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Early “Vostok” spacecraft design

BESTUZHEV

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Hi!
There was one thread about early Vostok design, but the weren’t any drawings; so here are they.
enjoy
 

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BESTUZHEV

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It’s in Russian, but if u need help with translation, u can ask me
 

archipeppe

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Interesting, I have already seen the original drawing before but not the two nice 3d models.
First impression is that S.P. Korolev and his team at OKB-1 tried to replicate the same design of Sputnik-2.
A conical "service satellite" placed on the top with a underbelly pressurized section (hosting Laika in Sputnik-2), acting also like a re-entry module for the cosmonaut.
 

BESTUZHEV

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Yep, very interesting; you can see Sputnik-3 pictures — they look like the top of this spacecraft, interesting mix of Sputnik 2 and 3
 

archipeppe

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Where are the re-entry motors?
Initial plan issued by OKB-1 foresaw a very very low orbit with a natural decay within some hours so, at least initially, any engine was required.
Only after that was decided to have a unique design for both manned and reconeissance satellites (1K/3K and 2K/4K) the need of re-entry engine was raised.
 

greenmartian2017

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It’s in Russian, but if u need help with translation, u can ask me
If you could, please translate those sections about these early Vostok designs into English from the book that you kindly linked to. And post them here! Thanks in advance.
 

BESTUZHEV

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It’s in Russian, but if u need help with translation, u can ask me
If you could, please translate those sections about these early Vostok designs into English from the book that you kindly linked to. And post them here! Thanks in advance.
Manned spacecraft projects
The world's first manned space vehicle The satellite was developed in the Special Design Bureau of OKB-1 (now the Rocket Research Institute).косм space corporation " Energy») under the leadership of Chief Designer Sergei Pavlovich Korolev and with the full support of the Soviet state, headed by Nikita Khrushchev. Work on the design of the manned spacecraft began in the 9th department of OKB-1 under the leadership of Mikhail Klavdievich Tikhonravov in early 1957, even before the launch of the First Satellite, and on February 15, 1958, S. P. Korolev set a specific task: the development of the pilot ру The steering wheel of the orbiter. The role of the chief designer was performed by Konstantin Petrovich Feoktistov, who later became a pilotкосмонав cosmonaut, deputy general designer. The ship was designed to be launched by a carrier based on an intercontinental rocket P-7 with an additional 3rd stage. The main problems were associated with the return of the cosmonaut to Earth: the heating of the lander (SA) and the overload during the tormo Road to the start in the atmosphere. As early as the end of 1957, studies showed that the optimal shape of the CA was a blunt cone (with a rounded nose and a spherical bottom) with a diameter of about 2 m. Thanks to the ability to plan slightly, a conical CA would reduce the overload during descent to 5-6 g (instead of 10-12 g), and obtain higher accuracy during landing. Rescue of the pilot was provided by ejection and automatic descent by parachute, and the SA itself was not saved. This idea did not reach the preliminary design. As a result of research and foreman The current Project department No9 has released the report " Materials for preliminary work the question of creating an Earth satellite with a human on board (object OD-2)". In the report, it was indicated that with the help of a three-stage rocket, it is possible to launch a ship with a mass of 4.5–5.5 tons (depending on the 3rd stage) with a person and the necessary equipment for his flight. During the ballistic descent of the spherical CA, the overloads do not exceed 8-9 g. In order not to complicate the design6 In April 1958, it became known that the 10 g payload was quite tolerable for the pilot. Therefore, they did not bother with the aerodynamic calculations of the cone SA, but agreed to the already studied sphere with a descent along the ballistic trajectory. All dynamic characteristics at all speeds were known for the sphere by that time.

One of the four options for the layout of the satellite with a person on board: 1-transition compartment; 2-lander; 3-power conical shell; 4-resettable cone; 5-instrument compartment; 6-resettable flaps; 7-brake propulsion system
Vostok Program 123574 6 M. K. Tikhonravov with a soft landing system, decide whether to eject the pilot at an altitude of 8-10 km and land him on a parachute. The SA must land separately on its own parachute. The equipment for the orbital flight and the braking propulsion system (TDU) were located in a separate compartment ahead. The launch vehicle was enclosed inside the main body of the launch vehicle (LV) when moving in orbit. In June 1958, S. P. Korolev approved the preliminary results, on August 15 they were recorded in the report on the object OD-2 and approved by the Chief Designer on September 15. And the very next day, S. P. Korolev sent proposals for the creation of a manned spacecraft and an unmanned satellite to the head of the State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on Defense Technology, K. N. Rudnev, and the order ч chik-Marshal M. I. Nedelin. Without waiting for the official approval of the project, OKB-1 immediately began the development of design documentation and issued technical specifications to related organizations. During the design process, the layout of the ship was significantly changed, and the instrument compartment (PO) with the brake propulsion system was now located below the lander. Already in the spring of 1959, the drawings for the ship's hull went into production, and by the fall, the working documentation was basically ready. The work on the creation of the world's first satellite for human flight was officially legalized by the top secret resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of May 22, 1959 No569 2 264 on the topic "East". It was supplied with the task of developing an experimental version of the satellite spacecraft, which was to create the prerequisites for the development of a reconnaissance satellite, "as well as a satellite designed for human flight." These seven words gave birth to the "East", which started on April 12, 1961. Separately, the task – to carry out the first human flights in outer space - was set only in government Decree No. 1386-618 of December 10, 1959. Thus, the program included not only the establishment of a manned to the Rablsatellite "Vostok-3" (factory index 3K), but similar components- line, but the excellent equipment of photo-reconnaissance satellite "Vos current2" (object 2K, later "Zenit-2"), and simplified the spaceship "Vostok-1" (1) for testing systems. A total of 123 organizations participated in the creation of the ship. The actual management of the works was carried out by the Council of Chief Designers headed by S. P. Korolev (general organization, ship, launch vehicle). The Council was in: V. P. Glushko (engines 1 and 2 minutes from launch), M. S. Ryazan (radio system control, monitoring and communication), N.And.Pilyugin (control niya PH, devices of the control system of the ship), V. P. Barmin (starting komPlex), V. I. Kuznetsov (gyroscopes SIS the control of PH and the ship), A. F. Bo gamolov (radio telemetry), A. M. Isaev (retropropulsion), S. A. Kosberg (engine 3tier RN), S. M. Alekseev (the suit, ejection seat), V. I. Azgov sky (head of medical and biological tion cosmonaut training). On April 26, 1960, S. P. Korolev approved the draft design of "Vostok 1", but – a sign of the times! - At the same time as its development, production was underway, the improved ship already existed in the "same lez" and was almost ready for flight. design tests (LKI).
 

BESTUZHEV

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If you would like to see some more artworks of this artist, you can visit this links:

 

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