Mozhaisky Airplane - 1885


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Oct 14, 2007
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In a gloomy autumn day in 1876 in St. Petersburg to find a public arena, is very far from riding. Here come those who got carried away aeronautics - a completely new field of technology. Fifty years old man with well-groomed mustache, came to a long table and put on him a strange building, set on wheels. It is easily moved from its place, ran to the edge of the table and climbing, flew into the air.

Hundreds of eyes, without looking up, watching the flight. Only the hum of the propeller breaks the tense silence, established in the arena: the first aircraft in the air! Ends factory springs, and a model, planned, is gently lowered onto the sand.

Demonstrator in the recent past, a brilliant naval officer, Captain 1 rank Alexander F. Mozhaisky, carefully raise the plane and once again puts it on the table surface. Gathered carefully consider the model - a boat with two large rectangular wings. In the fore part of its enhanced four-bladed propeller, driven by a spring. Apparatus are behind the stern rudder - the vertical and horizontal.

A few days later the newspaper Kronstadt Gazette enthusiastically wrote: "The inventor of very long standing correctly decided the question is ballooning. Apparatus using their motor vehicle would not only flies, runs along the ground, but can also swim. The speed of flight apparatus of amazing and he is not afraid no gravity, no wind and can fly in any direction ... "

Experiments Mozhaiskogo interested professor of St. Petersburg University, Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev, whose works he had already received worldwide acclaim. Perhaps, he insisted that a special commission Chief Engineer's Office has provided funding to the inventor to continue the experiments. The great scientist was adherent Alexander Fedorovich Mozhaiskogo. The inventor has developed a clear "program of experiments on models of aircraft" - a document that did the world's first scientifically developed plan of aerodynamic research, which are indispensable for the construction of the aircraft itself.

Each day, observe the flight patterns brought more and more new discoveries, more and more clearly outlines of future aircraft, stood out of his parts and assemblies. And the day came when the inventor filed a memorandum of intent to build a machine of such dimensions that the "power machine and the direction of the apparatus could control the people."

However, the new commission appointed by the military department to monitor its experiments and led by Lieutenant General GE Pauker, not only rejected the proposal of the inventor, but concluded that the very idea of the possibility of flight apparatus of fixed-wing is wrong. "It is recognized until the useless and irrational" - so stated the resolution on one of the documents of the commission.

Alexander Fedorovich was in dire straits. Mendeleev was far away - on a scientific mission in England. Added financial difficulties. But the designer of the first plane in the world does not give up.

To protect his invention from different attacks, he submits, in June 1880 a petition to the Department of Trade and Manufactures for the extradition of a privilege or copyright certificates for his aeronautic missile. The application was accompanied by a detailed explanatory memorandum and drawings. Here's how the author himself describes his flight: "described below and shown in the drawing aeronautic shell consists of the following main parts: wings, placed between Vimy boat tail, cart wheels, which put the whole shell machines for rotation of the propellers and masts in order to strengthen the wings . The wings are made stationary projectile. The tail consists of two planes: horizontal and vertical, the first may rise and fall and is intended to guide a projectile upwards and downwards, while the second moves to the right and left, and makes the shell rotate in all directions.

The boat is used for space vehicles, materials for them, cargo and people. Trolley with wheels, which put the whole shell and firmly attached, used for takeoff aircraft shells on the ground before his elevation, the air also acts as a balancer trolley or plummet. When the progressive movement in the air screws flying projectiles, rotating machines, due to air resistance lead projectile in motion. "

One of the greatest challenges facing the Mozhaisk in the construction of the aircraft, was to select the appropriate type of engine. Steam engines for his staff produced an English firm Arbeker-Hemkens. Their description is given in the journal "Engineering" in 1881. One of them at 300 rpm gave the power of 20 liters. pp. with a weight of 47.6 kg, the other - at 450 rpm - developed 10 liters. pp. and weighed 28.6 kg.

In the summer of 1881 the main part of the aircraft were ready. To assemble the apparatus of the inventor was allotted to Krasnoselsk military field, near St. Petersburg, a separate plot. The most valuable document detailing the aircraft Mozhaysky is article cavalry cadets N. Myasoyedov, published in "New Era" on Nov. 7, 1910. Miasoyedov often been in the Red village, had several conversations with the inventor.

"Monoplane was built - he writes - a fence made of boards without a roof. Rain is often watered and ruined the car. Monoplane was a boat with wooden ribs covered with cloth. The boat rested on a rectangular wing, slightly curved, concave upwards. All are covered with thin silk cloth soaked with lacquer. Bindings wings of wood (pine). Apparatus standing with wheels. The wings were approximately six feet (a little) from the ground. As the boat, two masts. Wings held by a wire rope stretched to the mast and to the stand. Engine 2 located in front of the boat: a big little promoted from the middle of the boat, smaller even closer to the nose. The device of the engine and was the secret of A. Mozhaiskogo. Screws were three of the four blades each, the two slots in the wings against the big engine. Third on the nose boats on the shaft of a smaller engine. Frames screws, wooden, covered with thin boards. Shove wire. Screws covered with gray paint. rudders, two - vertically and horizontally, are attached to the stern and driven by wire ropes and winches placed near the stern. The work was slow on the occasion of lack of money, which Mr. Mozhajskij not hide. Nobody was interested in his work, and there was no help from anywhere. "

In the course of construction there were some changes. In particular, as it found the famous aircraft designer VB Shavrov, the plane all three screws have the same diameter, whereas in the "Privileges" front screw significantly more lateral. The side screws are not rotated in the rear of the wing slots and slots in front of him, about 40% of its width. The anterior screw was rotated on the motor shaft at 10 liters. pp. The other two screws were driven by belt drives the engine of 20 liters. pp. They rotate in different directions. According to the Journal, the committee meeting to review the draft of the flying device Mozhaysky, "a cloth surface is 4000 square meters. Feet, the aircraft weight should be 57 pounds ...".

The archives are preserved reports of the inventor from 1881 to 1886 to allow him to test the device in flight. But how-ever complete descriptions of these tests do not. True, there are clear references to the fact that they were. In the journal "Memoirs of engineering and technical Russian society", 1893 One of the engineers suggested measures to prevent "dangerous swings from very possibly have airplanes," and cites an example: "... can be seen from the experience of captain rank Mozhaysky with his airplane, and it very nearly came to disaster, as that I know of one here present our esteemed leaders on aeronautics. In the same journal reported experiments Mozhaiskogo said: "The test device failed, and the mechanic, operate machinery, suffered injury." In the journal "aeronaut" for 1909 states: "In the years 1884-1885 the airplane was built on the military field in the village of Red. When takeoff airplane tilted to one side and broke a support surface."

After the failure plane Mozhajskij was unable to continue his experiments, because no funds are available. A Defense Ministry has denied him any further assistance. Despite this, in 1886, Alexander Fedorovich has built at the Obukhov plant two engines of 20 hp. pp. with a steam boiler, one of which was prepared for 1887. Death cut short the research activities of the first in the world aircraft manufacturers.

Modification Airplane Mozhaiskogo
Wing span, m 22.80
Length, m 23.00
Aircraft height, m
Wing area, m2 303.00
Weight, kg
Maximum takeoff 1500
Engine Type 2 P-M Arbeker Hemkens
Power, hp 1 x 20 + 1 x 10
Maximum speed, km / h
Cruising speed, km / h
Range, km
Ceiling, m
Crew 1

( translated with tool integrated in Chrome )


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ACCESS: Top Secret
Oct 14, 2007
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this one first of russian aircraft of end of XIX century was new for me !


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