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Igo Etrich and the origins of bio-design... (with the exception of ornithopters

Stargazer2006

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Remember the late 1980s and early 1990s, when so-called bio-design was all the rage? Some shrewd advertising moguls tried to have us believe that industrial design had finally realized what a brilliant idea it was to mimic the shapes of nature for aerodynamic purposes, not to mention the aesthetic qualities.

A look back on the early days of aviation shows us many examples of attempts at such bio-design. Of course, neither the materials nor the engines were adapted to really make a difference on those strange flying contraptions... But imagine Clément Ader's Éole built with carbon-based composite materials and, say, PT6 turbines?

I'd like for everyone to use this new topic to include any examples of aircraft (in the loose meaning of the word — gliders, helicopters are also welcome) that were designed to closely resemble shapes found in nature.

For example, as early as 1897 (the same year as the Éole's attempted flights), a German inventor by the name of Friedrich Ahlhorn studied and theorized the application to flying contraptions of zanonia's seed. The Zanonia Macrocarpa) is a strange Japanese plant (loosely related to our cucumbers), whose seed is made of a thin yet stiff membrane (sometimes as big as six inches wide) that can glide across long distances. In 1904 Austrian inventor Igo Etrich first applied Ahlhorn's research to a kite, and two years later produced with Franz Wels the Praterspatz, a monoplane glider which was shaped exactly like the zanonia. In 1907, the design evolved into a powered aircraft, and ultimately led to the famous Rumpler Taube of 1911, an observation/training type that was nonetheless used as the first ever bomber during World War I.


More information online:
 

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Justo Miranda

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Re: Igo Etrich and the origins of bio-design...

From "Ein dreieck fliegt" by Alexander Lippisch -Motorbuch Verlag -1976
 

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Justo Miranda

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Saqqara falcon
 

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Justo Miranda

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Ader Eole
 

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Justo Miranda

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Blohm und Voss BV 143 lufttorpedo
 

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Justo Miranda

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Floatplanes,Flying boats ,Sky and Aquaplanes inspiration
http://canalmenorca.com/foros/viewtopic.php?t=7522&sid=8bfe330ee8feaf2a5f652d96ea66dd5a
 

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Justo Miranda

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Justo Miranda

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Exoskeleton and geodetic airframe
http://www.google.es/search?client=firefox-a&rls=org.mozilla%3A%3Aofficial&channel=s&hl=es&source=hp&biw=&bih=&q=exoskeleton&meta=&oq=exoskeleton&aq=f&aqi=g6&aql=&gs_nf=1&gs_l=firefox-hp.3..0l6.7053.11762.0.12287.11.11.0.6.6.0.112.553.0j5.5.0.bw_IhbSSmDA

http://www.gizmag.com/go/1604/

The insect outer skeleton, the cuticle, is made up of two layers: the epicuticle, which is a thin and waxy water resistant outer layer and contains no chitin, and a lower layer called the procuticle. The procuticle is chitinous and much thicker than the epicuticle and has two layers: an outer layer known as the exocuticle and an inner layer known as the endocuticle. The tough and flexible endocuticle is built from numerous layers of fibrous chitin and proteins, criss-crossing each others in a sandwich pattern, while the exocuticle is rigid and hardened.[11]:22–24 The exocuticle is greatly reduced in many soft-bodied insects (e.g., caterpillars), especially during their larval stages.
Insects are the only invertebrates to have developed active flight capability, and this has played an important role in their success.[11]:186 Their muscles are able to contract multiple times for each single nerve impulse, allowing the wings to beat faster than would ordinarily be possible. Having their muscles attached to their exoskeletons is more efficient and allows more muscle connections; crustaceans also use the same method, though all spiders use hydraulic pressure to extend their legs, a system inherited from their pre-arthropod ancestors. Unlike insects, though, most aquatic crustaceans are biomineralized with calcium carbonate extracted from the water.[13][14]
http://www.backyardnature.net/exoskelt.htm


http://www.sirbarneswallis.com/Geodetics.htm


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geodesic_airframe
 

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Justo Miranda

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Camo
 

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Grey Havoc

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index.php

[IMAGE CREDIT: quellish]

Project Aquiline
 

Justo Miranda

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"W" wing
 

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Stargazer2006

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Some moderator saw it fit to add the mention "with the exception of ornithopters" in the title, but since apparently no-one has really respected that restriction, could something be done to further split the topic (or merge it with the ornithopters thread, maybe?). Thanks!
 

Jemiba

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Well, that's right, I'll try to split and merge with other more appropriate threads.
BTW, I think (but I'm not quite sure), that Stargazer actually had something different
in mind when starting this thread, designs like the Etrich Taube, that resembled natural
constructions" overall. Another good example seem to me the Festo designs.

Still looking for the picture of an early helicopter with a single blade rotor and intended for
taking off from the water. Would have resembled a large seed of a lime tree, but cannot
remeber the name of the designer and still yet I haven't found the photo of this heli again.
 

Michel Van

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Stargazer2006 said:
Some moderator saw it fit to add the mention "with the exception of ornithopters" in the title, but since apparently no-one has really respected that restriction, could something be done to further split the topic (or merge it with the ornithopters thread, maybe?). Thanks!


oops i over look that "Exception" part on Ornithopthers
i have correct my post
sorry about that
 

Justo Miranda

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Active camo
please see
Re: “Invisible” Aircraft, (Stealth: The Early Years).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_camouflage

http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/viewArticle.do?id=2472

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bioluminescence


http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Deep_sea_fish


Defense against predators.
Bioluminescence can serve as a decoy. Some squid and shrimp produce a luminescent glowing cloud similar in function to the ink cloud of squid in daylight. When attacked by a predator, scaleworms and brittlestars sacrifice a part of the body that continues to flash as the animal makes its escape. Other animals living in ocean depths where the sunlight is very dim use bioluminescence to camouflage themselves. Their bioluminescence matches the color and brightness of the dim sunlight, and is called luminescent countershading, because it fills in their shadow and makes it harder for them to be detected by predators. Many small plankton use flashes of light to startle their predators in an attempt to interrupt their feeding.


Camouflage
The deep sea offers very little in the way of cover in mid water. No species of macroalgae are able to scrape an existence so far down and there are no bed form features such as rocks that animals can use for cover. It is perhaps for this reason that use of bioluminescence for camouflage is so prevalent and effective, particularly in fish and squid species
A highly effective form of bioluminescent camouflage is that of counter-illumination, which is present in many deep-sea fish and shark species, such as the velvet-belly lantern shark, Etmopterus spinax. In a 2008 paper, Claes identified 9 distinct zones of photophores on the underside of embryonic E. spinax individuals that were responsible for producing bioluminescent output. As the sharks matured these 9 zones merged to form an intricate camouflage design, which functions to disguise the animal in a similar fashion to the Hatchetfish
 

Jemiba

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I'll revive this old thread, but today I was in the German Airforce Museum in Berlin/Gatow, where
I saw that model, designated as the Etrich-Wels glider from 1905 to 1906, was fitted with an
engine in 1908, which allowed for some short hops of about 40m.
It's similar to the "Praterspatz" from 1907, but the engine is installed in the rear with the prop
working in the wing area and a stabilator in the nose, turning the original flying wing into a kind
of short coupled canard.
 

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Cy-27

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A recent visit to the Prague Technical Museum gave some more information on the Etrich-Wels Zanonia inspired, powered aeroplane of 1906.

As mentioned in Skyblazer's original post, the Zanonia was originally a tailless glider, built and flight-tested around 1905 in Horni Stare Mesto, Trutnov, Bohemia. It was the work of ground-breaking aircraft designer Igo Etrich with assistance from Franz Wels. Igo Etrich conducted intensive studies of various types of flight from examples in both the animal and plant kingdoms. His attention was quickly captured by gliding seeds of a gourd (Macrozanonia macrocarpa), found from the Malaysian island through New Guinea. These seeds were ideal for gliding flight and under proper conditions, due to their slightly arched shell, were capable of stable gliding flight of long distances. The shape of these seeds became the model for his first gliders, which carried the name Zanonia.

After intensive experimenting, Etrich presented his improved glider in 1906-07, with great success. It was constructed of wood, bamboo and fabric, with a wingspan of 10 meters and a surface area of 38 square meters. It was intended to be powered by a Laurin-Klement motorcycle engine with two counter-rotating propellers. Etrich's partner Franz Wels managed gliding flights of up to 250 meters in the craft, but they never succeeded in making it take off under power.

The glider's frame was completely preserved and renovated in the early 1980s by the Prague Technical Museum.

Manufacturer: Igo Etrich & Franz Wels
Engine: 1 x Laurin & Klement 2.5 hp air-cooled single cylinder motorcycle engine
Wingspan: 6.0 m
Length: 2.9 m
Weight: 20 kg

Photos are attached.
 

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nuuumannn

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Mention of Clement Ader must not forget his Avion III, of which the above post by Justo Miranda eight years ago shows a small picture. Ader's bat-like machine in which he claimed to have made a powered flight before the Wrights survives at the Musee des Arts et Metiers in Paris. It's worth mentioning that this ethereal thing gave the French language its word for aircraft, even if it didn't actually fly; "Avion".
 

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nuuumannn

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A beautiful full size former flying reproduction of a Taube on display at the Aviation Heritage Centre, Blenheim, New Zealand, illustrating its graceful zanonia wing.
 

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dan_inbox

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Ader's bat-like machine in which he claimed to have made a powered flight before the Wrights
There is no question that Ader "made powered flight": He received a contract from the army, with verifications at each step before releasing the next tranche of financing. He did achieve verified low-level hops in straight-ahead flight.
WHat he did not achieve and that the Wrights developped, is a system of coordinated controls for turns. This is how he lost the army's support: at one step the requirement was to fly a square pattern around a field and come back to the origin. When Ader performed this figure, he tried to turn square and flat (as in an automobile) and crashed, of course.
Don't meet the contract requirement, don't get the next tranche. Whether the requirement is sensible or (in retrospect) ill-specified, it's the law.
Bureaucracy vs visionary, the issue as old as Administrations...
 

nuuumannn

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Don't meet the contract requirement, don't get the next tranche.

Hm, the Avion III did not fly. There is no evidence but Ader's words on it when he saw that Santos-Dumont was getting recognition for his powered flight in October 1906. Until that time, neither Ader, nor anyone else who was present at Sartory that witnessed the Avion III slew off its circular track and crash in October 1897 made any claim that it flew. This is after previous attempts left the thing firmly on the ground.

He did achieve verified low-level hops in straight-ahead flight.
Any claims he made that he flew in the Avion III are without substance and evidence. The Eole made what can only be described as a powered hop, not flight of any substance.
 
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Retrofit

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Hm, the Avion III did not fly. There is no evidence but Ader's words on it when he saw that Santos-Dumont was getting recognition for his powered flight in October 1906. Until that time, neither Ader, nor anyone else who was present at Sartory that witnessed the Avion III slew off its circular track and crash in October 1897 made any claim that it flew. This is after previous attempts left the thing firmly on the ground.

Any claims he made that he flew in the Avion III are without substance and evidence. The Eole made what can only be described as a powered hop, not flight of any substance.
Dear muuumann, i think the reading of the book "Clément Ader, créacteur d'avion" by General Pierre Lissarrague (Editions Privat 1990) would change your claims.
 

nuuumannn

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Dear muuumann, i think the reading of the book "Clément Ader, créacteur d'avion" by General Pierre Lissarrague (Editions Privat 1990) would change your claims

Highly unlikely. Since I suspect you have a copy of this book, perhaps you would care to enlighten us with the compelling evidence that it presents proving Ader did in fact get airborne in the Avion III, because no one, apart from Ader made any claim at the time - and there were witnesses to its unfortunate ending at the test track, that the Avion III flew in October 1897. And even then not even Ader himself made a claim until nine years later, when in a magazine he stated that surprisingly and somewhat miraculously two days after the failed trial on 12 October, despite the aircraft sustaining serious damage in the crash he made a flight of some 300m! Zutalore!

This bogus claim doesn't stand up to scrutiny, no prominent aviation researcher believes it because there simply is no evidence beyond what Ader claimed. There are soooo many claimants to powered flight before the Wrights and all of them fall short in some way or another, primarily because of lack of evidence except someone spreading a tall tale. Supporters like yourself fly the flag for the likes of Russian Alexander Mozhaisski, New Zealander Richard Pearse, Scotsman Preston Watson, German American Gustave Whitehead, Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont and French Ader; take your pick, choose your nationality. This is my personal favourite:

 

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Dear muuumann, i think the reading of the book "Clément Ader, créacteur d'avion" by General Pierre Lissarrague (Editions Privat 1990) would change your claims

Highly unlikely. Since I suspect you have a copy of this book, perhaps you would care to enlighten us with the compelling evidence that it presents proving Ader did in fact get airborne in the Avion III, because no one, apart from Ader made any claim at the time - and there were witnesses to its unfortunate ending at the test track, that the Avion III flew in October 1897. And even then not even Ader himself made a claim until nine years later, when in a magazine he stated that surprisingly and somewhat miraculously two days after the failed trial on 12 October, despite the aircraft sustaining serious damage in the crash he made a flight of some 300m! Zutalore!

This bogus claim doesn't stand up to scrutiny, no prominent aviation researcher believes it because there simply is no evidence beyond what Ader claimed. There are soooo many claimants to powered flight before the Wrights and all of them fall short in some way or another, primarily because of lack of evidence except someone spreading a tall tale. Supporters like yourself fly the flag for the likes of Russian Alexander Mozhaisski, New Zealander Richard Pearse, Scotsman Preston Watson, German American Gustave Whitehead, Brazilian Alberto Santos-Dumont and French Ader; take your pick, choose your nationality. This is my personal favourite:

LOL nuumann,
You should better directly contact the "Musée de l'Air et de l'Espace" at Paris Le Bourget.
The author, General Pierre Lissarague was the head of this institution between 1973 and 1986, (and I think he also hold the Lindberg Chair at the National Air & Space Museum at Washington DC. in 1985 & 1986).
As such he had all time and access to dig the museum archives.
he also had budgets to perform test on a full size wing as well as on Avion n°III' steam engine and propeller (at Saclay's power-plant Test Center ).

... Modesty should be the motto of the members of this forum.
 

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