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MR Bisnovat Aircraft Designations


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Aircraft and Missiles of Matus Ruvimovich Bisnovat (1905-1977)

MR Bisnovat headed a research team at TsAGI (1938-1941) where he designed several fighter and high-speed research aircraft types. In 1941 he was assigned to help productionize the Lavochkin LaGG-3 fighter.

A 1942 encounter with rocket engine designer AG Kostikov brought Bisnovat to NII-1. Although Kostikov was credited as chief designer, it was Bisnovat who designed the airframe for the 302P rocket-propelled interceptor built by OKB-55. Between 1946 and 1948, Bisnovat designed another rocket-powered aircraft, Samolet 5, and its scale test model, Samolet 6, at OKB-5.

In 1948, Bisnovat became Director of OKB-293 at Khimki, Moscow. Here, he headed design teams working on the first Soviet guided air-to-air missile (SNARS-250) and a cruise missile (Shtorm). In 1953, Bisnovat was dismissed from OKB-293 as part of an anti-Semitic campaign.

Bisnovat's 'retirement' was short. By 1955 he was appointed Director of OKB-4 Molniya (Lightning) at Tushino outside Moscow. At OKB-4, the focus was on air-to-air missiles - resulting in what would become the R-8 (AA-3 'Anab'), R-40 (AA-6 'Acrid'), and R-73 (AA-11 'Archer') fighter armaments.

Under Bisnovat, OKB-4 had specialized in the development of heat-resistant ceramic-metal compounds, titanium alloys, and the like. In 1976, a year before his death, Bisnovat put that experience to work on 'Buran', the Soviet space shuttle.


Bisnovat Aircraft Designations

Bisnovat's pre-1941 designs may be attributed to TsAGI but the SK series are usually referred to by the designer's name. The designation IS presumably stands for Istrebitel, Skorostnoy (high-speed fighter). [1]

SK stood for Skorostnoye Krylo (High-Speed wing). Note that 'SK-1' is a back formation from SK-2 and is more properly rendered simply as SK.

BTW: The IS and SK material posted by Hesham are originally from pg 54 of Lost victories of Soviet aviation by Maslov Mikhail (Moscow, Yauza-Eksmo, 2009, ISBN 978-5-699-32513-9).

Postwar Bisnovat-designed aircraft are designated just that - Samolet (Aircraft). So, properly, the 'Bisnovat 5' should be the Samolet 5. As the Samolet 5 was a technology demonstrator, each prototype had a number appended - eg: Samolet 5-2 for the second version flown.

The '5' in Samolet 5 might have referred to OKB-5 (run by Bisnovat) were there not a Samolet 6 design. So, these designations must indicate fifth and sixth designs emanating from Bisnovat. That leaves 'Samolet 4' missing.

It would be tempting to suggest that the Bisnovat-designed Kostikov 302 was the missing '4' in the designation series. Even if this were true, it still leaves a puzzle. Why was Bisnovat's 1939 IS fighter concept not given a numerical designation?

Anyone have any other Bisnovat's aircraft designs?


[1] IS is also seen as a designation for a Soviet escort fighter (Istrebitel Soprovojdeniya) so it is a minor mystery as to why Bisnovat's TsAGI concept was not designated 'SI' for 'Skorostnoy Istrebitel'.

NB: The fuselage-ducted radiator concept was the IS starting point. I'm not sure where the notion of a 'TsAGI IS-B' designation came from.



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The Aircraft Designs of Matus Ruvimovich Bisnovat

MR Bisnovat's TsAGI IS Series

IS - [Project] 1939 Single-seat, low-wing monoplane fighter
- IS : 2 x cowl 7.62 mm ShKAS or 12.7 mm Berezin UB mgs
-- IS: M-105 (3-spd CIAM E42A supercharger) or M-106
- IS (Initial): Wood constr., fuse. radiator,* span 9.65 m
-- * Radiator duct in belly, exhaust thru upper fuselage
- IS (Final): Metal constr., conv. belly rad., span 9.00 m
-- Smaller overall, inward retr. u/c rather than rearward
-- TsAGI stopped work on IS project on 04 March 1940
-- http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,6712.msg263177.html#msg263177

MR Bisnovat's TsAGI SK Series

SK - Jan 1939 high-speed research a/c, 1 x prototype
- SK : 1 x 1,050 hp Klimov VK-105, span 7.2 m
-- http://www.airwar.ru/enc/xplane/sk1.html
-- 3v: http://www.airwar.ru/image/idop/xplane/sk1/sk1-1.gif

SK-2 - Oct 1940 high-speed research a/c, 1 x prototype
- SK-2: 1 x 1,050 hp Klimov VK-105, span 7.3 m
-- http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/sk2.html
-- 3v: http://www.airwar.ru/image/idop/fww2/sk2/sk2-1.gif

Bisnovat SK-3 - [Project] 1940 twin-engined escort fighter
- SK-3: 2 x 1,400-1,450 hp (TO) Mikulin AM-37 V-12s
-- SK-3 (single-seat): Armament 2 x 23 mm cannon (VYa-23?)
-- SK-3 mock-up Jan 1940, concept challenged Aug 1940
-- SK-3 (2-seat): 2 x 23 mm + 1 x rear-firing 12.7 mm
-- After Feb 1941, 2-seat version only, then cancelled
-- http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,6712.msg56641.html#msg56641

MR Bisnovat's Aircraft Design for NII-1/OKB-55

Kostikov 302 - 1943 rocket-propelled interceptor
- Kostikov 302 : [Project] Mixed rocket/ramjet powered
- Kostikov 302P: Compl'd w/ liquid fuel RD-1400 rocket
-- 'P' is for Perekhvatchik (Interceptor), 2 x 20 mm
- Kostikov chief designer, Bisnovat designed airframe

MR Bisnovat's Aircraft Design for OKB-5

Bisnovat 5 - 1948 swept wing tech demonstrator, span 6.60 m
- Samolet 5: Intended as all-Soviet DFS 346 equivalent
-- Samolet 5: (Planned) Dushkin RD-2MZVF liquid-fuel rocket
- 5-1 : July 1948 glider for low-speed handling trials
-- 5-1 piloted by Lt-Col Pakhomov, carried aloft by Pe-8
- 5-2 : 1949 glider,* flown by LII pilot GM Shiyanov
-- * Planned powerplant was 1610 kgf RD-2M-3VF rocket
-- http://www.airwar.ru/enc/xplane/5.html
-- 3v: http://www.airwar.ru/image/idop/xplane/5/5-1.gif
-- http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,4168.msg33194.html

Bisnovat 6 - 1946 1:2.75 scale model of Samolet 5 (above)
- Model 6: aka Samolet 6, scale model built by OKB 293
- Bisnovat 6: 1 x 3.92 kN (400 lb.st) Isayev U-400-10 rocket
-- Model 6 launched from Tu-4, recovered by parachute
-- http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,2158.msg10724.html
-- http://www.astronautix.com/graphics/u/u40010.jpg



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The Missile Designs of Matus Ruvimovich Bisnovat

MR Bisnovat Missile Designations

Soviet missile designations are a bit of a mystery to me. At OKB-293, the first air-to-air missile was given a generic designation - SNARS-250 or 'Homing Air-Air Missile, 250 kg' - but there is no record of the Shtorm cruise missile being given a designation at all.

Test shapes for the SNARS-250 were given the completely generic designation Ob'yekt 20 (Object 20). The flying model for the SNARS-250 was designated LM-15. Does anyone know what 'LM' stands for? Or whether LM-15 is part of a designation sequence?

At OKB-4 Molniya, designations were rationalized. The Design Bureau assigned its own designations. Complete systems (Kompleks) were given a K designation (with a type number and a suffix letter for variants). The missile itself was assigned a different Izdelie (Article) number/suffix. So the K-8MR IR-guided missile was also known as the Izdelie 24MR. The VVS designated this missile the R-8 (which NATO, in turn, dubbed AA-3 'Anab').

Note: Some of the confusion around these missile designations springs from OKB-4 being an experimental design bureau. In other words, different OKBs were tasked with 'productionizing' these missile designs for VVS service.


MR Bisnovat Missile Designations

1948-1953 - Director of OKB-293 at Khimki, Moscow

SNARS-250 - 1948 'Homing Air-Air Missile, 250 kg' AAM
- SNARS-250: Intended as SAHR, IR, or TV guided AAM
-- SNARS-250 layout: Canard X-wing (diamond-shaped)
-- SNARS-250 code designation, I-64 (Izdelie 64)
- Ob'yekt 20 (Object 20) ballistic test shapes
- LM-15 : 1949 flying model LM-15 (with VN Elagina)
-- LM-15 (OKB MM Bondarjuk) powered by RD-550 ramjet
- SNARS-250: 1951 test articles, 10 x SAHR, 10 x IR
-- SNARS-250: IR test launches begun in May 1952
-- SNARS-250: SAHR test launches begun Oct 1952
-- http://www.airwar.ru/image/i/weapon/snars250-1.jpg

Bisnovat Shtorm - 1950 experimental cruise missile*
-- * Intended to devel'd as a coastal defence missile
- LM-15: Propulsion test flying model, RD-550 ramjet
- Shtorm: 1 x ?? kW TRD RD-10, 18 x test launches
- Shtorm P-1: Glider prototype to test flying qualities
- Shtorm was to have 35° sweep, underslung RD-1A ramjet
-- http://airspot.ru/catalogue/item/bisnovat-shtorm
-- http://airspot.ru/catalogue_image/filename/3207/shtorm-i.jpg
-- http://www.plam.ru/transportavi/tehnika_i_vooruzhenie_2002_05/p3.php

1955-1977 - Director of OKB-4 Molniya (Lightning), Tushino

K-8 - 1955 AAM (Izdelie 24), PRD-25 single-stage motor
- K-8 : (Izdelie 24)
- K-8M : (Izdelie 24-2) 1962 R-8M
- K-8MR: (Izdelie 24-2V) 1962 R-8MR, PARG-1VV radar
- K-8MT: (Izdelie 24-2N) 1960 R-8MT, S-1D-58 IR
- K-8A : (Izdelie 24A) 1959 Semi-Active Homing Radar
- K-8V : (Izdelie 24V) [? R-8V ?] PARG-1VV radar
- K-8E : (Izdelie 24E) RGS-1 and RGS-8 radar
- K-8M1: (Izdelie 24M1) R-8M1
- K-8N : (Izdelie 24N) R-8N, S-1 IR seeker
- K-8S - (Izdelie 24) R-8S, S-57 IR seeker
-- VVS designation R-8, NATO AA-3 'Anab'
-- http://www.loneflyer.com/bisnovat-r-8-r-98-aa-3-anab/

K-?? - 19?? (Izdelie 27) experimental guided AAM
- K-??A: (Izdelie 27A) Autonomous IR-guided vers.

K-?? - [Project] 19?? (Izdelie 28) guided AAM

K-?? - [Project] 19?? (Izdelie 34) guided AAM

K-40 - 1959 (Izdelie 46) long-range AAM
- K-40 : (Izdelie 46) R-40 SAHR vers.
-- R-40 NATO reporting name AA-6 Acrid
- K-40D: (Izdelie 46D) R-40D SAHR vers.
-- R-40D : SARH ver., NATO AA-6B Acrid-B
- K-40D-1: (Izdelie 46D-1) R-40D-1
-- R-40D-1: NATO AA-6B Acrid-B
- K-40R: (Izdelie 46R) R-40R SAHR
-- R-40R : NATO AA-6A Acrid-A
- K-40T: (Izdelie 46T) R-46T init. IR
-- R-40T : NATO AA-6B Acrid-B
- K-40TD: (Izdelie 46TD) R-46TD IR
-- R-40TD: NATO AA-6D Acrid-D
- K-40TD-1: (Izdelie 46TD-1) R-46TD-1 IR
-- R-40TD-1: NATO AA-6D Acrid-D (MiG-31)
- K-40M - [Project] (Izdelie 65) K-40M AAM
- K-46 : Probable R-40RD test version

K-44 - [Project] (Izdelie 48) 19?? guided AAM

K-80 - 19?? (Izdeliee 36) R-4 guided AAM
- K-80 :
- K-80M: (Izdelie 36M) R-4M guided AAM

K-88 - [Project] 19?? K-8 inspired, with IR seeker*
- K-88: aka K-8M8, proposed reduced-scale K-8 **
-- * IR seeker from K-13 (aka AA-2 Atoll AAM)
-- ** Kaliningrad K-55 (aka R-55) chosen instead

K-100 - [Project] (Izdelie 52) guided AAM

K-98 - 19?? (Izdelie 54) R-98 guided AAM
- K-98R: (Izdelie 54) R-98R
- K-98T: (Izdelie 55) R-98T
- K-98MR: (Izdelie 56) R-98MR
- K-98MT: (Izdelie 57) R-98MT
- K-98MP: [Project] (Izd.58) aka Kh-59

K-60 - 19?? (Izdelie 62) R-60 guided AAM
- K-60 : (Izdelie 62) R-60
- K-60M: (Izdelie 62M) R-60M*
-- * K-60M/R-60M becomes K-75
- K-60?: [Project] (Izdelie 71) AAM

K-?? - 19?? (Izdeliee 63) Kh-29T guided AGM

K-?? - 19??(Izdelie 64) Kh-29L guided AGM

K-73 - 1974* (Izdelie 72) short-range AAM
- * Design work begun on K-73/R-73 AAM
- K-73 : Prototype, inferior IR seeker
- R-73A: Prod. form, adapted Vympel K-14 IR
-- R-73 devel, tranf'd to Vympel in 1981

K-?? - 19?? (Izdelie 75) former K-60M/R-60M

Buran - 1976 start work on Soviet space shuttle



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Jul 25, 2007
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Thanks folks! I suspect that there are more Bisnovat missile projects out there ...


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Mar 24, 2008
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Hi all

my table with OKB-4 missiles (on russian)


  • ???-4.pdf
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Jul 25, 2007
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Wow, great stuff AM! I've tried to incorporate your info into my missile list. Cheers!


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Mar 24, 2008
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Hi all

R-73 missile designated as 9-A-1028 in the Rusian Air Force designation system.

Grey Havoc

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