two-speed supercharger and drove a Dowty-Rotol compressed wood, four-bladed propeller of 3.81 m diameter. Its installation in the CA-15 reduced the overall length from 11.51 m to 11.04 m. By February 1946 the prototype was completed, performing its first flight on March 4. It was used for a very limited test programme and gained one speed record achieving 808.2 kph flying over Melbourne on 25 May 1948. The CA-15 would have ranked amongst the best fighters in the Pacific had the war been prolonged. Superseded by the jet age, was scrapped in 1950.



Bibliography



Books



Francillon, R., The Commonwealth Boomerang (Profile Number 178)

Green, W., The Complete Book of Fighters (Smithmark, 1994)

Pentland, G., Aircraft of the RAAF 1921-71 (Kookaburra Publications, 1971)

Thetford, O., Aircraft of the Fighting Powers, Vol.7 (Argus Books, 1979)

Wilson, W., The Wirraway, Boomerang & CA-15 in Australian Service (Aerospace Publications, 1991)



Publications



Darbyshire, D., ’Full Red Circle’ (Wingspan, January 2002)

Donald, D., ’Commonwealth CA-15’ (Wings of Fame Vol.4)

Green, W., ’Antipodean Finale’ (Air Enthusiast/October 1972)

Guttman, J., ’Aerial Oddities’ (Aviation History, May 1997)

Hourigan, R., ’Vintage Australians’ (APMA Number 3, 1995)

Millot, B., ’Le Commonwealth Boomerang’ (Le Fanatique de l’Aviation Nº 190 and 234)

Vella, J., ’From Fisherman Bend’ (Air Enthusiast Number 61)
 

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Justo Miranda

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Justo Miranda

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The evolution of the CA-15 and DOFLUG projects was already published in the book “Enemy at the Gates”.



10



Switzerland (16 May 1940–4 February 1945)​



Following the Munich Agreement, in September 1938, Switzerland acquired ten Messerschmitt Bf 109 D-1 and eighty Bf 109 E-3 fighters. The first five D-1 aircraft were delivered by mid-December 1938 and the other five a month later. Everyone was armed only with a pair of 7.45 mm MG 29 machine guns fitted in the front fuselage.

On 30 April, thirty Bf 109 E-3 were delivered, followed by fifty units more on 31 August. Also in September 1938, Switzerland acquired the manufacturing license of the Morane-Saulnier M.S.406, together with two full aircraft. The export version, M.S.406H, kept the M.S.405 wings and the engine H.S.12 Y-31. It was armed with only two drum-fed MAC 34 machine guns because the French did not want to share the technology of the 20 mm H.S. 404 cannon.

Between 1940 and 1942, the State factory F+W-Emmen built a series of seventy-four fighters known as D-3800. The Swiss version of the M.S.406 was powered by an 860 hp H.S.12 Y-77 engine, licence-built by Adolph Saurer AG, driving an Escher-Wyss EW V-3 controllable pitch propeller. The armament, built by Waffenfabrik Bern, consisted of a 20 mm Oerlikon FM-K cannon and two 7.5 mm Furrer Fl.Mg.29 belt-fed machine guns. The D-3800 came into service at the beginning of 1940, with a SE-013 R/T device and Draeger oxygen equipment.

Three days before the invasion of Poland, the Swiss Air Force was mobilized with fifty-eight Dewoitine D-27 C.1 (312 kph), ten Messerschmitt Bf 109 D-1 (470 kph), thirty Bf 109 E-3 (570 kph) fighters and hundred-and-twenty-seven observation aircraft of the type Fokker C.V and EKW C-35. When the Germans began their assault to the West, on 10 May 1940, the Swiss Air Force had thirty-six D-3800 and the number of Bf 109 E-3 already amounted to seventy-eight. In May and June, the Swiss airspace was violated 3 times by the French, 10 times by the Italians and 233 times by the Germans.

The Swiss fighters entered combat for the first time on 16 May. Between that date and 4 February 1945, they managed to shoot down one Dornier Do 17, five Heinkel He 111, six Messerschmitt Bf 110, two Avro Lancaster, one Boeing B-17, one Dornier Do 217, two Consolidated B-24, one De Havilland Mosquito, one Fiat R.S.14, two Republic P-47 and one Junkers Ju 52/3m. They also faced 6,501 violations of airspace during which 198 aircraft were interned and 56 crashed.

In combat, the Bf 109 E-3 were superior in speed and manoeuvrability to the Bf 110 C of the Luftwaffe that were frequently forced to use the tactic Abwehrkreiss (Defence Circle). In April 1944 the Germans yielded twelve Bf 109 G-6 to the Swiss Air Force, in exchange for the destruction of the electronic equipment of an interned Bf 110 G-4 night fighter.

In 1942 the EKW C-35 began to be replaced by the new EKW C-3603 (470 kph) heavy fighter. Its main purpose was to patrol the border violations of Swiss neutrality to force the intruders landing for internment. A night fighter squadron was formed in 1944.

A total of hundred-and-fifty-two C-3603 were manufactured between 1942 and 1944.

German hostility forced the Swiss to depend on fighters of their own manufacture. In 1939 Saurer began the manufacture under license of the 1,020 hp H.S.12 Y-51 French engine to improve the performances of the D-3800. Between October 1939 and December 1942, the companies Doflug-Altenrhein and SWS-Schlieren manufactured 207 units of the improved version D-3801. According to some sources, it was the Swiss version of the Morane-Saulnier M.S.412 C-1.

The new fighter was 33 kph faster and was equipped with armoured windshield and dorsal plate, SE-012 R/T device and Swiss Munerelle Agm 40 oxygen equipment. At the end of 1943 the Swiss Air Force had eleven Flieger Kompagnien equipped with D-3800 and D-3801 fighters. After the June 1940 armistice the French continued improving the Morane fighters and their engines in Switzerland and Spain.

At the beginning of 1943 the drawings of M.S.460 C.1 (1939), M.S.540 C.1 (1941) and M.S.640 C.1 (1940) fighter projects and of the H.S.12 Z-17 experimental engine, were delivered to the Swiss by Morane-Saulnier personnel that collaborated with Dr. Studer, chief engineer of Doflug, in the design of the D-3802 (640 kph) the Swiss version of the M.S.540. Possibly also included were parts of the M.S.450 prototype for the study of their manufacturing techniques.

The D-3802 was powered by a 1,230 hp H.S.12Y-89 (Saurer YS-2) driving a four-bladed Escher-Wyss EW V-8 constant-speed propeller with reverse pitch. It conserved the wing structure of the D-3801 but with the Plymax, replaced with all-aluminium covering, glycol radiators under the wings, Fowler type flaps and variable-incidence tailplane. The armament consisted of one 20 mm. H.S. 404 T.I cannon and four 7.5 mm Fl.Mg.24 machine guns.

Four aircraft were manufactured in 1944, as prototypes of the production model D-3802A, the Swiss version of the M.S.550 with squared wingtips, bulged canopy and three H.S. 404 cannons. Only eleven copies were built between 1946 and 1950.

The D-3803, described as M.S. 560 by some authors, with modified dorsal fuselage, all-round visibility canopy and 1,430 hp Saurer YS-3 engine, was built as a prototype only in 1947. Its mass production was dismissed after the acquisition of hundred-and-thirty war-surplus P-51D Mustangs.



Bibliography

Books



Green, W., Warplanes of the Second World War, Fighters, Volume One, (MacDonald 1960)



Publications



Gaudet, E., “A Dream Come true”, Aeroplane, June 2002.

Gunti, P., “Alpine Avenger”, Air/Enthusiast Forty-Seven.

Gunti, P., “Morane Sur l’Helvetie”, IPMS Schweiz magazine, Xe Anniversaire issue.

Gunti, P., “Neutral Warriors”, Air/Enthusiast Forty-Three.

Guttman, J., “Switzerland’s two-seater soldiered through World War II”, Aviation History, July 1998.

Klein, B., “Morane-Saulnier M.S. 460”, Airplanes Five-View Album, 1974.

Meister, J., “The Swiss Battle of Britain”, World War Investigator, July 1988.

Moulin, J., “Un project de chasseur Morane-Saulnier M.S. 540”, l’Aérophile 2010.

Moulin, J., “Un project de chasseur Morane-Saulnier M.S. 640”, l’Aérophile 2010.

Osche, P., “Swiss Bf 109”, SAFO nº 49, January 1989.

Théroz, J., “Bataille au dessus des Alpes”, Le Fanatique de l’Aviation nº 36.
 

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dwkr01

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Contents​



  • The American Fighter
  • Curtiss P-36 and P-40 evolution
  • Curtiss XP-53 and XP-60 evolution
  • Curtiss XP-62
  • Curtiss XP-55
  • Curtiss XF14C
  • Republic P-47 Thunderbolt evolution
  • North American P-51 Mustang evolution
  • Davis Manta Fighter
  • Gluhareff Dart
  • Lockheed L-133 and XP-80 evolution
  • NACA-Langley-Jacobs-Jeep
  • Northrop Flying Wings
  • Vultee XP-54, XP-68 and XP-81
  • The British Fighter
  • Hawker Hurricane evolution
  • Supermarine Spitfire dead ends
  • Hawker Tornado and Typhoon evolution
  • Hawker Tempest and Fury
  • Blackburn B-37 Firebrand
  • Blackburn B-44
  • Blackburn B-48 Firecrest
  • Martin-Baker M.B.3, M.B.4 and M.B.5
  • Miles M.35 and M.43
  • Early British Jets
  • The French Fighter
  • Arsenal Projects
  • Sud-Est S.E. 582
  • The Soviet Fighter
  • Golovin ‘IVS’/’ISF’
  • Jurijev KIT-1
  • Nikitin-Shevchenko IS-4
  • Bibliography
I can't wait!
 

elmayerle

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Yet another of Justo's books I will have to get as some of the subjects look very interesting.
 

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