Chengdu/PAIC FC-1 JF-17 and Grumman Super 7


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3 January 2006
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Russia blocks sale of Chinese jets to Pakistan

Vladimir Radyuhin

The JF-17 fighter aircraft have been powered by Russian RD-93 engines


New Delhi, Moscow to sign pact on 5th generation fighter plane
Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov to visit India

MOSCOW: Russia has blocked the sale of Chinese fighter planes with Russian engines to Pakistan.

"We've denied China the right to supply its JF-17 fighter aircraft powered by Russian RD-93 engines to third countries, asking it to sign an end-user certificate for the engines," said Colonel-General Anatoly Mazurkevich, head of the Defence Ministry's International Cooperation Department.

President Pervez Musharraf said last year that the JF-17s would be flying in Pakistani skies by March 2007. Islamabad plans to acquire 150 JF-17s, known in China as FC-1. China has bought 100 Klimov RD-93 engines from Russia for installing on JF-17s, with an option to contract another 400 engines.

Speaking to Indian and Russian journalists ahead of a visit to India by Russia's Deputy Prime Minister and Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov on January 22, Col.-Gen. Mazurkevich confirmed that India and Russia are shortly to sign accords to jointly develop and produce a 5th generation fighter plane and a multi-role transport aircraft.

India is expected to announce during Mr. Ivanov's visit its choice between two Russian concepts of a multi-role stealth fighter plane of the 5th generation that the Russian aviation majors, Sukhoi and MIG, presented to the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) last year.

The aircraft deals will be discussed when Mr. Ivanov co-chairs with Defence Minister A.K. Antony the 6th meeting of the Indo-Russian Inter-Governmental Commission for Military-Technical Cooperation. Ahead of the commission meeting on January 24 Mr. Ivanov will fly to Bangalore to visit the HAL and the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), as well as some leading Information and Technology companies, and meet business people.

Stuck in Sichuan: Pakistani JF-17 Program Grounded
Posted 25-Jan-2007 09:02
Related stories: Asia - Central, Asia - China, Asia - India, Engines - Aircraft, Events, Fighters & Attack, New Systems Tech, Northrop-Grumman, Partnerships & Consortia, Russia
Also on this day: 25-Jan-2007 »

FC-1/ JF-17
(click to view full)The military world has no shortage of irony. The defense industry has its moments too, as Pakistan just discovered. An aircraft whose development was driven by military sanctions from the US and Europe is now derailed by military sanctions. This leaves the Pakistani Air Force dependent on an alternative from... America. Meanwhile, the Chinese are left with no export launch customer for a plane they may now have to reluctantly buy themselves, instead of the favoured and more capable J-10. Somewhere in Delhi, champagne is pouring - but first, a bit of background.

The JF-17/FC-1 is a sub-$20 million fighter designed as a co-operative venture between Pakistan and China to replace F-7P (MiG-21+) and Mirage 3/5 aircraft in Pakistan's fleet. China also has options to produce them, but has made no firm decisions and seems unenthusiastic. It's a comparable peer for India's still-under-development LCA Tejas, Taiwan's F-CK-1 Ching Kuo fighters, and South Korea's T/A-50 Golden Eagle supersonic trainer & light fighter. Sino Defense reminds us that the JF-17/FC-1 'Xiaolong' has a long history...

Chinese J-7E
(click to view full)The site recalls that China signed a $550 million agreement with Grumman in 1986 to modernise its J-7 fighter (MiG-21 copy) under the "Super-7" upgrade project, with US and British firms competing to provide the engine and avionics. The project was canceled after the Tienanmen Square massacre, but Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation managed to continue the programme with its own resources, and the project was re-branded as FC-1 (Fighter China-1). US sanctions related to Pakistan's nuclear program and Chinese-Pakistani use of ballistic missile components led Pakistan to seek helps from its Chinese ally. A joint development and production agreement was signed in June 1999, with China Aviation Import and Export Corporation (CATIC) and Pakistan each contributing 50% of the estimated $150 million development costs.

The Pakistan Government had hoped to sign a deal to acquire 150 JF-17/FC-1 fighters in 2007, with 8 aircraft in service by year's end. China had reportedly even bought 100 Klimov RD-93 engines from Russia for installing on JF-17s, with an option to contract another 400 engines.

There's only one problem: Russia has just refused permission for the transfer of its RD-93 engines, derived from the RD-33 that equips the MiG-29. The decision comes only a few days after a visit to India by Russia's Deputy Prime Minister and Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov, during which a number of joint defense projects were discussed and agreements were signed. These include the MRTA transport aircraft, and reportedly a "5th generation fighter" project, even as the MiG-29OVT/MiG-35 is touted as the likely winner of the multi-billion MRCA fighter contract.

Coincidence? Not a chance. Replacement with another engine? Unless it's a very close copy, that requires re-work of the entire fighter design and takes years. Just ask the J-10 project team.

Bottom line? Pakistan's ongoing F-16 fleet upgrade and expansion program with the USA has just become much more important - giving the USA a larger lever to use over Pakistani behaviour vis-a-vis Afghanistan, al-Qaeda, et. al.
Can anybody tell what is this? I am asking especially for the indentification of the top 3 view. If its real FC-1 version, is this the predcessor or the successor of the current design?


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I think the bottom 3 view FC-1 is based on the original mock-up and first prototype.

The top image I think is of final product of the development stage, in other worlds what the FC-1 became after Prototype Number 4. Notice the top image has a larger LERX, DSI intakes, and a modified vertical stabilizer likely to carry ECM equipment. All these features are present in the current FC-1/JF-17 production model.

Just my thoughts.
Good observation. But what is puzzling me is the shape of the nose (the real current FC-1/JF-17 has the nice rounded cross section) and the shape of the fuselage and tail arround the nozzle, which are also different.
Sorry, but that's simply an old Fan-art published before the modified no. 04 prototype was colled out. Additionally there are persisted rumours - mostly from Pakistan - that CAC is working further on a stealthyfied FC-1/JF-17 - sometimes shown with twin tails ... but IMO nothing serious.

Matej said:
... its not a rumour anymore, it was officially announced at the last Farnborough.

Really .... ??? ... Do You have a source ?

Thanks, Deino
I checked the sources: in the official ShowNews article on the page 29 there is used the formulation "...also reportedly signed a Memorandum of Understanding...".

I had the interview with the PAC representatives myself and they said me that they are actively looking for the ways to reduce the RCS of the JF-17 (like is done on the SuperHornet). They were speaking about the 5th generation, that should counter the MRCA from India, but considering their other statement that they are willing to raise the price for 20 percent at max, the 4,5 generation is much realistic. Depending on the results, there is a plan to split the planned purchase of the 250 JF-17 into the 100 in the original configuration and 150 in the stealthified configuration between 2015 and 2025.
The fan-art artists impression, how the stealthified JF-17 can look like. To my knowledge no official graphics exist so far. Other two pictures show the Chengdu/Grumman Super 7 - original J-7 modification from the late 80s.


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The aircraft in the artwork at the top looks pretty cool :eek:. These V fins are so sexy, I hope it materializes soon.
This was profile art I did for one of Deino's articles that covered the Chengdu/Grumman Super-7 design.


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I have those on my hard disk...

And what about a Super 7 with english avionics (Sea harrier FRS.1 radar for example)?



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Latest development ... + YJ-83 ASM


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Not Grumman, per se. That's a model of Grumman's F-8II PEACE PEARL upgrade. Prior to Tianamen Square, Grumman was investigating upgrades for both the J-7 and J-8II. The J-8II involved (if I remember right) an APG-66 radar, and other changes. The J-7 derivative was called Super-7, and was the predecessor to the JF-17, with a solid nose and side-mounted intakes.
Chinese PDF of Super-7 story attached, translation to follow.


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Aviation Files 06.9-07.4 Tu Jida Editor's Note: Articles from this term exclusive serialization Chinese Academy of Engineering, the famous aircraft designer Tu Jida lengthy masterpiece "super -7 Industry", the author's personal experience and unique perspectives, reproduction a period of Sino-foreign cooperation to improve fighters. Developed "super -7" extraordinary years of arduous and full of rough road. "Super -7 Industry" informative and lively style, with important historical value and research value. "Super -7" who, beyond the F-7 that also. Means on the basis of the improved F-7, F-7 to exceed. As a "super -7" Tu Chinese project leader Kedar, a former chief engineer of Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Corporation, he presided over the successful design of the aircraft, the two models received the National Science Conference Award, two models won the State Science and Technology Progress First Award, three models (the system) to obtain national quality gold medal, gold medal he received the Air can be said to have fame. But he and hundreds of thousands of aviation people, "always wanted to revitalize the country's aviation industry, devote their regrets for Love, the return of the cultivation of the motherland and the people's expectations." So the fishes "super -7" R & D spare no effort. Today, the new "Fierce Dragon" has been soaring blue sky, China's aviation industry needs more struggler. ◆ Author Message many comrades say that is can be done in super -7. Ten years, several ups and downs, which is very difficult. To come up with one kind of military aircraft, a non-state budget, nor the company's own financial strength, three users without exact order, the lower the probability of its success is obvious. The need for international cooperation as an export aircraft; another exposure situation changing international situation, the risk among heavy; coupled with the influence of many factors inside and out, and ultimately to fruition, the road twists and turns, walking may be the difficulty of conceivable. Nevertheless, ultra -7 or engage in out. Overall, it is the history of international relations and the product of the aviation industry. In reality, there are some positive elements down fighting, always wanted to revitalize the country's aviation industry, devote their regrets for Love, the return of the cultivation of the motherland and the people's expectations. So super -7 aircraft to move forward so far in the rough
◆ rods under the hammer island scenery scenery resort and British POW selection negotiation "to both sides in order to ease the tense atmosphere, not like the old bus along for the ride, but leads to a catch 20 set super -7 History of Liaodong Peninsula is located in the Britain's Dalian, fresh air, grass everywhere, guards at the turn of the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea, beautiful scenery, waves race day, the sea a few hundred meters offshore there is a bar hammer Island, along the edge of the island, a bar hammer ring Island hotel district, after another small building situated among the rolling greenery, beach white sand beaches and bathing areas have become a resort. July 21, 1983 began, CATIC invited British Marconi Avionics company come in Bangchuidao hotel with our CAC negotiations. F-7M aircraft on seven pre-production test flight in electronic fire control equipment exposed many technical problems, is expected to be a big quarrel. To ease the atmosphere, looking for a good environment for the negotiations. Marconi foreigners living for himself story house, $ 800 a day. There bronze building with the words "beloved Premier Zhou receiving foreign dignitaries had lived here." At this point, modification of the British electronic devices -7 Ⅱ A fighter aircraft, together with a drone as a radar test
F -7 Ⅱ, 30 are in the shop Dalian airport as a base for the Navy's use of precision measuring equipment for ground radar flight. Flight test flight from Xi'an Institute of organization, we and the British sent the scene to participate, as many as one hundred people participating personnel. July 27, a machine unit (hereinafter referred to as "the Ministry") and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs, general manager of Sun Zhaoqing CATIC and I, went to 30 in the airport shop, there to greet the first deputy chief of staff of the Pakistan Air Force Lieutenant Jamal row. They came to see modification of the British electronic fire control equipment F-7M aircraft. By the Foreign Affairs Bureau deputy director and deputy general manager of AVIC, accompanied by Liu Guomin, starting from Beijing, Shenyang, looked through F-8 aircraft, and then came to Dalian. In the shop at 30 airports, Jamal and I listened to the report of Comrade Qiu Puda and field saw the aircraft, immediately expressed great interest. Think that this modification is also fully in line with their idea, because fighters fitted with HUD and other equipment, is the world's development. Pakistan Air Force expressed the need for such an aircraft, and immediately decided to send two pilots to fly the aircraft. That night, we returned with Bangchuidao hotels, CATIC Sun, Liu will entertain Jamal and I made pottery wide comrades accompany them. F-7M aircraft at the first exit after the contract, but also created the prospect of exports to Pakistan, which we are all encouraged. In August, Mr. Liu went to Pakistan, Pakistan proposed to Pakistan live ammunition shooting demonstration opinions. August 15, Bong Ministry of Aviation Industry Minister of Zhao Mo Wenxiang, I arrived in Beijing. Because Mo Minister sick, Cui Wei, vice minister on behalf of his talk with me, I am once again clearly either the chief architect of the F-7M aircraft and F-7M type and department deputy director, to be responsible in the end of these models. At that time, Mao Dehua deputy director attended the conversation. Since then, with the British Marconi Company has conducted negotiations Beidaihe, Xiangshan negotiations. In mid-December, the Palestinian side really sent two pilots to Xi'an Institute of Flight Test, test flying into the two F -7 Ⅱ A aircraft. F -7 Ⅱ A modification in the United Kingdom seven electronic devices, scheduled to pay the Air Force, and its plug-wing F-7M and so did not like the type that changes can be considered the predecessor of the F-7M. Flight day in 14 years, a total of 19 test vehicles. After that the aircraft fly very well, as long as the introduction of equipment as described above, then the aircraft is quite satisfactory. But also made some small suggestions for improvement of the aircraft. June 9, 1984, I have two aircraft (an F -7 Ⅱ A, an F-7M-type) transitions to Pakistan, live-fire target practice and presentation. In the three-month period before and after a total of 20 flight day organized by the Palestinian side flying a variety of weapons, air-to-ground live ammunition shooting, carried out with F-6, Q-5, "Mirage" 5 and F-16 combat flight positive. The party, who went to Pakistan with 6 units of 30 people, by the Chenbao Qi Cheng Fei, deputy director and deputy chief Xie Anqing Teachers led. Test proved that the aircraft fire control accuracy is greatly improved, aircraft modification is very successful, the Pakistan Air Force Lieutenant Jamal September 15, Deputy Secretary for Liu Guomin said: "The test subjects went smoothly, aircraft well, deepened our understanding of the F-7M. aircraft shooting was very successful, your good work of the experts. "Before this, Pakistan Air Force has repeatedly sent representatives to fly into concrete negotiations visits and F-7 aircraft purchase matters. At this point, it comes from the F-7I type F -7 Ⅱ type until the F-7M-type, F-7 series aircraft exports to Pakistan, and finally see the clues. Unexpectedly, to October 1984, the Palestinian side suddenly made a turn.
◆ F-7CP born military aircraft exports are, indeed, billions of dollars into large trading but do succeed, but easier said than done in April 1984 and in October, accompanied by Liu Guomin and training the Egyptian air force commander, Deputy Minister to investigate into the fly and flight test aircraft F-7M. After that fly "aircraft performance is very good," "from within the heart like the airplane." Exports to Egypt again, we feel great hope, but unexpectedly, due to various reasons, the second outlet without success. Besides exports to Pakistan in turn, has talked about a full eight years before they reach a first contract, seems to make it difficult
With confidence. October 1984, the Palestinian side came a big move ... In hindsight, it is not unusual. October in Beijing, is clear and crisp, fragrant leaves a good season. Aircraft in the F-7M Last Stand decisive victory has already begun and will be fully exported technical appraisal on the eve of F -7 another turning point in the history of suddenly arrived. October 23, 1984 began, the Pakistan Air Force Jamal will lead a delegation to visit China again. In Beijing, the Sun Zhaoqing general manager reception negotiate, CAC send Wangyin Gong, Zhengwei Chuan participate, Jia brought a modified F-7M proposal, called for the strengthening of aircraft maneuverability, increased combat radius, improved interception performance, and has some ground attack capability. Specific requirements are facelift U.S. F404-100 engines, increase machine capacity 1000-1500 liters of fuel (rather cancel a gun), the installation of visual function has the following three basic radar and other improvements. In addition, we hope the installation of INS, radar warning device, air refueling, improved vision after the pilot, taking into account the two-seat trainer aircraft. Engines and (e) equipment, the Palestinian side can provide. Pakistani empty and recommend improvements to go through this one talks between the two governments, the two air forces to solve specific consultations, and by the Palestinian side to participate in cooperative Kamra aircraft factory, which is demanding, Click here to do the job we promised. Sure enough, Jamaal will be met with the Air Force commander, the Greek Chinese Air Force Participation in "F-7M improvement" of this project, the government established a relationship. The Air Force leaders have said that fear funds are not implemented, and change too much, the aircraft's price will go up. In Jamaal formal proposal with China, I Baku diplomats have advance notice of its proposal domestic main content. In this regard, Minister Mo Wenxiang, Jiang Xie were instructed Deputy Minister of Health, Bureau of Foreign Affairs Bureau will carefully grasp the aircraft, the Chengdu Aircraft flying into and development centers to participate in the study and submit a proposal. So there are still some negotiations to prepare. At this time, because we and the British Marconi companies refit aircraft F-7M successful U.S. Vought Aircraft Company, the British company Lucas to CATIC that can cooperate further modified F-7M aircraft, which in December Vought Aircraft on the proposed modification of a proposal to us. The end of October in Beijing, Sun Zhaoqing comrades asked me this old bus retrofit aircraft from the Palestinian side for (electronic) equipment and engines, we engage in the body, three out okay? I said, all you want to change the body, allow three planes to heaven, has already been very simple, and would like to provide aircraft certainly not the Palestinian side, almost five years since changed greatly. October talks with Pakistan has gone beyond the scope of the last trading aircraft, but an international cooperation, it seems, the Pakistan Air Force is serious about this, they proposed improvement program is tempting prospect. As a result, we began to do by the Pakistan Air Force requires careful package. I propose that this modification program called F-7CP program, CP is the meaning of Pakistani cooperation, and we have been in the past F-7 A-, B-and D-type (F-7 big change), the middle empty type . Currently on Pakistani cooperation called CP type, if the Palestinian side uncooperative, we separate dry, called C-type. Factory discussion, everyone agreed. F-7CP design, by design so Qiu Puda, Zhengwei Chuan and other comrades conducted mainly in preparation for the Palestinian side in January 1985 to send team to China to negotiate. Unexpectedly, at the end of Beijing to the news that the Palestinian side did not report presidential approval, negotiations scheduled to be postponed in January. ◆ Long March ultra -7 first step of the "Long March" can be said in 1985 opened the first step elderly. Engage aircraft is a very difficult project, in particular international cooperation, but also a new friend, even more difficult. Who can know the future it is expected that all the changes later? While waiting for the Palestinian side we send groups to specific negotiations, but also hope that he can bring some engines and radar data to, on the one hand to do their own F-7CP initial program. In the multi-function radar, there are three models to choose from, that APG-66, APG-67 and APG-69, through the analysis and comparison of the three models, A
PG-66 F-16 is used, the antenna will be large; APG-69 F-5 is used, the performance is poor; desirable that APG-67, F-20 use, more advanced, sized for, so we with the APG-67 work program. Engine to use F404. In early February, the United States to talk about that Jamaal will have purchased the F404 engine. After he returned to Pakistani President Zia will report to get instructions, will be sent. This fall has given us more time to prepare. After the Spring Festival, I went to Beijing. In order to fight for the F-7CP multifaceted program was supported by the general representative Li Baiyu Mill Navy contact with the higher authorities, in my development, deputy director of the Chengdu Aircraft identity led to Beijing, the Ministry of the Navy equipment and technology leaders on the F-7M and change both sides of the intake of the F-7CP program. The early 1960s, I was transferred to Chengdu to engage cruise missiles, he had to report to the Navy yard had been 25 years did not come over. In addition to listening to the reports of the Deputy Minister Haizhuang Zhang Yimin, Jiang Douting Commissioner, there HNA deputy chief of staff, naval headquarters operations department, training department, Military Affairs Department, Science and Technology Department, Engineering Department Technical Education Department HNA HNA Logistics war service office, Ordnance Department, material at sea nine comrades and Li, deputy division commander and so on. They agreed that the aircraft must be equipped with high and low, the introduction of the modified F-7 HUD and other electronic equipment, the general direction is to change the way, but the F-7M pcs ranging radar not satisfied. So the change on both sides of the inlet, fitted with multifunction radar, changing the engine so that the "legs" longer, very interested, and even that is imperative. In addition, the band also made air-to-ship missiles, air refueling and can be developed on the basis of the problem of carrier aircraft, carrier-based aircraft to do for the future program out of the question. The briefing also sent to the Air Force Armament Department attended the meeting contributed greatly to the atmosphere of the F-7CP we engage in confidence. Before reporting to Beijing, Chengdu Aircraft Development Center Renxie Ming and CAC director Hou Jianwu, listened to the work report prepared for retrofit programs are very supportive, and pointed to prepare his hands, the old bus as uncooperative, or not US-made engines for and radar, we made on. When necessary, retrofit costs by themselves out, asking everyone to take the offensive posture and obtain good economic benefits, while stable design team, started a campaign to come out one way. March 10, the Pakistan Air Force lieutenant colonel sent Mirza other three person team to Beijing the next day by CATIC Assistant President Victor Fan comrades come to Chengdu, I chaired the negotiations, the first dished out to annihilate the Palestinian side - 7CP program. The two sides exchanged views, forms a summary of the discussion, we signed by the Victor Fan. The negotiations, plant design, director Shen Yong Yuan, deputy director Qiu Puda, Song Kaiji, Foreign Director Wang Yingong had participated. Negotiations, I proposed to the direction of the Palestinian side to provide the Palestinian side of the engine, airborne equipment and materials inventory lists, Pakistan direction we propose a further improvement requirements, such as a two-seater trainer; Do not take off after the engine mounting machine body; plane's tail should be arresting hook; aircraft with aerial refueling capability; 2000 hours total lifetime of the aircraft I wish to extend; machine oil to be able to add to 4000 liters; piece windshield and a bubble canopy; mounted multiple bomb rack and so on. Finalized in May and June, the two sides met again to discuss the identified design, co-developed methods and bear the cost and other issues. Negotiation process, the Ministry of Aviation Industry Vice Minister Wang Qigong, Zhang Xinbo just in Chengdu, the Secretary and other research, listened to the F-7CP programs and report on the situation on the Palestinian negotiations, it was agreed that this is the path of international cooperation, and engage in the market, he lived out . Minutes before signing the manuscript and military aircraft from the Sun Zhaoqing Bureau Juo-Song Wang, deputy director of the joint at Mo, Jiang Minister for approval. Mo Minister instructed: "to be agreed, cooperative decision must be careful, especially funding problems." After the Foreign Affairs Bureau of the Ministry of National Defense, the ED also made a report, deputy director of Zou Zou Jiahua that such cooperation is necessary to exit the aircraft, future exports Aircraft should form a sequence. But Mirza Colonel promised five, to meet again in June, did not materialize. The reason is once again changed the old bus cooperative approach. Since then, never saw Mirza Colonel. Of course, this is another story.
◆ Pakistan Air Force put forward the "Sabre" Ⅱ tenders phrase "the decade cast sword," Wucongkaozheng old Palestinian Why preference "saber" trick, who may then
Also did not expect this "saber" cast will be a 20 set. And finally the phrase should be "thoroughly Diaolan Jade still around, just to change the color," Pakistan Air Force negotiating team was sent away soon, the United States sent to the Grumman Aerospace Corporation. April 3, by the Grumman International branch president Manuel Hacker, vice president of consultant Wang Chengdong accompanied Corporation Kenilworth access to my company. I and Wang Yingong The reception, they saw the factory, talk about the prospects for cooperation in general, it appears that no specific purpose. At that time, I did not realize that a great relationship with the ultra -7 do not know actually invited to the National Defense. Before the interview, CATIC comrades told me, Kenilworth is an American retired admiral, former military commander in Europe, I heard skeptical, because the Admiral is the highest rank in peacetime, such a senior official, do this? Met nor do I feel its all-powerful army commander of hundreds of thousands of samples until the exchange of business cards, I discovered that not fake. After I went to Grumman, knowing that he is the company responsible for doing the government's Washington liaison vice president, estimated that trying to get the government to approve the application. In this regard, the United States spent a lot of capital in defense contractors. F-7CP design work has started, but no negotiations to Pakistan so fast, cooperation with Pakistan not got into the U.S. engines, avionics can not even get them, are also among the variables. Design comrades for fast, questioned whether divided into two phases: the first phase of first F-7CP only changed out out of the body before the body, as a validation of the modified aircraft platforms on both sides of the inlet; Phase II was formally installed more function radar and other avionics or put a better engine. Discussion, I think the reference to wrong aircraft platforms, the first phase should be available aircraft. Mentioning demonstrator, no support, no one strong and. In fact, nothing more than hands ready, the first phase of the engine and avionics without the United States, you can first use of domestic M-existing engines and avionics to fly. In order to unify our thinking, in early April, I drafted the F-7CP aircraft development work guiding ideology. To the effect that: a requirement to survive, so be fast, better, to get maximum support all aspects of the program you want can retreat; two economic requirements well, so lower development cost, production cost is lower, to adapt the requirements of potential users of the third world, be possible to expand sales. These were later included in the October 1985 redesign of the overall program in the. F-7CP being carried out to prepare the design and manufacture of hair shape model, the U.S. aerospace and defense company LTV Vought Aircraft Division also came to discuss cooperation retrofitted F -7. June 4, 1985, Victor Fan comrades Vought Scott Lerman his visit. I and the new plant chief engineer Wang Yingong, Chen Jinyan and Pengren Ying, deputy chief designer together to negotiate with them, Wang is responsible for foreign affairs, Chen Jinyan just returned from England, he was in a year when British Aerospace employee, came back factory committees appointed him as deputy Chief Engineer, responsible for the design of the F-7CP technology Vought empty To Pakistani cooperation has been improved information on the F-7M, this time, they are mainly recommended for Pratt & Whitney PW1120 engines (Israel had for the "Lions" < LAVI> aircraft) and APG-159 radar (for the F-5 fighter aircraft) or reduce the APG-69 antenna, do not change the F-7 head. But they did not bring the necessary parameters PW1120, this "lion" style with a much larger engine intake air flow rate, inlet does not change is impossible. May be due to confidentiality reasons, in December 1984 they had a written proposal with F404, this was avoided. Later learned that former U.S. Secretary of State Alexander Haig on behalf of United Technologies Corporation (Pratt & Whitney belongs to this group of companies) visited Pakistan, decided to provide PW1120 for retrofitting to the Pakistani F-7. China, of course you can get this engine through the Palestinian side. Almost at the same time, Beijing came the news, Zhang Jinbo Secretary phoned Hou director, said the U.S. General Electric Company (GE) that "MiG" -21 modifications in the international market, the third world wide, such as modifications on them The F404 engine, very promising. To get this engine by Boeing is more likely, Zhang added, "export aircraft modifications, can be your general contractor, CATIC and your contractual, joint ventures, co-sharing. General contracting, and you can be unrestricted to find techniques to engage the introduction to each side. "
In mid-June, the State Economic Commission Secretary military and civilian leadership team Yorikata visit, he said GE's aircraft engine company vice president recently told him that, F404 engine can give us. Laiju Zhang believes that the future of China's aviation engine should step forward, the introduction of technology joint production, not on the basis of backwardness imitation halted. In addition, APG-67 radar is GE's aerospace company, and its China sales manager is also very willing to negotiate, GE can find both large companies and even between China and Pakistan could be envisaged as a third party outside the company to find GE collaboration . GE is a big company, the strength, the vice president of his visit is to take his own plane, living Diaoyutai State Guesthouse, every 10,000 yuan, has great pomp, if the trilateral cooperation, easy to handle. Soon, the Pakistan Air Force Lieutenant Jamal, was promoted to Chief of Air Staff, Admiral Jin title. It seems, the F-7CP cooperation more hope. Sure enough, June 18 Pakistani military attaches transferred to Pakistan Air Command, commissioned by the Government, issued in May of that year officially named "Sabre" Ⅱ project tender for up to 24 books. ◆ personal letter from a minister came tender attracted much attention, from what Lord what? Become the focal point of the parties. And the army attack plan, a determination, hands ready for the final to win the leading position to lay the foundation for "saber" Ⅱ project from the outset in order to improve and enhance the Chinese-made F-7M, and developed into a kind of multi-role fighter, the project requires the companies receiving the tenders, according to the Pakistan Air Force aircraft to improve vision, put forward a proposal, given to me on the Palestinian side in the tender at the same time, sent delegations to the United States Air Force, aircraft direct contact with major U.S. companies, including General Dynamics company Northrop Grumman, Boeing and Vought. Aircraft Corporation in the United States intends to find a prime contractor, and then by the prime contractor and CATIC joint feasibility proposal submitted to the Pakistani government. RFP development of two prototypes formally proposed, a loaded F404 engines, one mounted PW1120 engines, decided by the test engine choice. Then, purchase 150 "Sabre" Ⅱ aircraft, aircraft unit price should be less than six million dollars. Its development, modification and assembly work by the Pakistan card Ratko aviation joint venture responsible. Pakistan in this tender book made a number of new issues, such as the F-7M aircraft could have been us, why U.S. companies call the shots to find another contractor? Have two different engine prototype, developed a lot of work, there is so much money? Prime contractor decided one year after the prototype, test after 6 months after commissioning decisions, delivered within two and a half finished 150 aircraft, can be so fast? As for the technical issues. It is more, as the body requires 4000 hours life, the machine oil reaches 4000 liters, also called to confront "MiG" -29 and so on. And so the idea of Pakistan are engaged in the F-7CP our original program, never realized, Sino-foreign cooperation, there are huge differences in cultural and historical background, need to communicate integration, to understand. Ministry authorities up and down the old bar opening to 150 "Sabre" Ⅱ type, but also attaches great importance to that given to seize this opportunity. On the Palestinian side, we must meet its requirements, but also taking into account their own interests. As for U.S. companies to use its technology and enthusiasm, but can not let it take the bulk. August 5, 1985, the press department leadership instruction, the Ministries five-member team from the military office Mao Dehua deputy director led CATIC Victor Fan, Finance Division single ancestral Mao, Office of the Tang Ding, military office Zhu Rong Zhang participated, to plant the implementation F-7CP programs and reply Palestinian issue. Mao brought Mo Wen Xiang, deputy director of Ministers on August 3 to Chengdu Aircraft Development Center director Xie Ming personal letter, requires the development of a good two centers continued to focus on developing leadership work, should carry out foreign aircraft, and entering the country
The international market as a prominent task, really good job to change the export-oriented F-7 work. Earnest sign Mo Wenxiang personal letter words, always covered Tiananmen than red tape is more solemn chapter, more serious, but also gives hope. Originally, we used a lot of energy development centers looking for an opportunity to enter the civil aircraft industry. An aircraft factory producing military aircraft not only in defense conversion, the biggest advantage is the transfer of civil aircraft. Originally aviation industry is a dual-use, but the history of our country, the development of civil aircraft was delayed, but it is evident that the overall development of the national economy from the point of view, there must be a great civil aviation development, so we do not find less foreign civil aircraft manufacturers or middlemen small talk combined production, the department authority to engage in advocacy CATIC jets, to the Sichuan Civil Aviation Authority sought the views of small civilian aircraft, hoping that time Jiang China by means of wide-governor on "Economic Development in Sichuan should engage in civil aircraft production "instructions to the provincial leaders reflect on the idea of producing small civilian aircraft and so on. Later discovered that the introduction of foreign civil aircraft co-production of small difficult, we must first provide the domestic market, then turned to get into the big department authorities to support civil aircraft subcontract production, until you find a Shanghai forwarded by McDonnell nose. Now minister requested that the F-7CP aircraft / "Sabre" Ⅱ project, highlighting key tasks as, indeed, it makes sense. And a letter to the Minister, on the "saber" Ⅱ sentinel clear that Cheng Fei, some unnecessary disputes will stop automatically. Xie Ming, director, Hou director personally with us five-member team with the Ministry reported four days continuous direct discussion. Foreign trade system was also discussed during the problem. F-7CP work, the factory has great determination, in addition to paper design is completed, it also made on both sides of the inlet pipe inside the wooden model of 1:1. Compression ratio of inlet hair model has been sent to the hair, the whole machine of 1:1 metal prototypes are being manufactured on the "saber" Ⅱ demonstration projects have also done a lot of work. These tangible actions, to the Ministry of the working group left a deep impression that we seek to retrofit aircraft exports practical action and enthusiasm is very valuable. We advocate for the development of the aircraft take two steps, namely do first F-7CP a vision for the work, but also give recognition. Asked the factory to dry in the end are not afraid of risk, and to dry quickly. Since then we have our own hand is a modification ahead of direct experience, so that we have negotiated with the United States to Pakistan cooperation in the capital, a hard spine; On the other hand, as long as a job successfully, even if the United States negotiations fail, we also have a good dry-alone basis. About the "saber" Ⅱ division of international cooperation, we and the Ministry of the working group agreed that strive to: money and lead the Palestinian side, we as total aircraft design units Explorer, United States to provide engines and equipment as a sub-system units, two prototype CAC development in China conducted; while actively training of technical personnel to help Pakistan build factories to meet the Palestinian side to build their own aviation industry's wishes. After the working group to report to the Ministry of consent, we send to Pakistan a "saber" Ⅱ preliminary program of Recommendation attached CATIC Sun CEO to Pakistan empty Jamaal Admiral's letter, while expression and Pakistan should advice as soon as possible interview. August 10, GE Aircraft Engines, vice president of the Beijing Office Representative in Zhang Cheng Fei accompanied visit. F-7 variant understand the situation, I officially said to them, further modifications to the F-7M, which has a major idea is adapted their F404 engines. August 20 was held in Beijing, the Ministry of some enterprises and institutions meeting of leading cadres, that "Paul defense conversion contention export" policy. Because of the potential decline in domestic military mission has been scheduled for Cheng Fei, the dispute is a strategic action exports. September 2, the U.S. Grumman Aerospace Corporation to Chengdu second visit, this time its chairman Bill Wirth personally, and the remaining three are still in April came. Director Cheng Fei Xie Ming, chairman of identity to come forward reception. President Manuel Huck International, the original is the chief architect of F-14 aircraft, the F-7M personally to understand the type of aircraft, and on both sides of the intake changed, modified radar, engines and other technical conditions. Seen from the talks, they intend to become Pakistan's prime contractor.
◆ first went to Pakistan, said negotiations can not take less than a Buddhist Scriptures, and the first to go to Pakistan to find out the old bus replacement machine project the essence of September 2, 1985, a marked PIA (Pakistan International Airlines) words Boeing -747 aircraft at Beijing Capital International Airport at 8:00 pm carrying us to take off. Direct flights from Beijing for the first time the Pakistani capital Islamabad. Our party of five people in the Comrade Liu Guomin led, for the first time as "saber" Ⅱ went to Pakistan, and will be accompanied by CATIC Victor Fan, military aircraft do Comrade Zhu Rong Ying chapters translated room. Flying eight hours later, the local at 1:00 on September 3 arrives lived in Baku office of CATIC. We slept four or five hours later, the same day travel to the headquarters of the Pakistan Air Force Cech Lara. Because Office has made arrangements in advance, Mr. Liu is also used to come to headquarters, so to reach 10 points, Liu, Li two that will see Jamal and I plan Chu to Assistant Chief of Staff 海达尔准将 Office Lane and his exchange some facts and opinions. Haidar he joined Jamaal visited Dalian, I've seen him, which be old friends. Liu, Li Jia Department finished talking, again, and we went to see the director with "Sabre" Ⅱ project operations deputy chief of staff Major General SA will be in Seoul. He listened to our F-7CP progress of the project and of the "saber" Ⅱ project views. Finally with them about tomorrow 10:00 time for formal talks the two sides. The next day, all of us, and 海达尔准将 made a long conversation, he visited the United States shortly before the Pakistani delegation empty one, the attitude of the U.S. government aircraft company has first-hand understanding of the situation, and he pipeline project (that is, of money), there are certain voice of technology, is a key figure. September 5 morning, Liu, Li two met Jamal admiral went and brought us down after about two days, according to information obtained by Liu night drafted on behalf of the letter addressed to Jamal, After a time we visit the official text comments, instead of talks between memo. This trip, we thoroughly understand the old Bhatti a "saber" Ⅱ project context. First, the "saber" Ⅱ historical background and Heydar Jamal visit Dalian, etc. After 1983, to Pakistan empty selection successor to the F-6 presents various options. One of the most attractive option is to retrofit the F-7M, so empty on selected bus and escalation of this program in the past two years, the Pakistani government has a variety of different views on the controversy, but finally agreed to the Palestinian empty and the Department of Defense on the "Sabre" Ⅱ project opinion because it is not only a military cooperation projects, more importantly, to strengthen the independence of Pakistan's ability to build their own aviation industry in China with the help of energy to produce its own fighter. This is related to the future of Pakistan's national honor and a great event. Major modifications required to be increased four two, mentioning that in 1984, when three major modifications, namely engines, machine oil volume and radar. Now add a requirement that the aircraft's total life to 4000 hours. The reason is life cycle cost calculations, and found the F-7M of the total life and rework are too short, or not to the Western engine life, life expectancy fell first to the total body and 150 aircraft in total there are more than 20 aircraft overhaul, which not good. Third, how to find U.S. aircraft company disposes contractor directly asked this question we do not, we just repeatedly stated on project management perspective, Ba Fang Zongguan by the Chinese side for the total aircraft design units, the U.S. just engines and equipment contractor, responsible for the organize various equipment suppliers and the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation for technical coordination and technical cooperation. But the Palestinian side conversations, you can see him looking for contractors American aircraft company has been determined. The reason is: 1. Pakistan that the U.S. aircraft company ability, can do anything, even if the original was not his production F-7 aircraft modified by him no problem. Extend the life of the body such as the U.S. companies that do not have to re-design, as long as the approach to be taken to strengthen extension. China should accept their help. Of course, after all children are old bus retrofit for China is whether the ability to watch skepticism.
2. Everything "Sabre" Ⅱ project costs are from the U.S. military aid to Pakistan project expenditure spending, so this project must obtain the consent of the U.S. government, most of the money must also be thrown into the hands of American businessmen. Otherwise, if the Chinese share too, the United States would create barriers to increase the trouble or even kill the project. 3. In the United States purchased engines, avionics and other equipment from a U.S. aircraft to general contracting firm selection, and in the United States carried out within the activities of government approval, are more favorable. Jamaal We will understand the dissatisfaction after repeatedly said, "We are one of the CMB is the friendly relations are good friends with the United States is a party, trading relationship and we should work together to guard against them." Fourth, each aircraft price 6,000,000 USD and 1990 delivered 150 aircraft completed the progress, are not absolute. Adjustable and the new military aid program to begin in 1987, so the conversion costs to 1987 onwards to be enabled. Fifth, on the U.S. side of the reaction, the Palestinian side activities in the United States, the U.S. Government fully agrees with the cheap Pakistani empty replace the F-6 aircraft, of which 80 per cent agreed with less investment and operational performance have greatly improved. " Sabre "Ⅱ programs, 20% on the transfer of avionics technology to worry about security confidentiality can not be guaranteed. It is estimated to be two to three months the situation will clear. ◆ three U.S. aircraft companies to participate in bidding, "saber" Ⅱ pendens one, shaking the U.S. arms giant's supporters, opponents with them. The collision between the interests of the more violent the temptation of money received a "saber" Ⅱ RFP several U.S. aircraft company, due to their different interests, so tender attitude is also different. Northrop Grumman and General Dynamics for their own interests, opposed to "saber" Ⅱ project for fear it would become F-20 and F-16's competitors; while Vought, Boeing and Northrop Grumman Since there is no similar aircraft, have expressed support for "saber" Ⅱ project. This situation, just to meet old Palestinian hopes, because U.S. law (antitrust law) provides that the government is not allowed to just give a company a license, you must have three companies compete; same kind of aircraft, there must be three different options, and three aircraft single price. Pakistan Air Force in contact with General Dynamics, General Motors was the first to persuade the Palestinian side buy F-16. Says F-16 will be undercut, so the performance of the "Sabre" Ⅱ some opposition. But also expressed as "saber" Ⅱ must, you can do to help improve aircraft performance and extend the life of the body's work. Northrop Grumman F-20 because no sell out, so the "saber" Ⅱ's first reaction was added a competitor. To this end they are the government said, "saber" Ⅱ is an uneconomical project, and change out later there will be greatly improved operational performance, maximum overload reach 9g, insufficient amount of fuel, bombs and other plug-in does not hang too more, they can not take BVR missiles, aircraft life is more important is extremely limited. To this end, they not only to Pakistan, but also to others, 50 F-20's combat performance can be equivalent to 80 "Sabre" Ⅱ aircraft, mainly F-20 combat capability, low maintenance costs, life expectancy up to 25 years so long. Pakistan said to them, these situations that we do not know, but mainly F-20 is too expensive. Finally, Northrop Grumman said that if the U.S. government agreed to engage in "saber" Ⅱ, also agreed to export engines and avionics, then, from a commercial point of view, they are still willing to participate in projects. Palestinians, however, empty that Northrop Grumman F-20 from the interests, constantly on the U.S. government imposed on "Sabre" Ⅱ possible adverse effects. Vought (LTV company name is Vought Aircraft Division) is eager to undertake "Sabre" Ⅱ project. They are similar to the U.S. Navy A-7 to do modification work, change the engine and improved avionics experience. They empty to Pakistan said, "saber" Ⅱ project is technically feasible, but to come up with 150 in 1990, there is a problem, the aircraft price 6,000,000 dollars, doubt will exceed, in addition, particularly about a third issue
Ie Vought apply to the Government for Pakistani exports engines, avionics and other high-tech products, the government has repeatedly asked how to protect the technology will not cause leaks? To this end, Vought Aircraft recommend to the Pakistani modification work space engines and avionics equipment installed in the United States. Pakistani official told them that this approach can not accept that Pakistan would rather spend a little more and wait for some time, but also the production of such aircraft in Pakistan. Grumman for "saber" Ⅱ project enthusiasm, they received tenders after the Palestinian side, the initial work was carried out, also sent to the Chinese came. They are A-4 aircraft modified F404 engine, so the F404 engine is very familiar. F-14 avionics is being updated. Original Pratt & Whitney engines are converted to GE's, so it has experience. They want to go to Pakistan immediately sent to see Kamla existing facilities, to send technical personnel face to face talks with the Pakistani Air Force. Grumman consider not only the technical aspects there is no problem, apply for an export license to the Government there is no problem, as long as the Pakistani government to ensure the same as the F-16 can have security measures. They have negotiated with the government by their general contractor, came forward to purchase U.S. engines and equipment, so that it is easier to get a license number. Boeing Military Aircraft branch of the "Sabre" Ⅱ project is also interested, they are also doing A-4 of the modification work, but also experience. Now, they are waiting for government approval to Pakistan. I'm in talks to 海达尔准将 repeatedly explained, if the U.S. government does not approve the engine exports to Pakistan, we have a modified engine can be recommended, the current can reach 7000 kg thrust, later also improve more, I was there a little hope, conditionally recommended to them the F-7CP a program, so the total design rights will not be the U.S. aircraft company snatched away. Haidar was a bit of skill levels. He said that this engine thrust a little small, but some resistance if the aircraft can be reduced, or even manipulated by telex, relaxed static stability, and that there is hope ....... This, of course pull away. In order to deepen the impression, when Liu at parting Haidar said: "The spirit of the spirit of being prepared, Mr. Tu said the backup program, if feasible, will you research, including whether or not to further work on this program and then do something about it?" September 7, Lee and I, ZHU two at the Office accompanied by comrades, visited Kamra base, which was built to help the aviation industry, you should have a general impression.
◆ First visit to Pakistan Pakistani aviation industry is small, but did not because of geographical limitations established aviation industry to reduce their own determination. The availability of aircraft on the basis of the repair can personally create their own fighters to become Pakistan to pursue development of the aviation industry, but also a goal. And to help Pakistan realize the dream of only one country a Chinese Islamabad in northern Pakistan, latitude equivalent to China Zhengzhou, located in the southern latitudes than the equivalent of Fuzhou Karachi mild climate and more. One year I in Karachi transit aircraft, the plane, the body is like entering a bathroom filled with steam, hot and humid. In Islamabad have entered into September, the climate is still quite hot, indoor full air conditioning, long-term open, like the smell of burning rubber, noise nor small, to be days of lack of sleep, head pain, there is no way. Pakistan International Airlines joint venture, located in more than 40 miles north of Islamabad at Kamra. From Islamabad to Kamra, plains all the way to the Kamla also touch plains, running factories to expand some places. On the edge of the runway at the factory. Defense production joint venture is led by the Department, and the Air Force is not a system. But enterprise cadres are Air Force officers, workers are soldiers. The overall responsibility for the joint venture (China Aviation Secretary claims that he is) is a Major General, called Ajax Marr. Khan. Their subordinates three factory director, is brigadier general. Their rank and position is completely consistent with a carrot a pit. We have a line to the rear, the total charge personally received and entertained, all three director accompany, very grand. Accompanied by a visit to a factory. First saw the F-6 overhaul facility, is being overhauled and FT -6 F-6 aircraft, who have completed 56 aircraft;
After strong FT -5 -5 and repair is here, also produces tanks, with an annual output 150. Engines and ad hoc repairs can not be finished. Whole plant 1423 people, including 45 cadres. Plant, went to look, very familiar, because we built four homes design package, exactly the same with the domestic style, machining and other processing equipment and hot stamping table processing capabilities are rarely, that is able to produce fuel tank parts, and be I'm afraid stove production airframe. The plant is small, but very clean and tidy. Each plant has its obvious plant code. Personnel are working, no idlers. Each workshop is decorated with his own production of parts, glass cabinet neat, may be a manifestation of national pride it. The second is the "Mirage" aircraft overhaul facility, repair "Mirage" Ⅲ and "Atta" engine, the ad hoc instrument can also repair, with this foundation, where the future intends to rework the F-16 F100 engines. Designed annual capacity 6 repair, completed last year 8, after completing engine, with its own test stand trial. Whole plant has 929 people. The plant has foreign flavor than the F -6 repair shop more, by the French construction equipment instrumentation are also imported from France, a single one put very neat, are hung in a dated inspection certificate and marked with name, origin and price. It seems entirely French management. There are three within the plant is "Mirage" aircraft repairs. Gives impressed that followed from the rear fuselage to allow the engine to push the body (the so-called diamond cave-in), straight cylindrical carcass is, there is no convergence; very powerful reverse tapered wing leading edge, wingtip are all in the reverse range. The third plant is the aircraft manufacturing, production and repair of one kind of four small light aircraft, the model is "Saab" MF1-17, Sweden, the introduction of production license. In 1975 the plant has been producing 92 new aircraft, the highest annual output reached 20, the whole plant 345 people, including 31 cadres. Aircraft with a air-cooled piston engine and a propeller, straight horizontal tail wing, cockpit seats with driver's side and vice, when necessary, can take two passengers behind. Opinion is based on primary trainer and general aviation aircraft design liaison. Four-piece rear cockpit canopy open, gelatin is a large glass forming. Part of the structure and the fixed landing gear strut by fiberglass, no mechanical damping column. Thus forming glass canopy, fiberglass parts manufacturing capability and has a 25,000 t hydraulic forming machine became the pride of the plant. After reading, give me the overall impression is: they want to produce their own or part of the production aircraft like F-7 body, is still far away, in addition to the final assembly plant can be put down several aircraft, but had to rebuild. There is no scientific research joint ventures throughout the design strength, the technical team also need training development. But they have a management, orderly, clear and clean. Each plant, small but perfectly formed, the starting point for the aviation industry, is based on good, as the Air Force and DOD leadership and hope through reliable international cooperation projects, to build up the country's aviation industry to become an independent national policy reflects its intention is perfectly understandable. After visiting Kamla, the next day I and Li, Zhu row of three that is returned to Beijing. Liu they two went to Bangladesh. September 10, we Mo Wenxiang ministers, deputy ministers to report any sandwiches, Sun Zhaoqing, city planning director Li Yi, deputy director Ma Chenglin military here. Mo minister said after hearing the reports, our policy is to strive to get the total, because our chips simple, without us, you have made the United States is not a plane. But there should be flexibility, a big dry too small dry or dried, selling shell also dry, changed not a millionaire, five hundred thousand millionaires is required. On the 11th, also the head of the import and export of Health Vice Minister Jiang Fan reports, Jiang minister said, flying into the work, to be continued, they do not change, no strength, international cooperation is also difficult. ◆ grand scheme F-7CP briefing in response to the situation in any possible mutations, we actively planning ultra -7 project proposal, proved proactive decision is correct and necessary
September 19, 1985, senior Pakistani military delegation of 11 people, by the Deputy Director of National Defense will be escorted to leaf Chia Cheng Fei visit. Delegation that I met in Pakistan Pakistani air combat Sabir deputy chief of staff Major General. Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu have come forward Reception, I intend to bring the aircraft model F-7CP attendance, both direct talks with the Palestinian side again CP program, and indirectly, to the Deputy Director Ye report. Sabir Major oil spot specifically talked about the problem, to zero - zero performance ejection seats, worried that I made the engine thrust to weight ratio is not big enough and the large amount of structural change and other issues. Conversation, the other members of the delegation have asked to speak against the model, the performance of great interest. On the same day, there is news that Grumman for early visit to China, we are not satisfied with vague statement. After returning America to convey through our diplomatic personnel, such as the Ministry of Aviation Aircraft Corporation in the United States three competition did not support him, he said, within the United States will not benefit our words. Aggressive battle unbridled state, and loneliness. Aviation afraid of him trouble, decided to send a letter expressed support for him. Soon, Aviation Industry Ministry decided to be held in Beijing in mid-October, the F-7CP (modified export) machine technology program briefing, while other forms of international cooperation. The meeting would also have to set up the chief architect of the aircraft aviation industry advisory group, the F-7CP program evaluation as the first work item. To this end, the factory grasp to do with the F-7CP a modification based programs to prepare, Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu personally convened several discussions. In addition to the factory made a review of the program of the CST, the Chengdu Aircraft development has also organized the Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute's main leadership and 10 experts on the program has been reviewed and technical consulting, research, including technical consulting, project contracting, shared computing and testing and other avenues of cooperation. October 14, the chief architect of technical advisory group will be established and modified F-7 export machine party program briefing in Beijing Ministry of Aviation Industry and Northern empty small guest house held by the factory. I and pottery made wide, Chen Jinyan, Shen Yuan Yong, Qiu Puda, Song Kaiji, Wang Yue Xin, Zheng Wen made a special trip to attend. Wang Yingong has been the first in Beijing. Because it is the two together will open, so very grand. The first meeting at the ministerial meeting room for two days, where sandwiches, Vice Minister Wang Ang, Liu Jibin, deputy chief engineer and the Foreign Affairs Bureau and other 11 departments and bureaus attended the meeting, the first batch of eight hired by the Ministry of total design Division Technical Advisory Group member (later renamed Aircraft Design Advisory Group) also attended the meeting, they are: sand Zhengping, Zhao Peilin, Li Guang, soulom clear, Kong Fan Xun, Yu Songtao, Ke-Rong Zhang and me. Meeting was chaired by Deputy Director Mao Dehua military office chair. First Minister Ho said in a speech, summed up the aviation industry for many years of practical experience, it is necessary to establish a technical advisory group chief architect, a good portion of the staff and leadership to provide technical advice to the chief designer of the aircraft, but also like the Senate did right choice chief architect of the candidate model views, so this will be, the Ministry of Labor Secretary Qin, deputy director who also come to listen to their views. Said the military importance of exports; F-7M aircraft under very difficult conditions, export success, it is worth reviewing. Now the situation is very good, the F-7CP aircraft promising, but the cooperation between the three countries involved, but also need to use the systems engineering matrix management approach to task. Office should establish a military aircraft in the F-7CP models do, so work into the normal channels. Design in the General Assembly to the report, the consultants carefully discussed the inlet design, total body life, first with the introduction of domestic engine installed after the engine of their appearance, installation, systems, etc. are not interchangeable as well as issues such as resistance to estimate aircraft , handling and stability characteristics put forward a series of concrete review comments. The meeting also studied how to deal with the Palestinian cooperation and collaboration Grumman problem because Grumman eager to visit, both want to pull our technical situation to me tight blockade. We think that the intention is not clear in the Palestinian side in the case of the U.S. companies to compete each aircraft should be taken equally, equidistant diplomacy, come and go principle. Oral presentation, the depth of the other on the degree of cooperation and sincere as little as possible to give or not to give information. We estimate that the Palestinian side will soon decide the prime contractor. Because the bidding process is relatively long, the U.S. government will not soon approve cooperative and exports. Sun Zhaoqing comrades can be estimated within a year, it has been good. Therefore, negotiations with foreign countries do not have to worry too much, their own internal work, you should pay close attention to do, go ahead than abroad, in order to have cooperation with foreign capital. As for the domestic yourself out first F-7CP an aircraft, engage in cooperation with foreign countries after two airplanes, aircraft should be a commodity,
Should not be a test drive or demonstrator. Chief architect of the technical advisory group of comrades, would also devoted to the work of the Advisory Group of the regulations, formally established Advisory Group for future activities and supplementary members were ready, Wang Ang, vice minister concluded in October 17, said: will No matter what new models or after major modifications, must play the role of the advisory group. Advisory Group to concentrate power within the Ministry of the best to become the national team. In order to grasp the F-7CP aircraft, before the establishment of the model do not, by the Planning Division of the Ministry of authority decides to a large segment Yang Qin Dexin, military aircraft do Mao Dehua, Zhu Rong Zhang, CATIC Sun Zhaoqing, Liu Guomin, Victor Fan and other comrades responsible for the co-ordination model. At this point all of a sudden came the news that U.S. Secretary of State Chinese Affairs Office of Military Affairs Officer Christopher coming to China, and asked to inspect F-7 flying into this type of export machine.
◆ U.S. official action the U.S. company's attitude though varied, but one thing is beyond doubt, they are with us at the same time have all expressed both want to cooperate, but also do not want to expose yourself too much technology; both want to make money, but also do not want to pay too much attitude. "Only permanent interests, no permanent friends," the Americans more vividly embodied in the F-7CP program during the briefing, came a message, the U.S. State Department China affairs power, military and political affairs public rooms lawsuit, Mr. Christopher, by the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian Pacific Affairs, the appointment will be in China, and asked to inspect Chengdu F-7 variant export machine, in order to prepare policy reports for the U.S. government decision-making. Mo minister this indication: welcome him to agree to negotiate in Chengdu F-7 variant issue. Briefing on October 17, 1985 end. 18, 2009, Secretary, Lee and I had to sum Beijing Grumman Wang Chengdong consultant met. Wang told us about Grumman International Inc. recently went to Pakistan president Manuel Hack negotiations situations: the general feeling on the Palestinian side to engage in "saber" Ⅱ is serious, and through this project, to build its own aviation industry; also went to see the Kamra base, although the condition of view, impossible now made "Sabre" Ⅱ such aircraft, but as long as the U.S. and China together to help them, but also can engage in together. The U.S. government is not opposed to this project now, to clarify the situation requires Grumman agreed to be sent to China to talk about, and then at the government for formal approval. To this end, Grumman sent four technicians will be 23 to Beijing, the 24th to the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation negotiations. I hope to make some preparations to fly to provide some technical data. Wang also introduced Grumman initially some of the ideas; One solution is to redesign the nose, another option is to buy ready-made F-20 aircraft nose accord. , The United States, Pakistan tripartite division. Grumman envisaged: China is responsible for the fuselage, wings, tail and participate in the production of the nose part of the design and production, the United States is responsible for the overall design, as well as engines, radar and other electronic equipment selection and procurement; Palestinian side is responsible for aircraft assembly. Mr Suen said to the king: the Palestinian side in the United States looking for three aircraft company, we do not know how to think the Palestinian side, so we can not decide now that cooperation with Grumman. Wang explained: Other two companies, work is not done so deep Grumman, Boeing is not very positive, they do more than embrace this activity does not pay, is their representative in Beijing reported to the head office to write to dry ; Vought wanted to do, but LTV chairman Fushi generals say do less than this, and the government said they had contacted, and the government has not actually talked. Sun asked him two engine case. Wang said that the United States, F404 and PW1120 can give, three years ago we CATIC United States for that and people talked. Sun said, "saber" Ⅱ competitive threat in the United States have a problem, F-16 to be discounted, as well as to sell Taiwan F-20, once sold, they survived. The king said, F-16/J79 less than 10 million dollars, but removed a lot of things inside. Palestinians are not interested, once restored up, still 15 million. F-20's problem is not so simple, the U.S. government considers not only economic, but also consider the political situation in the world, the president can not put the national interest to give an old friend.
The next day, we reported to the Minister Mok Grumman Wang Chengdong talk about the situation. Regarding the Grumman to provide the necessary information and data, MO Minister authorized by the Secretary be, without approval of the. Vice Minister Ho sandwiches comments after cooperation, we should get some share. October 24, 1985, Grumman to Kenni Fu four-member team headed by Mr., in Sun Zhaoqing, Victor Fan, Mao Dehua, Zhu Rong Zhang, who came to Chengdu, the first time a "saber" Ⅱ technical negotiations. I and Chen Jinyan organized an advance of more than 30 negotiating team. Negotiations, we found Grumman F-7 aircraft for me to understand very shallow, so some programs conceived thick. In fact, as long as the collection of some of the public "MiG" -21 data to understand will be deeper. Here we can see the characteristics of the Americans love to brag about it, what they dare to blow. Such as the use of F-20 F-7 received a nose, while the two machines shape and force structure is simply not up butt. We have a talk show in front of the Yankees our strength, it seems to give them left a deep impression. They want us to touch the bottom through negotiations, and proposed to provide us with a lot of information. In turn we ask him for some data (such as the engine's), he was not exposed, not to mention some of the information given, even in Beijing Wang Chengdong program outline to us privately that they do not reveal that when the negotiations. They tricky enough, it seems that fear that we are stealing their business, it seems does not want to cooperate with us, however, we still gave them some whole machine weight center of gravity, head butt joints structural dimensions, engine compartment dimensions and other data and sketches . October 27, the two sides signed the minutes, Chen Jinyan signed on behalf of the CAC. November 7, 1985, the U.S. State Department, Mr. Christopher Kirk in the United States Consul General in Chengdu, Mr. Cheng Fei accompanied visit. I Wangyin Gong, Chen Jinyan, etc. met them and accompanied them to watch the F-7M aircraft production site. Christopher is pretty straightforward, says purpose of this trip is to understand the modified F-7M case of exports to Pakistan in order to return to the government report. Modified aircraft involved in the progress of talks, monthly conceived, the body how much the two U.S. engine which is good (we think F404 is more appropriate), in Pakistan assembly okay, aircraft maintenance logistics support is still to rely on the United States two technical staff and so on. Finally, Christopher said that they had on this trip CAC impressed, on the "saber" Ⅱ, good luck, early next year, the U.S. government can make a decision. This is our first contact with U.S. government officials, government officials feel they work quite thorough. ◆ Sun president's first visit to Washington, both in intense preparation and temptations, whether the dust settles, we'll see! January 8, 1985, the United States formally telex Vought CATIC, the company has decided to withdraw from "saber" Ⅱ project competition. In the same year on December 10, Sun Zhaoqing president visited the company, which explains why the exit leading face competition: First, modifications too demanding on the Palestinian side, while the price is low, Vought estimated at less than 10 million dollars a dried out; Second, the U.S. Navy Vought to refit the original production A-7 "pirates." In this way, "saber" Ⅱ less a competition. General Dynamics has said of the "Sabre" Ⅱ not interested, while Boeing Military Aircraft Company although interesting, but not positive, the rest is the most positive Grumman company. Sun CEO CATIC line on November 25 visited Grumman Washington office. December 6 visited New York Long Island Grumman headquarters, has been chairman Bill Worth and international president Manuel Huck's reception of the "saber" Ⅱ project-related technical solutions, and held talks next plan. Grumman that the Palestinian side on the modification of the technical requirements raised too high, need to convince the Palestinians to give up some. In addition, the Palestinian side requires modification work carried out in Pakistan, so that Grumman plant does not come with much effort, when up to develop two prototype plant something dry. So after comprehensive consideration suggested that if the Palestinian side to buy their E-2C early warning aircraft, the "saber" Ⅱ can be used as a way of compensation trade with engaging look. If the Palestinian side insisted on bidding, he would not want to do it.
Sun suggested China and the technical staff of both sides Grumman "Sabre" Ⅱ program to further explore once, Georgia vowed to clear attitude after the Palestinian side in order to proceed. Seems Grumman sent to disagree with us, maybe we are afraid he was touched bottom? About the Government, Grumman said, now Defense attitude is clear, but needs discussed and adopted by the Parliament. Currently there are an F -8 Ⅱ conversion projects, to go through Parliament, will have some difficulties. It can not be rushed, so as not to fail. In fact, before this, Sun executives have on November 25 and 26 May, respectively visited the United States Department of Commerce and Department of Defense, and my heart has been a bottom. Commerce Assistant Secretary Nagel. Department of Defense Rumsfeld and National Security Assistance Geist General Secretary, respectively, then saw him again. Two ministries have expressed for "saber" Ⅱ support for the project. Geist General also told that the U.S. Department of Defense has decided consent to release F404 engines and avionics and other related equipment used in data conversion to Pakistan, the Chinese side through Pakistan to obtain the necessary data. Palestinians, however, this project is through the FMS (U.S. Foreign Military Sales) channels, or their own money to buy the commercial channels, the final decision has not yet estimated the time needed to analyze and compare a year. After this visit, the overall impression given Sunzong "Sabre" Ⅱ progress of the project can not be fast, the key is still in Pakistan's attitude and requirements. So it is best to fight in Pakistan, the United States can work together tripartite negotiations once the officer, unified idea, prompting progress. End of CATIC offices in the United States, news came Grumman intends to February 1986 sent visit to Pakistan, and then to China in April to discuss technical issues. Prior to this, Turkoglu goalkeeper in January 1986 during the Singapore International Airshow, sent Pellet Huck same with CATIC Vice President Jiang met with exhibitors. In addition, there is news that the United States has approved the export to India F404 engine, estimated exports to Pakistan should be no problem. In order to gain the initiative, the F-7CP our internal work has been stepped up, low-speed wind tunnel tests have been completed on December 20 the first round of selection trials, high-speed wind tunnel force tests, but also on Dec. 29 completed the first round hair. Aircraft metal coordination prototype has been carried out and are being further modified form. Domestic installed capacity of the Ministry of finished planning meeting in December with the plant signed a supply contract. In mid-December, with the British company Marconi Avionics negotiations F-7CP radar, the British agreed to use the "Fox Hunting" radar retrofit to meet our requirements. December 27, CATIC Victor Fan, NIU Xin Tong, Department of military aircraft do Zhu Rong Zhang to Chengdu checks in order to meet the Palestinian side in the early to plant preparations for negotiations, the center is our drafting "Sabre" Ⅱ program proposals. In order to manage the "Sabre" Ⅱ project, the Pakistan Air Force Colonel Salim appointed project leader. Salim was born pilot, flying the F-6 and "Mirage", was originally a Director of the Air Force Command. Shortly after taking office, he would take his engineer Yves iron card majors on March 9, 1986 to fly to Beijing, Wu lawsuit in Pakistan Embassy, accompanied with CATIC after a day of talks, dry August 11 by the Victor Fan, Zhu Rong Zhang, NIU Xin Tong, accompanied arrived in Chengdu. Salim explained to us repeatedly on the Palestinian side, the United States, the principle of division of Pakistan tripartite cooperation, body modification, such as wind tunnel tests conducted in China or the United States, the motor assembly, test, test must be carried out in Pakistan. Prototype development, take a commercial road, Palestinians own money. Subject to enter the batch, take the U.S. Foreign Military Sales channel path, because this issue of export, but also with military aid money. About the aircraft requirements to low-altitude operations based, high-altitude performance is secondary. In addition to the engine avionics outside, summarized the seven requirements: 5000 pounds (about 2,268 kg) machine oil; 7-8 hardpoints; able to air refueling; total life more than 3000 hours, the first return of 1200 hours; able to withstand 9G overload; plus tail hook, the U.S. level of cockpit panoramic windshield. Salim informed us in November 1985, January 1986 Grumman visit to Pakistan, in February 1986 against Pakistan Boeing, GE's March 1986 visit to Pakistan situation. About the aircraft price, he said that the Pakistani government agreed to increase to $ 8,000,000, producing 150 aircraft, with a total cost of 1.2 billion dollars, part of which 1.2 billion is a defense to the Air Force's budget. He said some U.S. companies recommended to take a F-7M body to him, he went to study how to change the program.
Program is determined, the prototype developed largely to 2-3 years. He added that modifications could be envisaged in the United States dry, but also in Kamla dry, can also be dried in China, because the U.S. government does not agree politically device to get China to allow only to the Palestinian side, on the Chinese assembly to become the problem. But no matter where dry, we need in the United States, Pakistan tripartite personnel with the dry. Salim to the company before, do not know that we have done this much work. He listened to our presentation, read about models and drawings, and the F-7CP reading our full-size metal prototype aircraft was surprised after, very unexpected. We told him we envisioned development program, there must be five prototypes (including strength and fatigue tests), in 1986 to begin the design, a total of roughly four years, ie 1990 can fly finished prototype. Determined to put into operation as early as 1991, can get the first production aircraft. Three days after the two sides discussed the final form of a summary, on March 16 by the Victor Fan, Salim signature. The two sides agreed that Pakistan should come forward to organize in the United States, Pakistan tripartite meeting as soon as possible, in order to unify their understanding, Cheng Fei of the "Sabre" Ⅱ written project proposals, including three-sided figure with performance estimates, plug-in program, aircraft fuel and Basso to the engine, avionics installation data breakdown, are submitted to the Salim together. Salim Colonel coming this time, can be said that the harvest in return. First, he introduced through our earnest and frank and watch the real thing, plus to discuss, the first time he did not understand a lot of contact with the past design technical problems. Second, he brought us to his satisfaction with the various issues raised and the answers written data. Third, he is subject to our specifications to improve reception. From the seller is the "Emperor" point of view, CATIC decided to raise a reception Salim, ie general-level military officers to reception, out of the airport in the VIP room, meals, lodging, are high-grade. In Beijing, the general manager of AVIC two were present to meet. To the CAC, it is to be more than Bin. U.S. government approved the U.S. aircraft company to "Sabre" Ⅱ project can be linked in Pakistan after contact Grumman, Boeing continuously competing to go to Pakistan, with the program talks with Pakistani leaders empty, went Kamra base study, the Palestinian empty just shop around and sit back and enjoy. U.S. Department of Defense, the Navy that you can to "saber" Ⅱ project (because of all the F404 engine is the Navy), Air Force General Dynamics argues in favor of exports to Pakistan F-16, together with Northrop opposition activities, the situation is quite complex.
◆ Aviation initiative of the Chinese side for the F-7CP program was so much a feasibility study, paid a high price, but now there is help people along the way may be reduced to the status of chores, while appease old bus, while helping competitors opponent, then a surprise move, the most important thing right now is the task of our U.S. companies in the fierce competition, we do not want to sit still can not wait, we must take every opportunity to fight for the frequent and Pakistan, the United States contacts. By the end of March 1986, according to Minister of instructions, Foreign Affairs Bureau Liu Guomin, Victor Fan, deputy director of military aircraft do Ma Chenglin 3 again a special trip to Pakistan to fight in Palestine intends to send to the United States before the end of April, the Palestinian side to find out which ideas and benefit from some of some of our role in promoting. They on April 1 in Pakistan met with Jamal and Assistant Chief of Staff Admiral 法鲁克准将 to the Palestinian side to make three points: (1) To request a copy of our proposed "Sabre" Ⅱ proposals published Review; (2) how to do further work going? (3) recommended at the appropriate time, the Palestinians will sign a cooperation agreement. Jamaal and Farouk answer, summed up: (1) "Sabre" Ⅱ project funds have been implemented, but the success of the project depends on price alone is not more than 8 million U.S. dollars. The U.S. government has agreed to the Pakistani exports engines and radar data. (2) "saber" Ⅱ project through a competitive aircraft by the United States to carry out technical and economic feasibility study, but no matter which company argued, must provide your AVIC F-7M information. (3) Pakistan Air Force currently has tended Grumman because it loaded F-16 avionics, change the body
More in-depth program credible, while Boeing's proposal does not change the body, just change the engine and fire control system. The reason why Boeing and other companies to participate, please bidding, mainly, first, good to the U.S. government accountable; second, good to the Pakistani government accountable; Third, the pressure Grumman price. (4) a lot of work done on the Chinese side expressed appreciation and gratitude. But whether the proposals put forward by China as the basis for the feasibility study does not stand, together with the Chinese side has no intention of visiting the United States. Also said that China and Pakistan signed the agreement after a feasibility study to be carried out. (5) In late April will send a Pakistani air chief of staff's visit, and Grumman, Boeing and Lockheed and other companies talks, talks, selected two companies, selected two companies compete and give 100 to 200 million dollars in research costs. Moreover, you should discuss what optional engine and avionics equipment problems.
Will be sent home early May visit to China to seek advice, and then go the United States signed a feasibility study agreement. Study requires 5-6 months out reports. Plan from 1987 began to design airplanes, 1991 to 1992 out of airplanes. According to the case of the two sides talking, Liu Guomin and the others of that: (1) Pakistan formal action on this project has entered the stage. (2) If the "Sabre" Ⅱ aircraft unit price over 8 million dollars, there is instead the purchase of F-16 not to "saber" Ⅱ hazard. (3) the Palestinian side has been designated as a partner Grumman estimated grid has opened up the Palestinian side joints. Given grid right with me unenthusiastic, view us as a small boy, we should help Boeing one. (4) Pakistan's proposal for China's non-committal, the United States is determined to find a company is very clear. So our F-7CP progress to moderate, with a focus on doing more technical and economic feasibility research and to study countermeasures. April 5 we get the above message forwarded by Beijing, Xie Ming director and I waited immediately studied, the following recommendations to the Beijing statement: Immediately Boeing through several channels to convey should change programs and the formation of confrontation Grumman competition. Boeing to get our information, the response was quick, mid-April to dispatch group visit. Pakistan Air Salim Colonel visit, conveyed on the Palestinian side, "saber" Ⅱ project determined to have been under the unmistakable message, we also noted that the United States Pakistan Air in April and other major actions, authorities also seized a portion of the " Sabre "Ⅱ work sent Liu Guomin other side went to Pakistan, one side on 1 April 1986 by the military office director Zhang Jinbo, Sun Zhaoqing Foreign Affairs Bureau, the city plans a formal joint Secretary Li Yi wrote to the minister" on the F- export machine-7M variant of the report. " The report analyzes the situation, we think that in order to implement the Party Group "Paul defense conversion contention export" policy, we must do everything possible to get the "Sabre" Ⅱ project. To this end, the Palestinian side to do more work to make the Palestinian side, in all material actions, first discussed with me; we should take the initiative to master Pakistan-US trends, analyze which U.S. companies in my favor, they support him outright, and ultimately to achieve development prototype airframe from our responsibility results. In order to do this complex international cooperation projects, according to Deputy Minister of Health Jiang Xie instructions, military and trade within the Ministry of Development Leading Group was established by the Planning Department Director Li, Zhang military office, Foreign Affairs Bureau Sun, Director Liu four people, Sun, Zhang Two headed. In addition, the report also recommends founded by Mao Dehua as director, Victor Fan, Zhu Rong Zhang served as deputy director of the Office of the model; please Xie Ming was appointed commander of field command developed; consultation with Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu and I discuss Hou Cheng Fei, deputy chief engineer recommended Chen Jinyan chief designer; "Sabre" Ⅱ project as CATIC business projects, by CATIC and CAC agree on how to carry out economic management. The report by the ministers and Jiang Xie Mo Wen Xiang sheng, Wang Pleiades deputy ministers agreed instructions and carry out the work required. Later, the field commander did not formally appointed, the appointment of chief designer Chen Jinyan on May 6, 1986 the official documents issued by the Ministry. About the chief architect of the problems, in October 1985 Beijing F-7CP program has been brewing after the briefing, the Ministry wanted me to serve as the leadership, so in November 1985 men made up aircraft design advisory group file, put me advisory group name from the list on the program went. From my ability, qualifications and energy, it can dry. However, from a development point of view, I would like to ask for my opinion about the comrades said, some, such as Chen Jinyan train young comrades as good as I can best help. In addition, things mainly by the factory to do, I will not plant leadership team where a barrier, some things are harder to resolve. They agreed with my opinion. Later, the ministry has issued a document to supplement my design consultant for the aircraft deputy director. But because I was either Chengdu Aircraft Development
Deputy director of the center, so I'm in charge of the "Sabre" Ⅱ other export models also unaffected, but technically I'm not signing. ◆ Boeing Boeing invested competitive attitude change was unexpected, but even more suspicion is that Boeing's attitude to government pressure from the United States rather than the project itself a mention Boeing, the impression is that large civil aircraft, In fact, because Boeing Commercial Airplanes in Seattle more activities in China, with much more civil aircraft, compensation trade more work and more deep impression sake. In 1985, Boeing's vice president of third-class people to send CAC access. We know little of the Boeing company also reached a dimension of its military aircraft company, the Boeing Military Aircraft Company had 25,000 employees, the famous World War II B-29 and B-52 are later they produced, Boeing's military aircraft have mighty. At that time they did not produce the machine, doing A-6, F-4 and KC-135 and B-52 modification work, the production of tube B-1B avionics most comprehensive and Boeing 737 airframe. Boeing Military Aircraft Company to participate in the "Sabre" Ⅱ project competition, approved by the Government after January 21, 1988 sent a technical director Ralph and international projects director Cheng Fei Xiang Yu to visit Victor Fan, Zhu Rong Zhang, NIU Xin Tong accompaniment. Ralph has not yet formed a formal modification advice but only verbally told a talk. We are verbally briefed them on the F-7CP scheme, they saw the F-7M and J-7CP type full-size metal prototypes. After that, they Jifu Pakistan activities. In early April, CATIC Beijing Office through Boeing convey to them the Palestinian side of his relatively shallow and does not change the body's programs and feasibility studies are not satisfied with the news cycle is too long after, Boeing immediately dispatched Xiang Yu and bring aerodynamics, avionics and engine experts from four to Beijing, and its chief representative in Beijing Peng Yun higher two people a total of 6 people on April 17 to Chengdu. Second visit still Li, Zhu, cattle, accompanied by three people, and I Wangyin Gong, Chen Jinyan and other hospitality. Boeing grateful to our team for their support, so he told us about the situation and we are talking about domestic background programs are more open and generous. They come, they come up with were ready "Sabre" Ⅱ conceptual proposal to us, there are as many as one hundred. We look after, feel that they talk about in January after a short time in mastering rare case of F-7 data, write the program, and its rapid response capability is strong. The written proposal Boeing aircraft to both sides of the inlet, the inlet is not adjustable, wingtip to hang bombs, because there are seven external, structural design to achieve total life of 4000 hours. There are two options avionics, one solution is to use a large number of F-16 avionics, and using F-16C / D cockpit instrumentation layout. Both programs use APG-67 radar, fire control systems can launch the "Sparrow" medium-range missiles. Engine proposal from the M88, PW1216, RB199 and F404/RM12 selected. In discourse analysis, Boeing tend F404/RM12, its high reliability, the thrust is also large, easy to maintain; life: hot parts 2000 hours, 4000 hours cold parts. Boeing and GE's already connected relationships, GE company asked to do together with the inlet matching engine test to ensure quality. After installation Boeing proposed a large opening in the form of lower fuselage. Also similar F/A-18 and F-20's AMAD (engine supporting aircraft accessory gearbox). There are air refueling, with the U.S. Air Force standards. In order to achieve high reliability, Boeing recommends extensive use shelf products and mature proven technology. Prototype development, Boeing proposal completed within two years of manufacture and test prototype aircraft flew successfully put into operation that decision. In order to quickly develop prototypes, Boeing Lockheed Skunk Works recommended non-formal test
System that way. From Boeing's collaborative work program introduction, we first heard of the Americans in the development of aircraft systems engineering using a SOW (statement of work), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) The concept of such terms. SOW is a so-called technical requirements of the buyer to the seller file that tells the seller want to achieve what is being done; while the WBS is the seller to the buyer's answer document describing how to make the entire work of the various stages decomposing component level hardware unit to gradually proceed with the implementation (how to engage the system works, it appears that a variety of aircraft company practices are not the same, then we formally cooperate with Grumman, only S0W, did not formulate WBS). Xiang Yu brings several aircraft design expert, has 30 years of work experience, conversation and with our relatively open. So very harmonious atmosphere of the talks. They saw our information and full-size F-7CP metal prototype flying into cooperation with the confidence, and listen to us talk about Pakistan only pay for a feasibility study that more has been encouraging. Negotiations, Xiang Yu made it clear, once the Pakistani Fangdui Bo sound program approval, hopes that Pakistan's friends fly into space and immediately went up to the dimension of its feasibility study together. Xiang Yu Tan, old people and the ruling class in Pakistan's far worse, the ruling class long-term acceptance of Western education, a high standard, but also very self-cultivation. They had to buy a warship in Italy, modification was neither fish nor fowl, so the lessons learned. Now on the "Sabre" Ⅱ take a more cautious approach. 20, the two sides signed a memorandum of understanding. In accordance with the principle of fair competition, we gave to Boeing and Grumman Data considerable. Of course, the mouth speaks of is another matter. Through the negotiations, to achieve our original objective of instilling our retrofit design concept, launched the program increased their strength, but also inspired the morale of their competition, allowing Boeing to further recognize the modification of the body work must be dominated by China. Since then, 12 May 1986, the Foreign Affairs Bureau deputy director and vice president of CATIC same river, in the United States visited the dimension of its wave sound military aircraft company. The company president personally received the ancient Mao Xuan hosted by Ralph, Xiang Yu jointly negotiate. The overall idea of the two sides closer to the situation. Ancient president, said Boeing to participate in "saber" Ⅱ type project with Grumman different. Boeing is not to get much profit, primarily the United States government requires Boeing dry, aimed at strengthening Pakistan, in order to support Afghanistan against the Soviet Union, is the focus of the political. If this project can be done to make beneficiaries are mainly Pakistan, China, and the United States of engines, airborne equipment company. After the completion of Boeing aircraft development, production stage is not much work, not what benefits, but because the U.S. government to promote, Boeing is to fight. About in Pakistan, the United States tripartite relationship with Jiang suggested that since the U.S. government export licensing restrictions, the only viable tripartite relationship is this: the Palestinian side is the buyer, make demands; Boeing is the prime contractor, responsible for the buyer to complete the whole machine The modified design, prototype, test, test, commissioning and other arrangements and work; CATIC when the sub-contractor, Boeing is responsible for the complete body modification, prototype, test, and the organization of the body's mass production and delivery, which Boeing aspects are agreed. Xiang Yu said that Boeing originally inclined to organize, but when the second contractor, CATIC, afraid of opinions, and now Mr. Jiang himself made, and easier to handle. Also talk about the U.S. government for the conduct of this project's main concern is reluctant to China also needs to give its technical secrets. If Boeing as the prime contractor to the U.S. government responsible for the confidentiality, control its release to the Chinese side the range of data that the U.S. government will be much more assured, once the Congress to intervene, but also easy to pass. On the Palestinian side of the source of funds and project management channels, Boeing asserted by Pakistan to the United States wants to borrow, take a commercial road, do not go the U.S. Foreign Military Sales channel. Because U.S. foreign military sales channels to go, certainly the U.S. Air Force to intervene. So that this project will be a drag on for years, can not progress. Ancient president said that once walked the U.S. foreign military sales channels, the U.S. Air Force will request the seller a lot of money, so many officers and careerism, so the military tend to be closely held. This shady 1985 Minister of Mozambique has been told. Boeing asked the same river, the possibility to produce part of the Palestinian side in Kamra body? Jiang replied, as long as the Palestinian side request, we can help him produce. Boeing was concerned that the Chinese do not want to take part of the body work to dry the Palestinian side, the same river that Boeing was relieved. Final recommendations as soon as possible to promote the ancient president, the bar, direct talks with the United States three.
Through the talks, Jiang, deputy director felt that Boeing's strengths is the tripartite relationship in clarifying how to implement the project on clear thinking, weakness is not deep enough to study the technical program. Grumman contrary, the grid is technically deep, but how to organize such a project, you want to get a little naive. Therefore, Jiang, deputy director of a letter from the domestic dimension of its recommendations more from us in the future for Boeing on technical solutions to help him prepare, while the grid is not technically come clean it. CATIC also suggested that the project director Victor Fan comrades can take the initiative to the U.S., direct talks with Boeing.
◆ Farouk To document Old America to cooperate with us, the fight is defrauding Chinese technical information, and then kicked China to seize the market's wishful thinking, but we also Dengxianzhibei you hard I hard while doing Good for the worst in October 1985, Grumman China negotiations, we have given some basic data and information, such as aircraft weight and center of gravity of the body structure, intended to butt heads with the new 11 box 12 box shape aircraft modification sectional area before and after the distribution, the engine compartment space maps. These proposed as the basis for bidding program has been enough, but to engage in a substantive "saber" Ⅱ feasibility study is certainly inadequate. May 23, 1986, the Pakistan Air Force Assistant Chief of Staff, Colonel Sun Zhaoqing Salim 法鲁克准将 with the Secretary and other personally escorted into the fly access. Farooq informed to us first, "saber" Ⅱ project progress and his current situation the United States. He said December 16, 1985 the U.S. government has formally allow for "saber" Ⅱ project. So far, formal participation in the competition is a U.S. aircraft company Boeing and Grumman. Lockheed was interested to attend, but soon to say the Palestinian side telex interested. Boeing's plan is to develop a new nose, on both sides of the inlet, with the F-16 avionics (seems to play a role in our work); Grumman F-20 program is the head, with the F-16 avionics. The engine area, PW1120 too, PW1216 possible, it is based on the engine switch J52 Chinese WP-7 engine afterburner section, but to lead 1991; F404 most likely, but each expensive than PW1120 500,000 dollars. The entire project, Pakistan has decided in three phases, namely feasibility studies, prototype development and batch production. Now with the Palestinian side intends Grumman first feasibility study agreement signed in June. 5 months to complete the feasibility study, the following year a quarter of prototype development. Then give me a Farouk in drafting Grumman Technical Assistance Agreement between the United States and Pakistan (TAA) text simultaneously, took a part Grumman order to carry out "Sabre" F-7M feasibility study required information list, we are required to provide free of charge to the Palestinian side. The move, coupled with Grumman on our extremely candid approach, of course, aroused our vigilance, Pakistani empty teamed with Grumman in the feasibility study to throw us! The F-7 is ours, outrageous! Therefore, we insist to come forward by the CAC data can not provide free by the Department of the Secretary, after discussions with the Sun Zhaoqing to throw an old bus to ask the price of 1.2 million dollars, the negotiating table this fierce arguments. Farooq said, you do not give here, I went to Beijing to go to. Mo ministers and director Zhang Jinbo hear this case, the successive power to fly into playing live on Sun Zhaoqing and Hou Jianwu said that the problem in Chengdu Do not say dead, everything to Beijing to be. Mo minister worried consulting fees of 120 million dollars to the relevant information to the F-7 old bus, our hands the little capital, there is no case they kicking off the Chinese people after the "Sabre" engaged in it, while the engine and avionics off than China's good that our F-7 export markets accounted for them on the whole, this consequence incredible! Anyway, they are inseparable from our information, our data did not he "Sabre" also can be done, he was hard I have hard, we can not yield to him, he quit, quit or leave it. Zhang called again the first two days, it is recommended that he should head to the information exchange. Farouk finally did not want to fly in the adult to the data, 25, flew back to Beijing together with the Sun, etc.. In an interview by CATIC Beijing, finally reached a "come and live," the principle that information should I give you, and you have to give me information,
So this time on behalf of the Palestinians Grumman information to us to the issue, not a clear answer, until later in Pakistan, the United States tripartite talks resolved. May 30, China and Pakistan signed a Memorandum of Understanding, the Palestinian side agreed to China's proposal, feasibility study required by the three Sino-US Pakistani experts conducted the study should provide each other with the necessary information, and if you want to enter the study is completed prototype batches production, then modified by the body after the Palestinian side has orders. In view of the Chinese side, "saber" Ⅱ Pat did a lot of work in the feasibility study, the Palestinian side will pay a Chinese technical consulting fees, MOU was signed by Victor Fan and Farooq were signed on behalf of Pakistan. Grumman does not reveal to us the end, we have to take the initiative. CATIC Jiang, vice president of United States for the same on May 7 Grumman initiative to meet with Manuel said Huck: Farooq United States in late April, at about 9 days Grumman, Boeing talked about one day the Palestinian side the tendency is obvious Grumman drafted US-Pakistan Technical Assistance Agreement (TAA), its principles have been recognized by the U.S. government. Submitted to Farooq said he hoped the Palestinians do not engage in any competition, and immediately signed it. Farooq said that he is now entitled to sign it. About retrofit technology program was developed by the U.S. military standard Grumman designed by a 13-frame before the forward fuselage, both sides of the intake air inlet is located on both sides of the belly, electronic devices are confined to the front fuselage, made in the USA After shipped to Pakistan and China provided to Pakistan after 13 fuselage frame docking. F404 rear fuselage mounted, to have a lower large door. JIANG Tong asked him, who is the chief architect of this aircraft? Who is responsible for overall? Or do the whole machine wind tunnel test, strength fatigue test, system test, etc.? How organizational leadership? China is much workload, how to cooperate? Range of issues, Pellet Huck they could not answer, but said later sent to Chengdu talk. Asked, the United States, Pakistan tripartite cooperation relations, Pellet said Huck has told Farouk clear: the Palestinian side is the buyer, but also the project leader, the U.S. China is Pakistan's contractor, directly on the Palestinian side responsible (meaning no relationship between the U.S.). Jiang asked him that Pakistan is no overall design strength, how to change the Chinese side put forward specific requirements of the body? Perry can not justify this. Jiang said that you and the Palestinians signed the US-Pakistan Technical Assistance Agreement, the Palestinian side would like your payment, but virtually all of the technical assistance they are inseparable from the Chinese people, who then pay the cost of China's work? Perry said that the Palestinian side is paid. Jiang asked the Palestinian side the Chinese are not clear how much work to do, because you are out of ideas, and does not tell us how to determine this cost? Perry and could not answer. Talking back and forth, all to no avail, Jiang integrating the first time in Singapore to meet with Manuel Hacker situation, we feel Pellet Hacker gang led by technical solutions Grumman people great interest, but organize such a project seems to see complex relationships simple, it seems as long as the Pakistan-US bilateral TAA a sign, work can begin by Pakistan relations, the pressure to make the Fang Chengfei company to become an engineering department Grumman, you can easily command like The. According Farouk count Grumman offer to China to information is produced. Of course, on the other hand, we should also recognize the top leadership Grumman old bus pulled the hand, also has a certain ability and determination. Farouk come to information through this, we feel Grumman ambitious and want to monopolize the market, he is currently at least, has the old bus on the hook, and not got into this practice, too'll see. We ourselves can not afford to sit back and wait, there must be another hand ready, this is the "self-made product," the idea that cooperation with foreign countries, while in our own hands to develop an entirely own export aircraft. Ministry of Trade and Development Leading Group Army study that should be actively grasping costs by CATIC, the Ministry plans to fly three of the Secretary and the third. We are "self-made product" called C-type aircraft, but also refers only to China's own, to distinguish it from the CP type of cooperation with Pakistan. Ministry decided to immediately study "Self into a commodity," Xie Ming director Hou Jianwu director personally convene a meeting with us, listening to the reports research programs, and in April 9, 1986, a line of eight people immediately flew to Beijing. 8 people, Xie Hou, besides me there is Chen Jinyan, Qiu Puda and so on. ◆ Since its goods occupy the share of C-type machine how much is directly related to the division of the market, in order to prevent the "Sabre" Ⅱ protracted or the last blow, even become, we do not own the marketing rights by the United States and the old bar, so in dealing with the country
External cooperation, should be independent of our own doing, from a military trade commodity Ministry of Aviation Industry Development Leading Group emergency call we went to Beijing to study countermeasures. June 9, 1986 Our party of eight people to fly to Beijing in the afternoon by the factory in a small guest house meeting. Department of military aircraft do Jinbo, Mao Dehua, Zhu Rong Zhang, Foreign Affairs Bureau Sun Zhaoqing, Victor Fan, NIU Xin Tong, Xu Zhongkui Planning Department and other comrades have come. This is a discussion nature would, first of all is to convey information, and then look for a solution. Farouk returned to Beijing from Chengdu, you can talk, Jiang Xie, Vice Minister of Health to come forward to ask him to dinner, Farooq said, "saber" Ⅱ this project, the Pakistani government's intention is to have it mess, otherwise he does not come the. The total budget of the Pakistani government intends to spend 1.5 billion dollars, 1.2 billion for 150 aircraft, 300 million for the construction of Kamra base, capable of producing up nose and aircraft assembly test levels. This is not only a matter of the Pakistan Air Force, President Zia also supported, this information does suggest that the determination of the old bar. In addition, Grumman Wang Chengdong activities in Beijing to CATIC talked to Victor Fan bluntly told him that no cooperation on Grumman sincerity of our blackout in an attempt to bypass our complaints. Wang Chengdong made some explanations barely raised hopes arrange June 23 Grumman who talks to China again. Grumman recently in the United States through the river to the AVIC General submitted a Sino-US "Technical Assistance Agreement between the United States and Pakistan," the text, which are basically restricted to China's legal obligations under the terms and China, not to mention Any fees paid to China relationship is really wishful thinking. Jiang wanted to refuse, but do not understand the domestic idea, or have someone take back home, Farouk to us is another bar between the United States, "Technical Assistance Agreement between the United States and Pakistan," which is the direction of the United States has paid Pakistan terms of certain fees. So Victor Fan on Wang Chengdong talk, you drafted between China "Technical Assistance Agreement between the United States and Pakistan," a politically to equality, not only a large set of U.S. law, and second, the economic basis of equality, anything can be for free , China Why do people serve you, the costs incurred Who? Also you mention exactly what the Palestinian side program, neither talk to us, not to welcome us to talk about your company, we want to make the information exactly how else to you? Wang Chengdong vague, that is not clear. Ministry authorities, the Farouk comes after ministers opened the second will, divisions opened three times. Ministers approach is: First, strive mess this project, two, must have come and go, we strive to benefit more, it is necessary and foreigners fighting, fighting for success. The meeting to discuss the question: Externally, how to implement the Minister on the "saber" Ⅱ cooperation policy; internally, in order to prevent the "Sabre" Ⅱ protracted or the last blow, even become, we do not have autonomy marketing rights by the United States and the old bar, so in dealing with foreign cooperation, we ourselves should be independent of dry, self into a commodity, which is what kind of program should be. The meeting discussed the day and a half. Cheng Fei dished out the "self-made product" C-type machine programs as CATIC and CAC co-operating items. The whole project is two steps, the first step is not installed the final avionics aircraft can fly test, changed the nose and main inlet, expect to spend 30 million yuan of charge. June 11, Xie, waiting, I am with the Ministries Zhang, Sun, Zhu, Xu Mo minister went there to report on the 12th Vice Minister Jiang ED also reported. Then in the military to do specific research seminar on the draft order from the Ministry official wholesale. After the meeting, Xie, waiting and I waited to go to Changchun First Automobile Factory and other cars on our factory to inspect mold project activities. June 30, the Ministry letter to Air Army (1986) No. 536 forwards seminar on export of F-7 variant. Minutes of the main spirit is: Pakistan Air Force of the "Sabre" Ⅱ requirements to some extent reflects the requirements of the third world countries, is a promising development potential of the military and trade items, we must seize it for further open arms market to promote the aviation industry product development, production lines and stable military aviation technology team, all have very important significance. Even though we are technically and economically take some risks worthwhile. Minutes then analyzes the risks: We in the "Sabre" Ⅱ in the body after only 13 sub-contractors box. We provide a lot to the U.S. F-7M data, and the U.S. government restrictions, we are not worthy of the U.S. engine, radar, nose and inlet, etc., "saber" Ⅱ project in three phases to the Palestinians conduct,
Is expected to last six years, probably due to various reasons passers died. Therefore, our policy is: to support Pakistan set up its own aviation industry policies to promote the "saber" Ⅱ project; cooperation with the United States and Pakistan to adhere to the principle of equality and mutual benefit, seeking to fight jointly; insist on the technical data has come and go principle, to prevent the use of our information, after the United States give me the slip; to the terms of the contract protect our economic interests and sovereignty. To get rid of U.S. control, the main approach is to conduct the "Sabre" Ⅱ project, while actively developing our own export machine F-7 variant (F-7C type, please note that this is not the F-7C later renamed F The F-7C -7 Ⅲ, where C stands for "export" means), so that we can export to a third country for future independent, F-7 variant in two phases contemplated export machine, a necessary development costs 3,000 yuan, by CATIC and fly into joint ventures, investment 15 million yuan each. Thus, according to the Ministry of the spirit of the forum, to fly the F-7C strides type design work and prepare for the September program evaluation unit. June 23 Grumman people do not come to the end of July to come. July 6, 1986, the U.S. General Electric Company on behalf of Mr. Zhang Wei to plant again, this time he was accompanied by GE's Aircraft Engines, Mr. Hawkins, vice president of another visit. Hou Jianwu, chief engineer Yang Baoshu other comrades entertained them, I talk to them and to improve the F404 FT -5 aircraft they recommend GE-27 engine. Negotiations, we propose to provide us with hope that some of GE's F404 engine with inlet on the data, they say you can find some on behalf of the information can be disclosed. Subsequent to September, Hawkins AIAA really sent me an article about the inlet F/A-18, F/A-18 F404 engine is used.
◆ Jamaal old Palestinian minister called on Mo has over 40 aircraft F-16, to engage in "saber" Ⅱ The main purpose is to build Pakistan's own aircraft industry, which the Pakistani government biggest attraction July 3, 1986, Pakistan Empty Chiefs of Staff Admiral and Jamaal Deputy Chief of Staff Operations, etc., in Beijing met with Minister of Aviation Industry Department Mo Wenxiang, Jamal was at my invitation to visit China Air Force commander's. Called the meeting to have Sun Zhaoqing, Victor Fan comrades. This meeting was "saber" Ⅱ project of the highest level, and therefore very authoritative. Jamaal will be on the minister said Mo: I am "Sabre" Ⅱ pleased with the progress made in the project. Dealing with the United States is not easy, and now, many of the problems were overcome. Before I left Pakistan, Boeing received the latest news, they also need a few days to pay feasibility studies bid. Given that we want to respect Grumman, Boeing for comparison, agree to an extension, I think the deadline is July 16. I told Mr. Liu Guomin said many times, we did not "saber" Ⅱ project as a tripartite, but as the two parties. CMB is considered that one. So, no matter with whom it signed a feasibility study agreement, must first meet with China, consultations. After CATIC to send groups to Palestinian resident, less the number of the initial stage, possibly 2-3 people, with the progress of work, staff need more naturally also have U.S. personnel. Of course, much will depend on the final feasibility study concluded that if there has been in cost and cycle discrepancy, it should be reconsidered, and if they correct, there is no reason not to go on a research prototype. Final conclusions, but also the flight test results proved to be feasible. This is what I envisioned two milestones. When Mo Minister stated that China supports "Sabre" Ⅱ project, stressing the tripartite cooperation, technology exchanges between China and the U.S., we must adhere to the principle of equality, etc. after Jamal went on to say: "I am in favor of Mo Minister of view, China in the fight against In the U.S., there is a comprehensive experience, and we deal with the U.S. government and American companies have some experience in the United States
System, the system is very confusing, it seems there is corporate, government, Department of Defense three, every family has a lot of power, they treat third world countries, it is sometimes an entirely agree, while the other is completely negative, sometimes three mutually contention, and as such, we are engaged in F-16 project, subject to considerable frustration. So Mo minister speaking Sino-US relations, I agree to be solved before the project implementation, there must be the answer. Pakistan assured views with the Chinese side will not make the contrary, is not conducive to China thing. We will make a decision with the United States before the first exchange of views with you, discuss, and then submitted to the United States. I am Mr. Zeng Tongliu mentioned, there is an important factor to be considered, namely the idea of some U.S. companies, they think, "saber" Ⅱ project conflict with their interests. Last month, General Dynamics and Northrop Corporation visit to Pakistan, I am still convinced that this project inappropriate. In this regard, I understand, so we have to go step by step. The two companies within the United States is also competition. Therefore, the U.S. government's decision was very influential. They may also express these views to you and obstacles. But never mind, we work under way, obstacles disappeared. We should work together to show our strength. Before leaving, I met with the President, to express to him my right "Sabre" Ⅱ project funds has raised concerns and asked him to support it. He is the supreme commander of the armed forces, but also control other branches of the military, but his "saber" Ⅱ interest in the project, will be supported, because through this project, will be a heavy workload Kamra. The U.S. attitude is: will not allow Pakistan to China any secrets, but maybe in the future will be directly to the Chinese side. This is their style! Even they themselves do not know what to do with each other? The project's working principle is: the body adapted for batch production in China; United States to provide the engine, radar and other equipment; assembly in Pakistan. Please be assured that we have 20 years of friendship between and is not built on the basis of the transaction the relationship. "When it comes to the United States Minister Mok was not in favor of engaging in" saber "Ⅱ project, Jamal said:" Some U.S. companies worried that the current U.S. government agreed to engage in this project is only in Pakistan, but if the performance of the aircraft attractive, possibly the United States has agreed to sell to other countries, which the United States pose a potential threat to aircraft company. In Pakistan, it was also said that Pakistan has 40 F-16, and with the low price and then buy some of you can, why engage in "saber" Ⅱ project? Hopefully "saber" Ⅱ cost price should not exceed the budget, not to extend the period. Pakistan build its own aircraft industry, the most attractive on the Pakistani government, the president, prime minister, defense minister supported the project, even the Defense Ministry's think tank also agreed. "In Jamaal conversation, deputy chief of Pakistani air combat had chimed in, such as Boeing's bid book to the 16th no echo such as Boeing, Boeing has no intention to participate in the description, then we find Grumman dry. If the idea of the two companies are almost tender, we will find a Grumman for feasibility studies. saying the intent is obvious. Later, Victor Fan conveyed immediately to the Boeing representatives in Beijing to promote their work intensively. Since then, Boeing tenders scheduled for July 15 to give Pakistan empty. ◆ Pakistani empty say like "Sabre" Ⅱ mortality will purchase the F-7M "Sabre" Ⅱ drag the longer, the more negative, F-16 price once down, it will directly impact the project in June, the Ministry decided to "self-made product" approach, the further formation of the internal and external two-line combat situation. F-7C-based development work, flying into the plant is in full swing. design details of the program under the auspices of being the chief architect Chen Jinyan implemented one by one, to meet scheduled be held in September will be assessed; plant chief engineer Yang Baoshu hosted issued accreditation preparedness measures, and organized periodic inspection; established the administrative command system and overall design division system and the new machine models do; strive to C and a project can be developed in a year after the heavenly sort backbone network and key; trial began formulating overall program; Designing System Test to begin preparations; further hair of model being manufactured in order to seek a way out engine. improved in addition to domestic WP-13, the 14th machines,
Also envisages looking outside the United States, it is to ask for Rolls-Royce RB-199 engine of information and data. Grumman, where nothing direct information, but they are actively activity. July 17, Grumman chairman Bill Worth wrote to me Defense Minister Zhang Aiping, the United States wants to support grid Three Pakistani F -7 assume conversion ("Sabre" Ⅱ) and F-8 modification work. Meanwhile, Jamal will be accompanied by Pakistani Prime Minister's visit of the machine, such as Grumman directly to the Chairman Jamal, Jia said that to Georgia, has been selected as a U.S. contractor Grumman. July 21, Liu Guomin, Victor Fan again visited Pakistan. The next day to meet with Farooq (has been promoted to Major General). Farouk bluntly that he disagreed with the two companies for a feasibility study. He said that by Grumman to do a feasibility study before my visit to China has been decided. Pakistani air that Grumman will do a good job. Boeing's proposal with Grumman is very similar, but not detailed. Since nearly two company's proposal, there is no need for two feasibility studies. At that time, only interested Grumman, we proposed to the Government, the cost has been approved, even if the two re-apply for funding to engage. Boeing made better if closer to our vision suggest that if Boeing Defense Mustafa proposal that is more reasonable, it is also possible to make a feasibility study by Boeing. In short, by a feasibility study done, to market competition, tendering developed prototype. Prototype manufacturing company is the project's general contractor. The next step is going on, Farouk said: "July 28 to 31, please discuss Boeing; August 2 to 5, please Grumman discussion. Discussion, Secretary of State for Defence Production Moose Tower of France took part. 8, the 14th announced that a contractor who is a feasibility study, announced after the end of August or September about early, went to Beijing, Chengdu, tripartite meeting to discuss the problem of data exchange. meeting before we go early a few days, the first and signing bilateral agreements with China. "July 24, Liu Li two visited the Ministry of Defence in Pakistan Mustafa. Listened patiently elaborated China's Liu, deputy director of the "Sabre" Ⅱ project proposals and views, Mustafa said: Air Force Grumman view is selected for feasibility studies. That Grumman engage high level fighter, Boeing and conservative than he. Boeing proposal sent in April with a sample from a pilot's perspective, the more attractive Grumman. I do not oppose choose two for feasibility studies, the issue needs further consideration, unless the two are lowering their costs. As Grumman, I will ensure that they provide information to the Chinese side, no reservations, previously, may be due to solution of no, sorry, and thus did not provide information to the Chinese side. On the same day, Liu Li two trip to Pakistan Cyber Command, met with the newly appointed deputy chief of operations, Major General Ratko Achilles. Maj. Gen. Ratko Achilles Liu Li two, said: "If the two differ materially, then had to choose two for feasibility studies, if two similar then choose one to carry out. Now look similar. Time is very important, longer delay. Right now, F-16 price is high, the time delay for a long time, F-16 prices, by contrast, engage in "saber" Ⅱ not worth it, and it wants to "Sabre" Ⅲ up! nose, I hope Kamla production because it is the main part of the aircraft, if cooperation is sincere, then more or less, it does not matter, or even a screw can not go dry. "on the purchase of the F-7M problems, Achilles Ratko said:" F-7M is a good aircraft, and as such, we decided to use it modified "saber" Ⅱ and we believe that the F-7M as the FT -5, FT -6 transition to the F-16 pilot training aircraft, we will study the issue and make a decision at the same time, once the 'saber "Ⅱ collapse of the Project, the only way out is to buy the F-7M aircraft. "This important information back to Pakistan empty, Liu Li two back to Beijing in August 4, but I do not know how will the next step?
◆ Boeing's belated efforts to adopt two Grumman and Boeing contrast, in the "saber" Ⅱ project, compared with the latter's cooperation in our interests. However, due Grumman has taken the first step, and the choice of the Palestinian side attitude had an impact. Therefore, in order to "saber" Ⅱ play a leading role in the project, Joan tone Grumman partnership deal
Threatened to become a major effort over time direction. From the "Sabre" Ⅱ project feasibility study shows that Pakistan has been designated Grumman empty, but we actually prefer cooperation with Boeing Military Aircraft Company, because I worked with two very different attitude. Moment, cooperation with Grumman will make me suffer, and cooperation with Boeing, the program is actually because of my F-7CP basis is extremely beneficial for me. Division of labor, the body responsible for modifications by us, Boeing is responsible for procurement in addition to outside, and is responsible for integrated avionics, assembly and test and so on. If this program can be realized, then for me fully grasp the aircraft modification design techniques, gain more share of the work, as well as developing its own successor machines are extremely beneficial. But the decision rests with the purchaser Palestinian side there, so we stand by the two companies at the same time for feasibility studies for fair competition. According to the results. What kind of cooperation beneficial to us who gave more support to (bound Boeing program allows selected). Palestinians, however, stressed that the application for a feasibility study of the cost budget is only one study, neither necessary nor the money to do the two, unless Boeing keep the prices down. Boeing to begin to make the tender is a small change of plan, and later through the help of our inspiration gradually realized, its cost to the Palestinian side demanded from 50 million dollars, one million dollars rose to 1.5 million dollars. By the end of July, Boeing Beijing Office revealed that even if the Palestinians do not give money, Boeing has to make a feasibility study. Boeing has been scheduled on July 29 to go to Pakistan, from Pakistan to the United States in early August when informed me via Beijing, August 16 to send another group to visit China. August 2, 1986, the Ministry of military trade development leading group written report Jiang Xie sheng, HE sandwiches, Wang Ang Deputy Minister, reported in the analysis of the current situation and future proposed: one, to actively support and Boeing cooperation; 2, if the Palestinian side only selected Grumman one. Should be prepared to cooperate with the program; 3 strive to engage in cooperation with Pratt & Whitney PW1216 engines. Vice Minister Jiang instructions such consent. August 5, Boeing Military Aircraft Company Ding. Led by Vice President Ralph line 4, and later went to Pakistan negotiations informed me. Our Sun Zhaoqing, JIANG Tong, Mao Dehua Secretary attended, flying to Beijing to participate in the company sent Chen Jinyan. Ralph is a retired U.S. Major General. Worked in West Point and Princeton University Department of Aeronautics learning, now head of Boeing Military Aircraft Company project development. This project is Ralph informed choice of high-level decision-making, the Boeing Company seeks to engage in, the situation would like headquarters reported on July 11 to the Palestinian side of tender proposals is July 9 approved by the Corporation. The original military aircraft company does not want to do this thing, the company is required to ensure that engage in out of the aircraft, there are world-class quality, to make the Boeing and AVIC are proud. Boeing Space and Defence Pakistan and Pakistan were discussed four days. The overall impression that the Pakistani Ministry of Defence Grumman and Boeing for two or equal treatment, but it seems the Pakistan Air Force has been basically set up cooperation with Grumman, because of their own design Grumman X-29 demonstrator used F-20's nose and inlet, and used the F-404 engine, so the bar was relatively empty introduce seasonal Pakistan to implement, while Boeing relatively empty hands. (Actual Grumman F-20, said the head with a modified "Sabre" Ⅱ is absolutely impossible, but the Palestinian side was scare) so Boeing in the competition of the most critical is the ability to have information available F-7M. In the feasibility study stage, how to make the Palestinian side of the situation is very important to know that Boeing intends to five months with the Pakistani side held four meetings to resolve. In the production phase, Boeing Boeing to purchase believe it should be, there are differences with the Palestinian side. But the most important is to have the data problem, so Boeing's proposed 10 list of data, a total of 19, would like to provide China. First, China has no fear of these design information (data curve), so they have been called by the company to dispatch a few people come to Chengdu, the first look at these data, and my heart there is a bottom. Later, the Secretary and Ralph individual and talk, if Boeing in the feasibility study to be less some money, such as 750000 okay? Ralph represents. Not the money is not the main way is to ultimately Pakistan sincerely invite you to do the job. Moreover, in the course of the study, must be invited to attend the meeting Palestinian side, fixed the problem. Boeing three experts (pneumatic, structure, systems) together with Xiang Yu, Peng Yun higher 5 people, 1 August
3, accompanied by the NIU Xin Tong went to Chengdu, as the 15th Boeing To reply to the Palestinian side, flying all the data can be used. Pakistan just will consider whether Boeing can become one of the contenders. Ability to use so-called, referring to the whole incomplete, deep enough, when used in the United States, both conceptually and habits are compatible, because the technology is not the same system. On the 14th they entered the factory, and I Yangbao Shu, Chen Jinyan, Limao Jie, etc. received them. The two sides talk about it because, frankly smooth opening, so immediately understand. Boeing prior statement, which 10 have the information, now just take a look back is not required, nor for the record, but what can you use to determine whether it can be entered into the computer to work. Boeing has said in the past that they experience frustration because of lack of proper information, failed three times, once modified DC-9 as cargo aircraft; modified L-1011 is a cargo aircraft; once for F-4 modified electronic equipment , although exhausted the strength to compete, but were later abandoned because of lack of suitable aircraft data, including inter-firm differences in technical work, are incompatible. This is what we come up with information to allow them to let go and see, including a full export of the aircraft in English, as well as information on our hair, strength calculation reports, etc.; shows our data on the strength of the aircraft design. By answering questions but also shows our design skills. Look through the day and quiz down, the Polish side of the bottom five in his heart completely, the night immediately sent a report to the company's chief engineer telex, to the effect that: in the CAC have seen a lot of design information is complete and very valuable, little difference with the American habit, you can click immediately begin feasibility studies; Chinese counterparts with their professional knowledge and understanding of the fascinating ability to answer our many questions raised; entire visiting team to fly into the owner's generosity, cooperation and support attitude touched so on. Telex, the Xiang Yu Meng evening Ituri directly with the chief engineer on the phone, Mongolia has watched the telex, very pleased, told the Panel, the only remaining concern is how to share information with us to communicate ideas, namely how to solve the language barrier. The next day a further exchange of views, the Boeing guests back to full confidence. They returned to the U.S. via Beijing, the Ministry and CATIC entertained them, they repeatedly said that the visit into a great harvest fly, I believe the future will be able to cooperate better. Unfortunately, this step is to go too late. ◆ Cape. Whitney blaze a trick Cape. Benefits brought PW1216 engine program, seemingly for "saber" Ⅱ, actually eyeing the F-7M improvement market, and even the Chinese Air Force has also been included as targets, further opening to Chinese research funding to $ 35 million , the result is leading a veto in the aircraft Boeing guests left shortly Cape. Whitney visitor. Back in November 1985, Cape. Whitney already know, "saber" Ⅱ upload their PW1120 not, shape too, so they CATIC in Beijing and met Victor Fan, recommended PW1216, afterburner thrust of 7500 kg, is modified by the J52 comes. Lee tell him that Pakistan considered J52 series of old products, although cheaper, but can not represent the level of the 1990s. February 1986, Pratt & Whitney PW1216 also proposed the use of afterburning turbojet 7B Simplified, US-China cooperation program, in order to attract Chinese investment to his favor. Victor Fan let them make their own work more than the Palestinian side, and the second asked them to provide further information and data in order to study Chinese for compatibility and necessary performance calculations. But Pratt & Whitney replied, data export to the U.S. government for approval. August of that year, the U.S. government approved the export of technical data J52, Pratt & Whitney then sent on August 11 bass ladder Das Chinese affairs manager and project manager PW1216 Mount discuss issues related to China. They first talk in Beijing and went to visit the Institute and Shenyang Liming Aero Engine Corporation, the Ministry of the engine by the Bureau Zhou Xiaoqing chief engineer chief negotiator, CATIC Niu Tong, Cheng Fei Shen Yong Yuan, Zhengwei Chuan, Zhuzhou Institute of engine
Li Feng, attended. As the program is equipped with afterburning turbojet 7B Simplified, the two countries cooperation in the development, engine companies and research institutes are interested, Pratt & Whitney in the negotiation and implementation of after visiting the proposed development schedule for the 1989 completion of manufacture and test , 1990 to complete the flight test. The second aspect is the "saber" Ⅱ can be employed whether the problem, so Pu. Whitney two people on August 19 in Chengdu, I Yang, Chen, vice president received them. This time, they provide a total figure including engines, thrust oil Yak curve to preliminary data, after the official start of cooperation, they still had further to. During a visit to the F-7M production line, they used his own self-strip tape measure on body size, because they envision PW1216 engine mess afterwards, not only for "Pei door" Ⅱ use, but can be envisaged for the F-7M, so Chinese exports and domestic own use, they also offered on how to change the engine of the motor support structure, it seems Both of these are entirely technical staff. Mr. Das Bass ladder like eyelid ad hoc division of our total Comrade Chen Zhili, a look will be remembered, and later we went to the United States, met again. PW1216, formerly J52, later renamed the PW1212, after the installation of the afterburner PW1216, is a pure jet engine, fanless, if used instead of the F-7M turbojet 7B, in addition to the price (for the first time purchase fee) outside the , are good, in fact, the whole life cost is not expensive. Afterburning thrust can be 20% larger, the largest state oil Yak can be 12% smaller, in addition to a longer outer dimensions are 7B turbojet within the envelope, but also slightly lighter weight, smaller air flow, engine life greatly improved, available at 2000-4000 hours. But if for the "Sabre" Ⅱ, compared with the F-404, of course inferior, mainly small thrust a big slice, fuel consumption than the F404 big, PW1216 thrust-weight ratio is only 6.6. Thus, we must look at how to balance the relationship between performance and price, because the Cape. Hui said PW1216 price only 1.4 million, including the afterburner Simplified 200,000, 600,000 dollars cheaper than the F404. Of course, these analyzes, we are ordinary. Hui guests can not stand, we can only try to figure out the compatibility technically, for "saber" Ⅱ on the choice of whether or not the problem, the first is the old bus knock plate, followed by U.S. companies responsible for the feasibility study, as the F - 7M on the use, from design to see is like, the fundamental problem is too expensive. Das bass line ladder back to the states, to continue to fight for the PW1216 named "Sabre" Ⅱ project to do the work, in October 1986, they worked to prepare calculations empty, open space combat radius of a typical mission profile to CATIC to cross the aircraft parameters . CATIC but little interest in this engine, - aspect is the end-user is not interested, but it is also important CATIC Investment; August 20 in Beijing, Sun Zhaoqing Secretary met with Pratt & Whitney guests, bass ladder Das on Sun said the development of the engine change afterburner budget to 50 million dollars, which the United States Navy to provide 10 million, Pratt & Whitney himself invested 5 million, and the remaining 35 million unfunded also hope that by the Chinese commitment. Secretary said that this matter requires the two sides have positive job, so you must consider the interests of China a politely refused, and 35 million dollars, it is not a trivial matter, Pratt & Whitney outset opened his big mouth .
◆ ace can not be lost, "saber" Ⅱ project without losing the initiative, is our participation in the premise of the program. Around this point, we even do a pre-pad to finance part of the preparation of our Boeing F-7C-type aircraft development continued in hair, coordinating proofing has begun. Early September 1986, the Palestinian side has not yet decided. They are said internally only by the Grumman a feasibility study or to engage Boeing and Grumman two out differences, but also involve an increase in costs, due to trouble handed over to the Prime Minister a report, the Prime Minister had a chance to approval. There has been news that Grumman is stepping up activities to persuade Boeing Sheba parties withdraw from the competition, or by the U.S. government to put pressure on Boeing. From the analysis of the situation by Grumman to do a feasibility study on the possibility of very large.
To this end, September 4, 1986, Mo Pakistani minister personally to Secretary of State for Defence Production Mustafa wrote formally to express to him by the two U.S. companies as "saber" Ⅱ feasibility study decision is wise. With a copy of this letter will be Pakistani air chief Jamal. CATIC Comrade Hu Zhilin Baku office on September 7 and Jamal Mustafa sent the letter there. Mustafa met with Hu Zhilin spot. Mu on nonsense: "Sabre" Ⅱ final decision rests with me, Mr. Mo's letter I have read, I will give him a reply, suggested that we have two companies, mainly financial problems, the original set is one's money, and now two to use, is not enough, we have only two million yuan, but the two should be 1.5 million yuan, an Air Force tend Grumman, Boeing while doing a feasibility study if only to give him 500,000 yuan, while the This should not have this inequality difference. AVIC skills to convince Boeing only 500,000 yuan to do it? You know, the feasibility study is based Air Force Israeli-Palestinian, Israeli-Palestinian Ministry of Defence after the production-based. I myself and Defense Department selected two parties have found is correct, but the Air Force requirement to do a feasibility study Grumman. Pakistan's cards on the case, while we strive to do two, one should be prepared to do just Grumman one. In view of this situation, the Minister Mok internal instructions, in a collaboration with Grumman, our trump card can not be lost. What is the ace can not lose? Cooperation is necessary to make trading, ace and can not be lost, how not to lose it? In a complex environment of international cooperation, we do lack of experience. After all, this is the first time to engage in military aircraft and superpower cooperation Yeah! 86 years on September 7, I drafted a negotiation plan outline, analysis of the "Sabre" Ⅱ several possible future cooperation, especially cooperation occurs only Grumman a case of our approach, negotiation strategies and principle, proposed the "trump card" is defined and how to maintain without losing approach. Outline by Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu, Yangbao Shu and other leaders agree, by the written report submitted to the Ministry of Comrade Chen Jinyan foreign military leadership team. The so-called ace, that is, the development of our own modified F-7 aircraft control over exports and competitiveness, lost control of the ace that means that the United States fall into the hands of the Pakistan Air Force aircraft company or. So indeed lost or not lost our life-threatening event. In order to prevent not lost, I proposed countermeasures are two big pieces, one step up the development of our own F-7C aircraft, go ahead, if necessary, push it out first international market; Second, efforts to maintain cooperation with the US-Pakistan our critical design information does not fall into the hands of the United States, have withstood the pressure of US-Pakistan's determination rather do not "saber" Ⅱ project, we can not provide the key design information. Then, a working group led by Minister Mok to Chengdu extended stay on the implementation of large civilian approach. To the plant soon, September 11 Mo minister personally to see the design of the F-7C and J -7 Ⅱ type machine is designed to change the progress of work. Mo spot again, and accompanied by Minister Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu and I talked once only and Grumman cooperation, we can not lose ace, as long as there is a glimmer of hope, we must strive for cooperation with Boeing. Boeing Military Aircraft Company president Gu Xuan Mao and his party on September 16 in Chengdu, prior Mo Minister instructed to fully let him see and discuss face to face with his "saber" Ⅱ of cooperation. Mr. Gu to Beijing, first deputy minister Ho sandwiches, Zhang Jinbo officer, etc. and talk to him again. Ancient conversation was frank and sincere. He said: by the Palestinian side to Boeing 500,000 yuan dollars doing feasibility studies, are unequal, Boeing can not do that if the Palestinian side of the 2 million divided between Grumman and Boeing, two each 1 million, you can do, if two each to 500,000, it can dry. Vice Foreign Minister He said China always support Boeing dry, such as the 1.5 million Palestinians to Grumman, only to Boeing 500 000, then another by the Chinese side to Boeing 1000000, okay? Gu said: This is not OK, first, the U.S. government will not approve the second bar would you not? The reason why Boeing intends to engage in "saber" Ⅱ project? The reason is you can and CATIC cooperation. But Boeing also feel much oil do this project, is China's airframe, engine avionics other companies in the United States, Boeing just the interface to work. If the Palestinian side with Grumman cooperation, which X-29's forward fuselage must be expensive, this is the Palestinian side did not know, to try to let the Palestinians know.
To improve the body's life more difficult, can be designed by the Chinese side, Boeing assist and engage in life test. Mr. Mao Xuan Gu after they come to Chengdu, the 17th into the factory, this day happens to be holidays. To talk with us immediately after the "saber" Ⅱ technical problems. It seems entirely an ancient Mao Xuan born architect, president of the fatigue life from his body, the body material and the load spectrum talked, talked until flutter, plug-in effects engine selection, intake match, radar Selection. Radar cover the pitot tube, wind tunnel tests, the weapon of choice, the dashboard layout, etc., constantly questions and comments. Afternoon, MO Minister factory met his old president, also participated in several of our people, in addition to "saber" Ⅱ, but also talk about the F-8 Ⅱ modified avionics thing. Night by a wide Mo ministers and governor Jiang China fete them to come forward. Looking for dinner before the governor Jiang Cheng Fei Mo minister talked about cooperation with foreign civil aircraft production of small problems, the next day guests visited the Boeing production line and arrange sightseeing near Chengdu. CATIC Victor Fan comrades went to Pakistan after the event once again, back to Beijing in late September. In late October, the U.S. Emerson company come about APG-69 radar issue. ◆ restrictive policies in the United States throws Grumman interference, "saber" Ⅱ project where the nose assembly problems due to delays in coordination Pakistan officials to China, the Chinese side stated its position. Through contacts with the U.S. military attaches, "saber" Ⅱ project a turning October 15, 1986, Grumman International president Manuel Hacker Space Programme Assistant Chief of Staff for Pakistan and the Pakistani Defence Major General Farooq Department Production Department sent a telex Marek Brigadier General, expressed his "saber" Ⅱ protracted great dissatisfaction, threatened Grumman has prepared the technical team will be disbanded if the Palestinians decide two companies at the same time as feasible research, Turkoglu goalkeeper no choice but to withdraw from the competition. With a copy of this telex CATIC New York office. October 29, Pakistani Secretary of State for Defence Production Minister Mustafa give Mo a letter from the Ministry of Defence said that Pakistan was in favor of two U.S. companies for feasibility studies, but recently learned from the U.S. authorities, they can not approve. " Sabre "Ⅱ head assembled in China proposal, the nose must be developed in the United States or Pakistan. This means that only the opportunity Grumman's proposal was approved by the United States. This of course is a serious matter. Boeing positive activities within the United States, this time has been approved by the U.S. government can participate in the "Sabre" Ⅱ feasibility study (originally approved only one cell), and find out the government does not oppose the two competing fairly. Now a developed place restrictions nose, Boeing was forced to change the division of labor programs this way, similar to those programs and Grumman, the Palestinian Ministry of Defence was competition has meaningless. Sun Zhaoqing, accompanied by Secretary of Sri Lanka Air Force Commander to take advantage of access to the opportunity to fly into, personally took Mu letter with us to discuss, through and Xie Hou and other carefully analyzed together, the last name in order to plant the Party Group to report to a formal written opinion to the effect that: Only a co-Grumman is expected, efforts to promote the "Sabre" Ⅱ projects, we are still more good than harm. The future of the "saber" Ⅱ, we will have no right to export independently, so we should soon developed its own F-7 on both sides of the inlet export-oriented successor to the price advantage to win. Future cooperation with Grumman, we should ensure that the head of the body of information and the whole machine of F-7 data, and not to offer Georgia, prevent to get rid of us. After the ministry report written comments, MO, ginger, Wang ministers agree to our reports. The remaining question is how future cooperation with the Grumman expand both the work and struggle. This change in the U.S. government, and later clarified. Originally the U.S. government for "saber" Ⅱ restriction only three, one aerial refueling can not give the Palestinian side, the second is the engine performance data can not give China the third is not to the avionics
Country, does not give performance data. Later Grumman out of a move, the government said that the Chinese people should "Sabre" Ⅱ head data take to change F 8 Ⅱ, so the U.S. Department of Defense authoritative verbal restriction that only in the United States developed the nose. Thus, Grumman's behavior is very annoying. December 7, 1986, the Palestinian Ministry of Defence State Secretary Mustafa himself with Pakistani empty "Sabre" Ⅱ competent Colonel Salim's visit, I hope to meet directly with the Mozambican minister, in order to eliminate misunderstanding, and seek understanding, Mu considered This correspondence or through someone else than to convey better. Mustafa evening Victor Fan individually and exchanged views on the 8th morning Mu Wu lawsuit with Salim and Embassy official and Liu Guomin, Mao Dehua, Victor Fan, Chen Jinyan, cattle new church meeting. Afternoon, Mo Mu and his entourage met with the Minister. Mustafa said: Over the past two U.S. companies to engage in advocating Defence feasibility study, by comparison and competition, Pakistan China alike. If Boeing uses all the body's China program, directly beneficial to China, on the Palestinian side also indirectly favor. Now with the U.S. Defense Advanced lawsuit staff meeting noted that the U.S. government has been adamant that it would not approve the plan developed by the nose by the Chinese, so that although the United States government which company I quit doing feasibility studies, also approved Boeing Companies can participate in the study, but in fact tend to Grumman. Grumman started early, technically, politically months of work has been done to convince the U.S. government agreed to engage in "saber" Ⅱ played a role, but also the experience of fighter aircraft, while Boeing hands later, as Grumman work do more and fine. Now two of the program has been basically quite similar, there is no demonstrated need two. Pakistan has always insisted on the grid an empty study and feasibility study by the Air Force is responsible, together with statements such as two competing Grumman will exit, so Mike and I agree with the Air Force Department of Defense has opinions. We Liu Guomin, MO ministers have said: Even if two companies plan developed by the United States and its nose, but the aircraft performance, cost, schedule, cooperation and so will not the same. We are concerned that only one out feasibility studies, he will be constrained and monopoly, especially Grumman and its lack of cooperation in good faith. So do we advocate two feasibility studies. We support to engage in "saber" Ⅱ project, want it to succeed, do not want it to die. But success will depend on Pakistan's sincere US tripartite cooperation between China and the U.S. is particularly important whether working well together. We are two American companies no intimacy problems, but Boeing recognizes the fact that the "saber" Ⅱ is changed on the F-7M, the best understanding of the Chinese F-7M, there are F-7M design data, so although Boeing hands nights However, Boeing's F-7M program to meet the practical, the two sides can cooperate better and more realistic. The Chinese do not seem to intervene Grumman cooperation can make a "saber" Ⅱ aircraft, we are also concerned about cooperation with the Grumman not learn what technology, but only to provide information on a large number of F-7M responsibility, which in our policy is also not allowed. Mustafa concluded by saying that he believes the two American companies to engage in a feasibility study of a company is not restricted, is good. However, if the two companies competing for it, procrastination, will play the new changes, will make "saber" Ⅱ project died. Because some people would oppose the United States to engage in "saber" Ⅱ, the U.S. government's restrictions now immutable, that is, only the consent of the engine can be modified fuselage Chinese side, the other work must be carried out in the United States and Pakistan, is merely a result of the transfer of technology Palestinian side. Although we do not accept these views, but the U.S. government on the feasibility study did not consider China to attend. This moment, the project is more important to survive as long as the project exists, learned some of the specific issues, including technical problems always have the opportunity to handle. Mo Minister Mu stressed: Pakistan must US tripartite cooperation is good, the Palestinian side is the master, Sino-US two parties engage in technology, the United States overall responsibility, the Chinese also have certain responsibilities. Engage aircraft is a very complex system engineering, there is no Chinese technical experts to participate in feasibility studies, to participate in research programs and nose total retrofit, is not enough, if the two sides do not meet, just do the data passing through Pakistani intermediaries, it is not acceptable. If the Chinese know nothing about, only on the U.S. request for information, but also the inequality, the United States did not have the power to force data. We and Pakistan are friendly and cooperative relations with the U.S., it is a contractual relationship, we choose which U.S. companies, not only from the Chinese interests, but also from
Projects can engage successfully departure. Boeing's technical cooperation with a good attitude, he hoped China to work together, even in the United States to engage in the nose, but also the Chinese side to participate in, and then for us Grumman blockade, we Deputy Minister to the United States wanted to see, Grumman do not even plan to introduce, Sun CEO to Grumman, they are also very cool reception. Grumman this attitude makes us worried that this project may cooperate well. Halfway. Even if the timing of future production head in Pakistan manufacturing, Grumman supports much sincerity, we have doubts, but also for the Palestinian side friends worried. To stay here, we must first clarify the tripartite relationship, within the scope permitted by the policy, to equality, for us, not only the obligation no right, the U.S. government has policies that limit, the Chinese government has a policy, this policy is not Liu National President and I can be, because I am not just give you information on the Palestinian side but to the United States, we are able to give non-binding U.S. information? The U.S. wants our information, only to create "Sabre" Ⅱ plane? Minister Mok these words are very thorough. 9 at noon, Deputy Prime Minister and Defense Minister Zhang Aiping met and entertained Mustafa, said: Mozambican Minister's opinion on behalf of the Chinese Government. 10, 2009, Mustafa and his entourage Victor Fan, cattle, accompanied by New Tang arrived in Chengdu, Dec. 11 into the plant, and I Yang, Wang, Chen, vice president, etc. received them, try to get them to see aspects of our aircraft in the CP work, including on the spot by the computer to draw both sides of the inlet plane view full-size metal prototype aircraft models with hair, and looked aircraft production line, set the whole machine Shou fatigue testing. After talks in Beijing, Mustafa feel this project is relatively difficult. To Chengdu to look, touch the real thing, with the perceptual knowledge, he knew China's attitude and sincerity of the project, China has seen a lot of work, it can rely on; know the need for collaborative research design and exchange the necessary information and data, it is realistic, and it is reasonable, the Chinese side is fully justified. In conversation, he said to go back to continue to do the work. Before leaving Beijing, Liu Guomin go off at the airport, and handed him a written letter Minister Mok, shows once again that our attitudes and encourage him not to make the project easy to blow off. December 19, the U.S. Secretary personally met with military attaches (Major General), and asked him about the "Sabre" project head question, what is the Government's views, or opinions Grumman, why want to limit our technical staff contact nose? The Admiral Tan, involving high-tech outside, should be able to touch the nose structure does not involve high technology. At the end, I met with officials of the United States Department of Defense United States for people, the United States said that due to the project yet, there has been no restrictions on the Chinese side. About the F404 engine problems, because China has not yet formally apply to the United States to introduce, even to the United States also does not necessarily have to. These words are alive. Seen from some issues Grumman mischief, of course, there are the U.S. government who intends to ambiguities.
◆ Also a milestone in China is gradually realized, "saber" Ⅱ key factor in the success of the project after the Grumman there had been significant changes in the attitude is super -7 1987 an important year in the history of development. New Year's Day, January 5, Victor Fan comrades from Beijing phoned me and said, Grumman Wang Chengdong January 7 to Beijing, Pellet Huck other three people on the 9th to Beijing, Pakistan Major General Defense 3 15 to Beijing, requires tripartite talks held in Beijing. "Sabre" Ⅱ development into a decisive joints. I took Chen Jinyan, Qiu Puda, Wang Yue Xin, Liu immediately flew to Beijing four trees. Prior to this, the Palestinian Ministry of Defence State Secretary Mustafa finish since the Beijing talks returned to Pakistan Grumman International Department Mr. Behring has been waiting for him in Pakistan. Mu on 20 December 1986 conveyed to the Chinese side Behring said China believes that no intent Grumman and the Chinese side, unwilling to let the Chinese people to participate in the feasibility study, the Chinese are reluctant to provide confidential information relating to the work, therefore considered difficult to cooperate with Grumman. Behring feelings
To enormous pressure, the referrals to the company, the spot to Pakistan vowed to cooperate with China is good, and wrote a written guarantee. 22 Grumman chairman Bill Worth to us Mo Wenxiang Minister sent a letter. In CATIC Vice President Liu Guomin on 2 January 1987 in Pakistan after meeting with Mustafa, Mu also on January 3 sent a letter to the Minister of Mozambique. Two letters Grumman have expressed the attitude of China-US cooperation on a big change.
Grumman welcomed the Chinese government in the United States to participate within the limits of feasibility studies, the Chinese engineers can go to New York to participate in the "Sabre" Ⅱ project evaluation, liaison engineer stationed mutual consent, agreed to provide China with the U.S. government restrictions prior permission body about data, even in the United States outside the limits but the Chinese government needed Grumman will also work to apply for the U.S. government approved the payment and so on. Mustafa CMB America three to Liu Guomin proposal before the meeting in Beijing in mid-January, Yin Gelu door eager to work with China to eliminate misunderstandings Grumman has realized that no unreserved support the Chinese side unilaterally without may be carried out smoothly, "saber" Ⅱ feasibility study, and to get China's support unless it honest. Mu hope that through tripartite meeting, so Grumman have the opportunity to explain their position, such as the tripartite consensus can be reached, then signed an agreement to start work, and Grumman somewhat constrained. About The Boeing Company, the Mu once again made it clear that one has been identified by the Grumman for feasibility studies, but taking into account China's proposal, have been identified in January invited Boeing visit to Pakistan, pending completion of the feasibility study, please attend Boeing prototype development of the bid. Tripartite talks in Beijing, is in this context of rapidly and specifically excludes Boeing to participate in competitive, cooperative attitude Grumman has made significant changes. January 8, we met at the office Sunzong prepare. After preparing the case again made a report to the Vice Minister Jiang, Jiang consent of the Minister. Afternoon by Victor Fan, Niu Tong and Wang Chengdong talk first with my trio. We first inquire about his attitude, and asked the king, why Grumman in December 1985 came, stopped coming and never heard from again? Not long ago, President Manuel Grumman International Huck wrote to the Palestinian side, even accusing CATIC create confusion is how the matter? Wang Chengdong explained that a misunderstanding between us, Grumman Boeing should have as much as a few times, but said the Palestinian side, and I talked about it, and Chinese people do not have to talk. I myself think things are not dragged down CATIC issue. Then Wang Chengdong disclose Pellet Huck's personal circumstances, said Pei F-14 was originally the chief architect of the company's patriarch, technically strong, but not good at communication, has now been president of the International Department of the seat back down, remain with the company as a consultant, manager "saber" Ⅱ project and is technically responsible for the company chairman Bill Worth trusted him. This old man a talk about technology in high spirits, and you see him, say a few encouraging words, say a few good words, he would their lives. In addition, the company decided to let Roemer when the "saber" Ⅱ project manager, he was originally a third F-14 handle technically, but also X-29 demonstrator project manager. The original "saber" Ⅱ project manager Ken Nifu, in October 1985 came to Chengdu, although he is very capable, but not good contacts, it replaced, the king said, tomorrow Pellet Huck, Romer, Behring 3 people diverted to Tokyo to Beijing. Behring is the project manager of the International Department, was originally a pilot Air Force colonel, studied aerodynamics, negotiated the project, put all the work transferred to Romer tube. Victor Fan went on to say, your chairman Bill Worth a letter to the Minister of Mozambique, has been seen, in which he spoke of the cooperative attitude and Pellet Huck's letter is completely different. Wang Chengdong immediately reported Gong said Bill Worth's letter, I was Wang Chengdong drafted. Added that the U.S. government had said, in the feasibility study, some limitations may have changed, gradually come. Grumman also with the Chinese that some "saber" Ⅱ outside the co-production, such as the "Gulf Stream" co-production aircraft. Lee asked the king, Manuel Hacker them three talks in Beijing have any plans? The king answered and said, mainly two things, first between the two sides talk TAA (Technical Assistance Agreement), to signing the word; second is how to arrange Chengdu talk about technical solutions. Text TAA U.S. State Department has approved in principle, the two sides of this discussion to modify a
Under the Defense Ministry reported on it. Lee chase down asked Bill Worth letter to Minister assured points Mo, has the U.S. government approved? The king answered and said, We have and Washington talked privately, or to cooperate with China, which is engaged in the project does not go. So our approach is to co-operate in order to do the article. 85 years in December made no later to Beijing, because there is no me and you like people to Latin America. Able to talk to me and our chairman of the board, while Manuel Hacker is an old naive, in addition to technology, other things are simple. Grumman policies to the letter, Chairman shall prevail. Lee went on to say that you overemphasize the U.S. government restrictions Grumman what exactly is the plan, let us know, you really want to cooperate with us? Pellet Huck's letter said CATIC pounded the chaos, is not the case, so to say, people hurt feelings, is not conducive to cooperation, and now chairman of a letter, we appreciate more, the atmosphere is not the same, it should be the starting point and establish good relations of cooperation. "Sabre" Ⅱ is changed on the F-7M, no CATIC and CAC cooperation Grumman skill you can not do it again big is out. You talk about this, we will build you a letter, chairman of the principles specific, exactly what the U.S. government restrictions make it clear. As far as I know, the U.S. government is only one restriction that prohibits the Chinese release the engine and avionics, and your chairman's letter also said that the Chinese side if the request is beyond the limit, Turkoglu goalkeeper trying to fight. Wang Chengdong explained that the Government of the "Sabre" Ⅱ restriction is expressly provided for, to see it clearly, and with the mouth say, prone to misunderstanding. The next day, January 9, they met with Wang Chengdong Sunzong me and Niu Tong present. Sun said that in addition to more than a year do not come Grumman, heard nothing, I went to America for the Sun will not be covered, etc. unfriendly acts, Miller says Boeing's collaborative approach is reasonable, often told me informed, in line with international cooperation practice, by contrast, said Ming Gelu doors bad co bad deal. Grumman now willing to change, which requires practical action to prove the job. Pakistan Mustafa talk with your view of the past, but also gives us the top back. Wang said the government restrictions on the Palestinian side a schematic through other objective reasons. Finally Sun said to the king, you Pellet Hack other three men, and I do not necessarily see them. Sun King know the weight, anxious to say, you have to see, you must see. ◆ tripartite negotiations started in the elimination of the "misunderstanding", the Grumman began a serious discussion with me, "saber" Ⅱ feasibility of the program. Driven by a common, Grumman showed great "friendly" in doing preparatory work, up to 14 days before and after the Beijing CMB America tripartite "Sabre" Ⅱ formal opening of negotiations. January 10, 1987 in the negotiations between the Ministry of Aviation Industry, the first between us and the United States began negotiations on Grumman. U.S. Grumman Aerospace Corporation, which translated from the profane, listen to their formal pronunciation, shall be translated Grammel, in order not changed from the vulgar. Negotiations with the United States to attend Pellet Huck, Belin, Romer, Wang Chengdong; we attended by CATIC Sun Zhaoqing, Victor Fan, NIU Xin Tong; military Secretary Ma Chenglin, Zhu Rong Zhang; CAC I, Chen Jinyan, Qiu Puda, Wang Yue Xin, Liu trees. Pellet Huck introduces Georgia personnel. He introduced himself, and I have been working for 45 years Grumman, last October I turned 65 years old, retired president of the International Department of the company improperly, but Chairman Bill Mr. Wurth leave me to continue working, grasping "saber" Ⅱ. He went on to say, Mr. Behring is a retired U.S. Air Force colonel, there are thousands of flight hours fighter pilot ever visited China, the International Department transferred Ruge Lu door company after working the past two years mainly in Washington as "saber" Ⅱ project to the government to do the work. Some people think that the United States Government in the original Palestinian side to sell the aircraft on the line, do not engage in "saber" Ⅱ, Mr. Behring done a lot of work, so that the U.S. government changed its mind between us and Pakistan, but also to do the work of Behring. Mr. Luo Mo, at Grumman has
Work for 40 years, was the F-14's design manager, the aircraft designer was born and later served as demonstrator X-29 project manager. Recently Bill Mr. Wurth said, "saber" Ⅱ project is very important, "saber" Ⅱ use the F404 engine, in addition to X-29's F404 engine systems, environmental control systems, mechanical systems can be used to "saber" Ⅱ up, "saber "Ⅱ and X-29 will have a lot in common, it was decided to let Mr. Luo Mo to act as" saber "Ⅱ project manager. Pellet Huck then shared his "saber" Ⅱ project view, he said: The most important thing is not to do aircraft design work, I hope in the future be able to work together with Mr. Tu to meet the "saber" Ⅱ requirements . We have a lot of ways to make it with the F-16 almost, I believe we have to put on 7,500 pounds inside the aircraft oil, and put on F404 engine after takeoff weight of 18,000 pounds, a detailed technical indicators talk later, I hope both of us very well cooperation, we own no privacy issue, which the project is very easy, too much distance between our two countries, the U.S. government have restrictions on our pressure is very very large, along with other aircraft company he interference, government Some people advocate the Palestinian side in the purchase F-16, do not develop "Sabre" Ⅱ, confuse things such frustration and disappointment to one by one. Unfortunately, there are many obstacles in addition to Washington, there is bureaucracy, so that things are going very slowly and, in the Chinese also some misunderstanding, so I am willing to discuss directly with you, I hope this can be a big step, I now that this project will be successful, there are two reasons for this: First, the requirements of the Palestinian side, he wants 150 aircraft, and equipment to be installed is relatively common, easy to meet; Second, Washington has a good change. Washington is changing every day, such as technology transfer, had Emerson's APG-69 radar is very strict export restrictions, and now want to change Chinese F-8, Washington agreed that the radar is unlikely to export restrictions, while two years ago give the Chinese F-8 change is unacceptable, and now changed, the door opened. Pellet Huck said excitedly: This aircraft started we do not know, to get the information you post through our research, that can be changed out. I was engaged in technology, today there is no time, you can come and talk about technology engineer, not a slide show, but against the drawings and talk. Pakistan requires five months time, "saber" Ⅱ feasibility study, we believe that the study began six weeks after the first review will be conducted. Want me to participate in this project, such as the design of the aircraft not the best, I would not dry. Then his words, Sun Zhaoqing president encouraged him to say: You put it very well, is a technician, I am willing to listen. I understand what you mean, the first Sino-US relations have become increasingly forward, this project benefit, without which one, everything is without foundation. In turn, I believe this project is successful, will contribute to the development of China-US Friendship. Second, Grumman spacious indeed to promote the project a lot of work, but other companies do not Grumman positive, I hope you in the future to continue to promote, not only in Washington, but also in China also true. Third, we should "saber" Ⅱ do succeed, the key is to work closely together tripartite CMB America, the most important thing is that we should pay close cooperation between the two sides technically, and fly into the company's engineers. We should work together to come up with the world of competitive aircraft, since many of its competitors, such as the F-20, F-16, etc., it must be done well. In particular, I hear you say no secrets for us, and we are also open to you. Pellet Huck explained that I say here that mutual cooperation is not confidential, but be careful. For example you want to see the engine engineers, we want to see a specific place for you, or go F/A-18 or see X-29, or look at the drawings to see the aircraft is how big flap open, but go, The watch can not be unlimited. Behring asked the Palestinian side of the "Sabre" Ⅱ production 150 have any plans for the future? The U.S. government asked me, other countries will have to "saber" Ⅱ do? Such as Thailand, have bought the F-16, but also to buy Chinese aircraft, because the United States A-4, A-7, the Thai inappropriate. Another example of Algeria, will have to "saber" Ⅱ do? I could not answer. Sunzong replied, "saber" Ⅱ The future is bright, the current situation, a thousand miles begins with one step, first feasibility study improve it. This time you come, the Palestinian side also came a few days, the three parties together should solve two problems, one is what is technically the overall idea; Secondly, it is good to talk about the tripartite partnership, we can not do unpaid work .
Pellet Huck rushing said that Pakistan knew up to them to pay to the Chinese side, between you and us, only the TAA, the relationship between the money does not occur. Sun disagrees and says that Pakistan pays to do a feasibility study commissioned by Grumman, you also come to us, we are sub-contractor status, the money we want you to meet, or technical work and economic relations separated, complicated relationship, I think there should be economic relations TAA. Beilin explained that within the TAA stated the economy by the Palestinian side has to pay directly addressed, if Grumman weapons to happen with China economic relations of cooperation, on the need to ratify the COCOM, and we should be very careful. At the manufacturing stage will be sub-contractor relationship, but at the feasibility study stage, do not have to. Sun to accept that we can discuss later, to find a way acceptable to everyone. 10 afternoon, started by Pellet Huck talk about his vision for technology solutions. Pellet said Huck: Pakistan want urgent, so development work faster, maximize the use of existing technologies. Pakistan on the F-16 was impressed, including performance, reliability, maintainability, the problem is the price. We should try to apply the F-16 equipment, such as an entire fire control system. Engine F404, 18000 lbf of; future it wants to develop into 20,000 pounds thrust. Engine aircraft used in the form of a large opening into the lower, rear fuselage should be redesigned, not before and after the separation, the Palestinian side also requires fitted in the rear fuselage tail tail hook. Machine oil to meet our 5700 pounds, can be X-29's environmental control system, with the same F-20 Vision canopy, F-5 with nose gear wheel steering mechanism. Head to pretend to be under APG-66 radar antenna; cockpit arrangement similar to the F-16 as much as possible. Both sides of the intake air inlet lip section at the largest part of the cockpit, the thickness of the boundary layer lined least 2 inches, Pakistan has decided to use a double-barreled 23-mm guns, is placed in the bottom of the fuselage. Expected takeoff weight 18,810 lbs. Moving on, Huck Pellet submitted to us that they drafted five months of the feasibility study scheme of arrangement, we submitted to him on the drafting of the U.S. TAA modify views and discuss the agreed day after tomorrow Monday. Evening, Sunzong American guests came forward to dinner.
◆ dispute with Grumman Grumman in cooperation with us on the erect ridge, in the final analysis, is the U.S. policy toward China in trouble with Grumman partnership will be, than they are of the "saber" Ⅱ technical solutions idea how much more important. Good to talk about partnership, technical solutions are the future how to do the work to do, because what we can refer to what extent the work into the United States, our end is not great. Saturday afternoon we submitted to the TAA Grumman amendments, on the degree of incorporation of our proposal are more general, evening Sunzong invite them to dinner, the atmosphere is warm, we found them on our amendments do not care. Sunday let Grumman guests to explore our own deliberations, can improve our tone, our participation into more specific. Also technically should be directed Pellet Hack insightful idea to make a few comments, the purpose is to improve our own weight, forcing the United States was to leave us not. Monday, 12, the two sides began to talk TAA. Namely the so-called TAA Technical Assistance Agreement, the United States federal regulations by the State Department arms control office management in one of the two main protocols (the other is manufacturing license agreement), they are required to be specific legal provisions. To cooperate with Americans on the arms deal, now only with his approach, because this in itself is unreasonable. "Sabre" Ⅱ feasibility study, not to Americans what our technical assistance, the recipient object is Pakistan, but mainly we want to provide technical assistance to the Americans an F-7M design data and empirical knowledge. But to mess "Sabre" Ⅱ project, you must have asked of Him, must obtain the approval of the U.S. government, what else can I do? TAA behind with SOW that job description, TAA itself is bilateral relations and legal provisions, the specific work required by the SOW. The two parties began negotiations on Grumman's Mr. Behring TAA text to talk about this hard-won, it has been approved by the Office of the State Council arms control, this time we negotiate modifications, but also approval. 1985 Palestinian side that "Sabre" Ⅱ tenders after Grumman was feasible, they begin the event, then no one in Washington
Support projects, on the contrary, many aircraft companies are opposed to this project and the Air Force, influence the government. Behring time in more than a year I met a lot of people up and down to do the work, so they turn to support this project, which includes the relevant departments under the State Council, and the National Security Council, Department of Defense, Air Force, Navy. Because "Sabre" Ⅱ must purchase avionics is the Air Force control, the engine is controlled by the Navy, and the Navy Grumman itself is controlled, so are required to obtain their support, and some relations also depend Grumman Kenilworth retired admiral, vice president himself came forward to run. 86 January Grumman proposed technical assistance for the Pakistani government and manufacturing license agreement protocol application on March 86 to get the approval of the State Council Office of Arms Control, 86 June and apply for technical assistance CATIC Agreement was approved in August 1986, which established the basis for negotiations in China. August to December this time, Grumman has been waiting for access to China, but said the Palestinian side can not go now until December Mr. Mustafa to China after Pakistan had just visited China as soon as possible to Grumman. Behring went on to say, this TAA, some of which provision is essential to the law, some provisions are needed both of us to work together. Victor Fan said, we attach great importance TAA, I hope both sides can come together to study seriously modified. Pellet Huck said hastily, TAA is an approved document in principle, it is best not to change or less changed, and although the TAA SOW part, but SOW below can be changed. Wang Chengdong added, SOW without approval, as long as the record can be. Our focus is to send as many as possible are able to participate in the "saber" Ⅱ feasibility study various aspects of the work, as little as possible to the Grumman F-7M provide information, in particular information on overall performance, so not only master the "saber" Ⅱ the overall situation, but also to avoid future may be abandoned by Grumman. Therefore, they said, from a technical perspective, the entire aircraft as a whole, can not you Grumman nose behind closed doors, with my rear fuselage and empennage unrelated machines, that the whole machine aerodynamic design, exterior design, weight center of gravity, load intensity, life, structures and systems work how do? Pellet Huck had to admit, to design, you must know the whole machine data, the nose is only a partial, but the government does not agree with your participation in the design of the nose, we can not write in the text, whether in the actual work twists and turns? For our amendments, Beilin said: engines and avionics performance review, you can not participate in all of the machine you also can not participate in the demonstration. Victor Fan retorted, aerodynamic layout and the whole machine weight center of gravity of course we want to participate. Mo Fan Minister Victor cite a letter to the Palestinian side, if only to the United States to the Chinese side is responsible for providing information on the F-7M, without letting the whole machine including the forward fuselage to participate in the design argument, the Chinese government will not approve the project. Pellet Huck an anxious, complained: I knew you still this attitude, I sit at home and do not have to waste time to come here. Victor Fan said that we had never asked you to engines and radar performance data. Pellet Fishing Huck said, until the "saber" Ⅱ aircraft came out, the world will be the aircraft, when the current data will be restricted to you. I said, now we talk about the feasibility study stage it. Perry said that the entire aircraft can be divided into many sections, can be treated separately, such as engines, avionics, we will give the dimensions of the front and rear fuselage docking between the points of the force, we will give the. I said that the aircraft fuselage is a complete shape, should be smooth flow line, we can not engage in a section. As an aircraft program is to come up with a complete solution, my view is that we both have to sit together and do the work, information exchange alone is not enough. Chen Jinyan said, you want me ready to give you the information, but I do not know how the overall requirements, how can I prepare? After a burst melee, Behring was forced to be honest: in fact the U.S. government is not particularly concerned about the engine, avionics confidentiality, and the most concerned about is the "saber" Ⅱ such aircraft uncontrollable, if in 2012, the plane made out
Come, China to give other countries, the United States can not control how to do? Let the Palestinian side forward fuselage manufacturing, China can immediately get, so now head of exterior design data can not give you. Unless to 1992 or after 1993, China will produce "saber" Ⅱ, the U.S. government is not restricted. I am a 93 years? Yankees probably felt that the strength of the Chinese Air Force is afraid of premature powerful, involving the balance of power with Taiwan issue. To change the atmosphere of the talks, the next day to continue negotiations, we look first to speak from a technical breakthrough. The day before yesterday, we Pellet technical solution Huck caught out five issues by Chen Jinyan spoke attack him. First, the "saber" Ⅱ and then how to change, it is impossible to reach the level of the F-16, we consider to be realistic, and F-16 can not be compared. Two is a normal takeoff weight plus too big, so they performance estimates, overly optimistic, and add too much weight, the body should generally strengthened, involving a large range. Third, the shape of the nose and sides of the relationship between intake, big head back so that the body shape inward, is not desirable. Fourth, the way the engine mounting hole, Tom can not, put down there is a ground clearance problem. Fifth, the machine oil is not possible to achieve a 5700 lbs. Pellet Huck listens, interest came, again and again said, you talk about the problem, very interesting, very worthy of attention. Our future is to study together, rather than specific design together Imagine it into. He then gushed talk technology came. Finally, he said, I hope "Sabre" Ⅱ can reach F-16, you can deal with the "MiG" -29, the key is how the two sides cooperate in good faith, persevere, achieve their goals. Our government will be more open. My parents are Russian, and I have done in the Grumman 45 years, our company has grown a good design team, F-14 aircraft under contract after 23 months came out. And "saber" Ⅱ just say 20 months, I was old, I retired, I do not want to do this project, how much benefit just want to promote it, Grumman to get this project, their practice is to engage does not come out, you get this project in the aircraft, their practice, and they did not come out, we must co-operation, could not have done it. Victor Fan grasp this idea went on to say, I applaud Mr. Pellet Haq said, the two sides work together to engage in, who can do without. Pellet Hack flat under the gas, the morning I went to the embassy to listen to the views of Renault generals, he listened to my presentation, very interested, he stressed that reminds us in the U.S. government's restrictions, can not go too far, because the "saber" Ⅱ project was carried out within the business relationship, unlike the "Peace Pearl" project is an intergovernmental FMS channels can be controlled. (Implying, "saber" Ⅱ is a business channel, fear losing control.) Has now been decided that the "saber" Ⅱ project review, the Air Force sent representatives to attend. This is not only beneficial, but also dangerous. ◆ finally signed into TAA in and Grumman had some bargaining, finally signed the Sino-US Technical Assistance Agreement. 13 pm to continue negotiations, to turn to the SOW, by our chief negotiator. Grumman draft SOW, the main requirement F-7M our commitment to provide the information obligations, our participation in the work, provided only after the body frame 13 mounted engine modifications, of course we can not accept, and I shared his SOW The amendments, focusing on the feasibility study we want to participate in nine areas of work, Zhang a big mouth: general layout, aerodynamic design, exterior design, inlet design, cockpit layout, weight and balance of the body system arrangement, fire control system and plug, load and stress analysis. Pellet Huck one, and running out of patience, and quickly said, government documents already required, cockpit, inlet, forward fuselage is our job, you can not participate. As for the appearance, at the beginning, you do not need, after necessary, or we can go blow your hair model. Wang Chengdong chimed in, the U.S. government is to keep your nose to participate in the engineering design, can not give shape data.
Victor Fan said, understand that some of you are 13 boxes drawn around SOW is bounded by a plane completely separate, and the whole machine of argument let China take part, we are absolutely unacceptable, only mentioning 9 by Mr. Tu Point working together, the feasibility study will be efficient. Pellet Huck said, this is not what I said is that the U.S. Government. Beilin said, we agree in principle TAA said the two sides should cooperate well, but can not write substantive content, can not be written on paper, but later can give some data. I took it with a smile said, that if they sign an agreement between our two underneath? Behring urgent that can not dry. In fact, yesterday Grumman has their report on the application to the Government and the State Department arms control office to give us a copy of the approval letter, there are also different sides understand the problem, in order to clarify the views of both sides, I asked Behring Road; whether there are aspects that are not Let the Chinese side? Beilin replied: There is 5:00 not touch: a former body shape data; 2, the inlet design; 3, certain aspects of weapons; 4, electronic equipment; 5, the engine characteristics (shape data can be given); 6, air refueling; 7, fatigue spectrum beginning Beilin says 5:00, what negotiate a 7:00, somewhat contradictory, in fact, after two o'clock Arms Control Office of the State Council's approval letter in Robinson added. We understand, do not argue. Pellet appease Huck said, however, we can pick you from time to time to participate in the work of engineers. You put the relevant information brought Jian Qi M, we work together, as do the shape work, research directional stability, arrange the tank, change gear plate. We will also send people to fly into work together. I went out a few questions to Pellet Huck, I said: F-7M original specification is based on the Soviet Union, the Soviet standard design. Now you use the U.S. standard, American standard design head, how coordinated it? This is a very specific, but very complex issue. Second, I changed the rear fuselage how? Just change the engine mounting okay? No, because the center of gravity of the weight of the whole machine, the load has changed, plug things have changed, but also the Pakistani side of the fatigue life requirements, aft fuselage and wing structures which do not follow the changes of the whole machine is not enough to improve . Third, even if you can give some information and data, but rely on the two sides exchanged information on how to do the design work of argumentation? I think both sides have to sit engineers work together, in the demonstration stage, we have sent the Chinese side on the spot decision-making capacity 15 engineers to work with you, that 15 is the least of it. Pellet Huck replied that both of us on the other side of the specifications are not very familiar with the issue you raised is a need to seriously consider the issue, in principle, would not have changed applicable. In the feasibility study stage, we only estimate the work, not the detailed design, some strength, life problem, you can do in stages. As to the 15 engineer, I do not agree to go, according to the information needs of work and with the circumstances. I do F-14 when a total of 2,900 engineers working together, but overall only 30 out of whom 16 to engage the aircraft itself, 14 to engage in avionics and fire control. Shape design usually only three people to do it. About the whole machine weight and balance, but also by you to do, we provide data about the forward fuselage. Continue to talk about the 14th time, Victor Fan is recommended to start talking up the technical work needed, the United States government restrictions aside. He said that Mr. Pellet Huck design experts is authoritative, Mr. Tu Chen is design experts, we are engaged in technology, from the technical talk, easy to talk to. Pellet Huck said: Yes, we busy night last night, very nerve-racking. After listening to Mr. Tu mentioning several aspects of the problem, I understood as to understand how we dry fly, but also to learn technology, which we support, but the key is not to find the government trouble. You have to send people to participate, I do not care how many people to send, concern is the best person to go to school, to go with what information. The question now is how these things become successful, so that we are satisfied. Wang Chengdong said, now we all know, we go all out without the cooperation of the aircraft is not engaged. Do not worry, Turkoglu goalkeeper to what will be given to you. These words clearly show that it is not appropriate to write text, press Pellet Huck's words, that is sweeping some, but Turkoglu
After the door will actually be good cooperation. But we and the Americans first collaboration, they talk count count is still skeptical. Talking back and forth, Grumman finally agreed to my proposal, to be attached to each other mutual TAA behind the list of data canceled, replaced by both engineers discussion and decision. My reason is that since both sides have agreed to cooperate, with the inevitable pull list and much less pull, as put forward a gentleman's agreement. In fact, I was to fight for the future work of the initiative. Because Grumman drafted two copies of the list, giving him a lot, give me a bit of, or give him too, work is needed, with a list of our obligations than rights, there is no list, at least he must have asked of me, and we give him any future, are friendly and action rather than dry obligations. About SOW within the scope of work required us to participate, to take us insist Sunzong come forward and friendly concessions, and finally set at five aspects of the work, the inlet, exterior design, aerodynamic layout, cockpit layout and fire removed, add a other needs, as Turkoglu door header commitment terms, so that left a total of six. There are two purposes, unless we can actually participate Ruge Lu doors more research work, said that the Palestinian side will also be in the feasibility study, we not only supply information only, and our workload is not small, and therefore feasibility study, we have to charge a reasonable fee, and rejected Grumman in the past with the Palestinian side claimed that talk of what to do without the Chinese point of view. In the SOW, we also gain a full participation in demonstration, evaluation, sent right to contact the leader in the United States, where the so-called demonstration includes technical demonstration program, schedule demonstration and development cost and price estimate. About TAA content, through negotiations, finally agreed to our Grumman amendments are: legal terms, should the two countries on the other, including the TAA also subject to Chinese government approval. There are costs, but by the Palestinian side to set payment. Mutual exchange of information, does not mean transfer of the patent, and each retains ownership. The two sides work English version shall prevail, we should also send a cancellation in terms of contributions to the United States. This TAA to reach a memorandum of understanding with China and Pakistan in force at the same time to take effect. This fifth point is that we need to formalize the Palestinian side, "saber" Ⅱ feasibility study has been finally decided by the Grumman made, and promised to pay us by the Palestinian direction research expenses, in addition, the United States also promised TAA cited U.S. legal provisions, the original source of the relevant sections of the United States federal law immediately fax a copy to us. Feasibility study on wind tunnel tests done by our commitment, because the U.S. government approvals that do not involve the wind tunnel test, but the two sides discussed, he also considers it necessary, so to Sun CEO letter to the chairman of the form Grumman made a promise. CATIC and Grumman between TAA, initialed by me and Chen Jinyan, the official text provided by Victor Fan and Behring duo in 87 years on January 23 in Beijing signed.
◆ Major negotiations with Maisuo De greeting sent, Grumman left, Pakistan and China. "Super -7" progress another step forward on January 20 was Manuel Huck wedding anniversary with his wife, he must hurry to go home, so clear in February and then to fly into talk, he ranged TAA signed on January 15 returned to depart the United States. Grumman large with relationships and technical issues have been resolved, the official signature is the responsibility of Behring, so wear go ahead, but also little. January 15 is the Palestinian side the delegation to Beijing the day, I went on behalf of CATIC Beijing Capital International Airport by VIP access to the Palestinian Ministry of Defence specifications production department Maisuo De Major General Salim colonel and Kamla Pakistani air base Colonel Bo summer to his party. Mai Suode is Mustafa's assistant, is authorized to talk about the cooperation. Bo is the Air Force lieutenant colonel in the summer, but the Kamra base is the Defense Production systems are not an Air Force leadership. 16 am Sun Zhaoqing president to come forward with us to the delegation met with the Palestinian side, in addition to three domestic Palestinian people, but its embassies Air Attache Colonel Raza, technical attache Colonel hereby Iraqi family also attended.
Beginning of the meeting. Maisuo De Major first expressed purpose of this trip is to work with China to establish a close working relationship military aircraft come. He said the Pakistani government for "saber" Ⅱ project has been very seriously, State Secretary Mustafa last visit back later, namely the government made a report, these later in a letter to the Minister of Central Mo Wenxiang reflected. Sunzong went on to say that our government also attaches great importance to "saber" Ⅱ project, many things we have to report to the Minister, the Minister reported to the government. "Sabre" Ⅱ project received the support of Pakistani government seems sure to succeed. Although in the past year, encountered many problems, but now basically solved. Our philosophy is: the past so that he passed, primarily look to the future, we would advocate the same time by the two U.S. companies to do a feasibility study, intended to make do a better job. After Pakistan's explanation, MO Minister has agreed to an out, but do Grumman or Boeing, determined by the Palestinian side, the Palestinian side to decide which to do that China will fully support. The Grumman for the first time about how the technical cooperation, is now talked about four days, they talk about the technical solution is only a preliminary idea of lack of time, and they do not know much about the F-7M, me and their engineers to Grumman proposed five issues, Pellet, Mr. Haq has said this back then would seriously be considered. Then discuss the technical work between China and the U.S. is what kind of relationship, whether the focus is on the Chinese side contact nose technology, get some head data. We believe that the Chinese must understand the situation head to work to ensure the aircraft is good. After the two sides discussed, together summed 9 content, should the two sides to work closely together on the design of the aircraft or bad. Pellet Huck must agree to these nine aspects of cooperation is good, but one of four he considered difficult to write on paper, the U.S. government would not approve, so finally decided to use an "other needs" instead, the Chinese side made concessions. Pellet Mr. Haque has repeatedly said to me, Mr. Sun, as long as the government approved a dry start, we can give you some data, you have to believe us, they do not have to write the text. I believe Grumman what it says, we made concessions, hoping friends can understand the Palestinian side, but also hope you can do the work to Grumman, to say the future is arithmetic lattice, as said not to engage in this project do not go. We are not only to be data, but will eventually have to come up with a good cooperation aircraft. Technical work is now fixed relationship between China and TAA provisions have completed the discussion in the afternoon to introduce you in detail. Pellet Mr. Haque trip to very satisfied, he returned to the United States after the Chairman will report. Now you come, we have to discuss the issue between the parties is: 1. Pakistan has been a final decision made by the Grumman a feasibility study? Because Boeing January 19 to go to Pakistan, I am unclear. We Grumman between the TAA, the afternoon to show you, you say can be signed, we will sign. 2. Our relationship with Pakistan how to run? Grumman said that we cooperate technically with the grid, the economy is on a relationship with Pakistan, we work with no economic relationship between Grumman. And we should understand the grid is general contractor, we are sub contractors, technically and economically, we have a relationship with the grid, which is the usual way to the international. But Grumman said to be dealt with separately, we find it difficult. Because the Palestinian side does not know the technical difficulties, we are discussing with the grid after discussions with the Palestinian side also too complicated. Salim chipped asked, which refers to the feasibility study stage, or prototype stage? Sun said, is the feasibility stage. China is also at this stage there is a lot of work to do, want to spend. As for the prototype stage, the Chinese working more numerous. Salim said that in the feasibility study stage, CAC is not a lot of practical work. Sun said this afternoon CAC will introduce you. Sun went on to say, I want this time to the Palestinian side, to solve three problems: 1. We Grumman between the TAA and the content is appropriate Grumman can sign? 2. Throughout the project, the relationship between us and the Palestinians to discuss settle; 3. Technically, we have a preliminary program for the Grumman proposed five advice, you see how. In addition, you should also take a look to the CAC. Maisuo De Major listening and sincerely said: "Thank you very much Mr. Sun detailed negotiations with the situation Grumman
Situation, I really appreciate Mr. Sun said the main look to the future, but also to say thank you, from the feasibility study was conducted by the Palestinian side Which decision. "I think we all understand the general principle, the original is thought by the Grumman, Boeing two do, but the Air Force to be a done because Mr. Sun know Boeing will now introduce the 19th to Pakistan, there may be some new content, so Which do feasibility studies, not a final decision. Grumman about you and the relationship between, some can not write on paper, but there are other essential guarantee our experience is that once the wheels turn up, problems will occur, it is not even written in the text, and must have other warranties. Sun explained that we would have liked him to write a letter to our chairman, Manuel Haq said that the world could no secret that we do this Speaking gone blind alley, and finally had to make concessions. Maisuo De went on to say, after listening to you detailing the afternoon, and then study this "saber" Ⅱ project is very important, if a problem occurs later, do not rape. Sun suggested that afternoon presentation, you talk again tomorrow and Grumman. Mysore Madras friendly, I think no matter how Grumman, Pakistan relations are above all else, we are very respected CATIC concessions. Suncheng Qing , because ye thought that Grumman a doing, we therefore make concessions on the grid. Maisuo De said, thank you for your efforts, I see the TAA content, and then decide how to proceed. between you and Grumman The discussion was very effective and I believe now only conceptual studies, because the feasibility study stage, the cost is very little, to the back of two phases (prototype research and production), will you have a great interest . Sun said that behind the relationship talk later, I think at this stage between the text of the tripartite agreement's ability to achieve, Yin Gelu door company was in a hurry to send them in February to go to the CAC. protocol can be three respect, it can be between China and Pakistan, and we Grumman between TAA. course whatever way, between the United States, we have to send a copy to you, because you are the boss. Mai said half-jokingly, three are the boss. Sun went on to say, Grumman began to have a misconception that CATIC share of production to fight, this time, we have spoken clearly, we fully listen to the Palestinian side, the Palestinian side to what is produced, it is what is produced, such as the production head or some more, and we need to respect the Palestinian side. Maisuo De said, thank you, I am glad to know you this advice, we are good friends, we are in Kamra, no your support is not enough, the development of K-8 aircraft, but also in your support. Sun said sincerely, our general policy is to support the development of the aviation industry Palestinian side, the Palestinian side to do, what you want us to help, we all full support. Finally Sun said that afternoon and then detailed to introduce you to the evening invite you to dinner, have the opportunity to meet our Mo minister expressed eager to know Jimmy Mo Minister. ◆ tripartite agreement signed through hard work, all three parties are in the "saber "Ⅱ project to find their own position. a time," saber "Ⅱ up the prospects seemed bright afternoon Sunzong not attended by Major General Mai Suode me to introduce our line of Grumman talk with TAA and SOW's situation, and then by the Chen Jinyan introduce our initial program on the grid with the 5 opinions from Comrade Victor Fan added Grumman over the past year is not normal relations and the United States our limits. Lee said, we understand, because the engines and avionics, United States only exports to Pakistan, so the aircraft can not be assembled in China, in addition, the Palestinian side intends to produce the nose, so we do not intend to produce the nose, but some technical issues are linked. now Grumman
Said that more and more restrictions, here mixed with the U.S. government restrictions, there Grumman own limitations, so the work is not easy to do the work. We by no means want to "saber" Ⅱ project come to the United States to go to high-tech, we have just to get the job done. Technically, in words, we are talking about Grumman agree, but one to the text on the grid to emphasize limits. You talk about tomorrow and when Grumman whether further clarification. Maisuo De listened carefully all the description later said, thank you for your presentation very well these days to talk about with your foundation, we talk with Grumman, it handled more easily. "Sabre" Ⅱ project without our good cooperation in three areas, is to not go, but the long-term good relations of cooperation to be maintained, do not work in the future, there are some problems, do not cooperate. About tripartite form of relationship, Maisuo De said that Pakistan and the United States between the TAA contract. In the feasibility study stage, between China and the U.S. as long as there TAA, there is a memorandum of understanding between China and Pakistan can, to the second and third stages, you must have a contract job. We said that this all listen to the Palestinian side, because the Palestinian side is the project explorer. Mai Suode finally say thanks, first of friendship between our two countries and our cooperation is to promote this friendship. Evening dinner Sunzong come forward, we accompanied talk over dinner. During the meeting revealed that Mak, Grumman and Boeing in the two companies, the Pakistani government really undecided finally by Which cooperation; said must be discontinued F-16 compared with the reference to avoid unnecessary complications. In addition, said an important message in the "saber" Ⅱ before the Pakistani government intends to buy first batch of F-7M, Department of Defense that can be set up, the Air Force is not yet fixed. Sun said that if the first few to buy some? Mai said that we should only buy 55. This is indeed a good news. The next morning, the Palestinian side with Grumman talks. Afternoon, we first talk with the Palestinian side, the Palestinian side to us a memorandum of understanding of the manuscript. After that, please Grumman Behring, Romer, Wang Chengdong together with the tripartite talks. Here we are mainly involved with the TAA Grumman sign do not sign now, we believe that due to the Palestinian side on which company has not yet decided on, we can not sign with the grid, Grumman believes that he can not get our hands sign The TAA, bad went to Pakistan Pakistan-US agreement signed. Pakistan mediate said, TAA is subordinate to the Pakistan-US contract, the contract does not take effect, TAA is invalid, so the only sign. The second problem is that this stage of China's expense, whether it is paid or the Palestinian side to pay the United States, this issue is not clear that China can not sign TAA. It also involves the Palestinian side, and Maisuo De decline, said, the issue of money, the Palestinian side who did not come to govern the financial, I would not be determined. So Tripartite a scuffle, but finally not given. On the third day, January 18, I mainly talk about China and Pakistan with Pakistan memorandum of understanding (MOU) revisions. I asked to write in the MOU is SOW, said China is in the feasibility study stage there is so much work to do, so the money to the Palestinian side is reasonable, strongly disagreed with the Palestinian side in the MOU attached SOW. Of course, this is not the actual relationship, the key is who pays to us, clearly can. Afternoon Sunzong and come forward, we have the Palestinian side to 500,000 dollars, Maisuo De Grumman to the direction you want to make him pay for his plan from Pakistan to 150 million dollars in the buckle out to us, which of course was resisted, Americans already ingest meat, dig out? 19, completed my last revised TAA with grid and draft MOU with the bar, leaving only one who deal with our money. Sun recommends Maisuo De Major line went from 20 to 22, after returning to Beijing to fly again when visiting the research, the time buffer look, we also agreed. CATIC and I studied Comrade Wang Dawei exports to Pakistan 55 F-7M aircraft related issues, you together with Chen Jinyan, accompanied by Major General line Maisuo De Depot visit. Prior to departure, Chen and I together with Grumman formally initialed the TAA draft, on behalf of the factory to the CATIC official position. 21 Maisuo De Major line 3 into the plant visit. On the plane, we have heard this old bus talking quietly to look at, 500,000 dollars worth not worth it. So into the plant, we try to let them see the work we have done, including both sides of the inlet whole machine 1:1 metal prototypes, drawings related programs, hair models, and both sides of the intake air inlet 1:1 wooden model. During the visit, we told them to "saber" Ⅱ aircraft modifications workload is great, but we have the ability to change their own fly airplanes, if we Americans cards,
We can assure Europe to engines and avionics. We also told them that in order to engage in "saber" Ⅱ, we have already paid for; engage in cooperation with the Americans feasibility study must both works alone working together, relying on each other for information, is absolutely not The. After the visit, the summer to Lt. Col. Bo said that in Beijing talked about seven days, as today, after some time a large harvest. Maisuo De Major General said that seeing is believing, 100 Grumman picture, it is better to fly here to take a look into the physical. These words do not light weight, and we are hopeful $ 500,000, from the factory afternoon Songlao Pakistan, I immediately hung up the long-distance calls to Sunzong, the old factory tour in Pakistan in view of the reaction after telling him. Sun on the phone said that Pakistan arrange the 22nd to go back to Beijing after the first embassy was estimated to be about to pay our costs, there will be news to his country. 23 am, Sunzong give me long-distance calls, said this to the old CAC Pakistan done, good results, such as the Palestinian side to return to Beijing for a day, morning has signed on to our payment 500000 The text has been preserved dollars no further changes, but the specific payment terms, they have to go back and report to the Department of Defense, February again determined. They want us to write out a budget for the cost of the work, how many people how many hours of work, then four phases of payment. From this course, Boeing gone. Afternoon, Victor Fan also told me to call that said the fly thanks to successful cooperation and assistance, and finally became the talk. With the TAA Grumman has been officially signed, and also to pay a Behring Sun VPs Grumman chairman's letter, described by the Chinese side is responsible for "saber" Ⅱ responsibility of wind tunnel tests and recommended by the TAA approval of both governments immediately after the meetings are held in order to arrange the entire work, Li also I immediately submitted a five-month feasibility study cost estimate, to telex to the old bar. This is a crucial negotiations to finally reach a successful conclusion to our purpose. In addition to immediately securable 500,000 dollars (our internal agreement, 450,000 directly into the fly), the Chinese side hopes that this 1.2 billion dollars in the sale and purchase of military aircraft, get 3 to 4 billion dollars a share. In the Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu, Yangbao Shu and other relevant leaders on this one difficult negotiations, I talked a few observations: 1. Everything depends on our own efforts, without our grasp for the F-7CP plan in advance to do their work, strong own strength, to cooperate with foreign countries is difficult, who is also not helpful. 2. In the future, cooperation with Grumman, limitations, and the struggle against restrictions will be very sharp, and we want to fly into defensible, attack come. Defensible ensuring that our "Sabre" Ⅱ project has been the division of labor and market share; tapping draw, that can get them the technology to maximize the harvest. Sino-US cooperation to immediately do all the preparation work, and now the situation facing not only the technical difficulties (technically must show our strength) and difficult struggle, language difficulties, forcing our technical team to have a greatly improved quality, Through this international cooperation will also grow from a number of international technical cooperation and force of talent to foreign affairs. It seems that after this period of negotiations, contest and negotiations, tripartite cooperation seems the right direction, but because of U.S. policy more volatile slightest sign of trouble, "saber" Ⅱ progress will be a problem. What will happen after?
◆ first working meeting was called "sometime", through joint efforts, we identified with Grumman in the "Sabre" Ⅱ project their work and collaborate division problem. Prior to departure, never Buddhist devotees paid homage to the Buddha Pellet Huck, as an engineer, it seems he really wanted to promote the "Sabre" Ⅱ project February 6, 1987, I received a phone CATIC inform Grumman eight people and the Palestinian side will be 3 to 6 February CAC together with the Chinese side on "Sabre" Ⅱ project's first working meeting to discuss the feasibility study of the overall arrangements for the deployment. Contract between Pakistan and the United States on January 27 TAA was officially signed.
February 12, Mo Minister on behalf of my Government approved the MOU between Pakistan and the United States between the TAA. In preparations were made after the 13th, we Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu were reported. 15 Bureau of the Ministry of military aircraft and Zhu Rong Ma Chenglin Zhang, CATIC Victor Fan, NIU Xin Tong first, we study together with a working meeting preparation. The total estimate since the old beauty is to focus on information and see planes, places us show our strength, firmly occupy the "Sabre" Ⅱ project should be the weight-based, five-month feasibility study in refinement arrangements, to implement our people how to participate. 17, 2011, three working meetings start at fly into Building 8. Cheng Fei, general manager Hou Jianwu met at the beginning of the meeting all the foreign guests. Grumman real to 7 people: Pellet Haq, Project Director Romer, technical director of the Flyers, Wang Chengdong, and overall, pneumatic, three structural engineer in charge, would have a weight of engineers, for some reason the future. Pakistan trio are: Pakistan Air Salim Colonel, Lieutenant Colonel Bo Kamra base in the summer, Yves iron card major. We have Beijing to four people, the CAC 14, namely Tu Jida, Yangbao Shu, Chen Jinyan, Shen Yong source, Qiu Puda, Song Kaiji, Chen Jialin, Shao side, yellow Qing Xiang, Zhang Zhiyuan, Wang Yue Xin, XU Zhen Court and so on. Chinese crew, foreign representatives both said CATIC. Placed in front of us, and this is the first time also unclear superpower military aircraft engaged in cooperation, no one has experience, so only too small to do preparatory work. I called the officer repeated meetings, as envisaged in the problem, including what information they would want, we give them what form, if the work is a division by us, then find an excuse not to give them; what information we want them to, to be too small to be listed. If the feasibility study everything that fails we will not be too big a loss as a precondition. Another example is escorted them to visit the airplane, accompanied by the division of our people to observe their reactions. Our participants must have a good mental state, you must reasonable manner, graceful, because we are working with them, and do not beg for them, although in general aviation technology they walk in front of us, but in the F -7 this specific field, we have much more than they know, we have the local advantage, used properly, can be equal cooperation. As for the meeting, discussions focused not on the technical solution, and that will be the next five months of work to do, they want information, you can give some, but mainly rely on our people away, both for flexibility, but also to improve our people's weight, because it is not known Grumman sincerity to cooperate with us how they do not know to what extent the depth feasibility study. Tripartite Meeting on the activities of the past after the ceremonial entered a substantive stage. Pellet said Huck, we both signed TAA including SOW, has received U.S. government approved. In the past, many people in Washington do not say it, and now finally pulled off, is not easy, it also depends on the particular CAC China made great efforts. Now, the "saber" Ⅱ project success will depend on the feasibility study performed satisfactorily. First, we both want to work together to establish a good relationship of mutual trust, would be difficult to do a good job. Of course, we Grumman general guiding principle is required to comply with the required standard of the U.S. government, otherwise, the project is immune to exist. Then he brought Pellet Huck introduce expert said: "They are all top-notch people who are in practice for many years out of training. Fuer Si Mr. future in the" Sabre "Ⅱ overall responsibility for the project is technically , he is good and foreign cooperation in the past to engage in the overall background, F4, "Gulfstream" aircraft engaged in general are his; overall expert worthy Nuo Nike did with me 35 years, our overall plans are out of his hand, pneumatic Experts Lo Grumman has also been done in 20 years, structural expert, Mr. Bell, stress analysis, fatigue life is very experienced, particularly the use of new materials. "After Pellet Huck introduced his" saber " Ⅱ program broadly conceived, we introduced the F-7M situation. Afternoon to visit the aircraft parts and machine shop, they are particularly carefully looked forward fuselage inlet, engine compartment and the rear fuselage structure. Three days of negotiations, the two sides will focus on the content of the work and the division of labor. There are technical solutions, including aircraft structure, electrical energy, mechanical systems, avionics, propulsion systems and power plant, fuel, environmental control, cockpit, weapons, etc.: There are projects such as the arrangements for the organization of various ground tests, flight test, project formulation
Organization such as the arrangements for a variety of ground test, flight test, develop project schedule network, analyze project costs and development costs, control aircraft reliability and maintainability, integrated logistics support arrangements, personnel training, organization of production and tooling tools preparedness program. January Grumman had we propose a first draft, we come back after a detailed study, this time to propose a revised them, and then sit down and discuss one by one. For each task are distinguished by Grumman Aircraft Corporation responsible or become responsible for, or mutual responsibility. Grumman's draft five-month feasibility study on a total of 145 missions, which, by the Grumman responsible for 64, 11 CAC responsible, shall be responsible for the 70, we can see that the Grumman CAC's workload is not common to both is responsible for various items 50-50 estimates Grumman workload of 68%, flying a workload of 32%. After we modify them one by one and the same discussion later, the division of tasks table instead of 185 overall mission, responsible for 35 Grumman, CAC is responsible for 19, the two sides jointly responsible for 131, converted after the two sides were working proportion 54% and 46%. This modification and discussions, involving the infiltration of our future work degree and work share, of course, very difficult negotiations, but the result is very successful. In addition to refinement of a clear division of tasks and responsibilities, is also discussed and decided upon a feasibility study is divided into three stages, each six weeks as a stage, each stage has finished a review. Assessment will have authority to participate in the tripartite, Pakistan Pakistan Air plans by Assistant Chief of Staff, Major General Farooq rate were present, and the name of the Israeli-Palestinian party invitation on behalf of the U.S. Air Force sent a review. Information provided by the parties ask for itemized list also were discussed, we spot the first handed Grumman aircraft performance data and aircraft fuel distribution data. The two sides also agreed to the proposal of Colonel Salim Pakistan, "saber" Ⅱ project feasibility study since March 9 in the United States began. Pellet Hack invited to the United States as soon as the Chinese engineers working together to participate in and watch X-29 aircraft on the F404 engine installation and maintenance of large cap arrangement to ascertain how to change the rear fuselage. Press Pellet Huck's words: "You go to many people, I do not care, of course, not too much, we also 40 individuals, but they are 30 to 40 years of work experience. You go, and how to live, how to solve traffic problems have money problems, consider yourselves from us, we have the experience of international cooperation, we can assist you. then F14 did a feasibility study for 14 months, of course, than the "Sabre" Ⅱ more complicated. F14 in the development stage, there are 1,700 people attended, spent seven billion dollars, so you can go and see how we work and what you can learn to rely on your own judgment in my experience, a final project performance depends on the cost, which the middle is important is how a reasonable choice. "the two sides discussed future data transmission and communication approaches, we go to the professional level of English and so on. Finally the two sides signed a Memorandum of Understanding. Negotiations hollow out the day with me and Chen Jinyan accompanied Grumman guests went Leshan Giant Buddha. In the temple, Pellet Hack piously folded hands worship the Buddha, he is not a Buddhist, but whether it wishes in silent prayer, "saber" Ⅱ success, I did not ask him on the spot. 21, the US-Pakistan bilateral guests have left happily go back to Chengdu via Beijing, farewell, said goodbye to everyone on Long Island. ◆ arrived Grumman people say seeing is believing, after arriving Grumman, the company's strength has indeed been quite a profound understanding of March 9, 1987, our line of 10 people, in order to start cooperation "saber" Ⅱ project, from the airport to the United States by Chinese airliners. With my peers who have military department Secretary Ma Chenglin, CATIC Niu Tong, Cheng Fei Chen
Jin Yan, Shen Yong source, Qiu Puda, Zhengwei Chuan, Shao side, yellow Qing Xiang, Liu trees. Before departure, on behalf of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Sunzong designated Deputy Director Ma Chenglin and my leader. Boeing 747 first flew to Shanghai, 17:00 to take off again transpacific flights to San Francisco, in the Shanghai office of exit procedures. Shanghai to San Francisco voyage 10,550 kilometers, only in the air for 10 hours and 20 minutes, the Boeing 747 cruising speed is not so fast, said to be the cause to fly west to east there is downstream of the high-altitude winds of up to 100 km / h or more. Fewer passengers on the plane, according to the old experience, we leave the original seat to grab a whole row of cabin seats available seize the time to sleep, to prepare for the diminished sense of difference. Unfortunately, I only slept two hours, half past eleven, everyone incurs huge jolt woke up. Beijing half past twelve, was broad daylight, somehow, we all the non drowsiness. Local noon, we arrived at San Francisco International Airport, after customs, immigration, the transfer to the United States Western Airlines aircraft, flew through Salt Lake City, flew to New York's Kennedy Airport. At this time no Shanghai direct flights to New York, only to transfer. Western Airlines this flight is domestic flights using Boeing 727 aircraft. Salt Lake City may be true salt production, on the plane around the lake shining white one big circle, a large area of grass, are loess. San Francisco to Salt Lake in the way, flying through the mountains, this mountain a little shortage in Northwest China bald mountain ridge taste, may that American movies often portray it in the western region. And China is different is that it has a lot of highway crossing over, but also occasionally see a green circle blocks may be automatic irrigation farming area. Since the aircraft continued to fly from Salt Lake City, the green surface to more. In John F. Kennedy International Airport, Grumman's Mr. Wang Chengdong and the company's reception staff to pick us up, took us to have to find a good hotel. This time is the time ShangBanYe New York, but the car on the highway all the way around, its busy than in Britain, eclipsing it. We checked into the hotel, bathing lie down, has two local midnight. Winter time, time difference between New York and Beijing is 13 hours. March in New York, the weather was still cold, the lowest temperature of minus 7 degrees colder than Beijing, fortunately I brought a jacket. We slept a few hours in the morning, outside an all white, original hubbub is under heavy snow. First trip to the United States, have some excitement, we Maohan out a snowy background, photographed in the United States the first photo. We live in hostels and Grumman headquarters in New York in general terms, but actually it is Long Island. Long Island City, New York State has been under the jurisdiction of non-New York City, just close to the New York City area Queensland soil Bale. Schedule in the morning to everyone rest, jet lag, the afternoon before going to Grumman. Before coming to the U.S., we have arranged in the factory as well as the inner workings of the United States candidates and preparing batches of information away. However, many unknowns cooperation, such as: Grumman cooperative attitude exactly how? Working depth feasibility study how to master? Progress is how to control? The results of the specific requirements of each stage to come up with something to? And how assessment? And our experience these are certainly not the same, so we do not end; addition, we Chinese people themselves, at work and personnel exchanges, language, ideas, methods and even the degree of adaptation lifestyle aspects of how to grasp not great. From me, 1984 has led to the British Marconi electronic equipment on seven pre-production organizational acceptance, opening up new ways of international cooperation, because at that time is the fourth time to the United Kingdom, bottom heart. But this time, we are not the first purchaser, light prick not speak, but to work for; Secondly, Grumman past exchanges shows that they are very arrogant, and the U.S. government than the British government policy doublespeak more. Third, we need to come up with their own technical cooperation and organizational level to level, in order to be equal in fact and not a small man. Behind all this is not what the individual's success or failure, but the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation for the first time appeared in the international community, the level of how a certain extent reflect the level of China's aviation industry problems, but also whether you can get involved in our country in this big deal share and bring out a lightweight fighter successor to the problem. I felt the burden is heavy. The only way is to mobilize people to know the same, the use of
1979 began with the British experience in dealing negotiations night work during the day to prepare, and more an effort to learn by doing. From Chengdu to Beijing later, we heard the Sun Zhaoqing and Victor Fan comrades opinions, but also to go abroad to consult the mission scenarios Minister and Vice Minister Wang Mo, made their approval. All beginnings are hard, the first Americans to go abroad and cooperation are able to do very carefully. 10 afternoon, drove us Grumman received Pi Qi Long Island Perth District headquarters. Huck give us the Pellet schedule this week, today is Tuesday, the United States is the five-day work, only three days of this week. Followed by Romer introduced Grumman situation. He said Grumman thirty thousand employees, half of electronic professionals, including more than 2,000 computer professionals, in addition to internal services for the company's various departments, foreign but also for financial and other service industries. Engineering and technical personnel 3000 people, including aircraft designers have 1,000 people. At that time annual sales of 20 billion U.S. dollars, in addition to production aircraft, there are aerospace products, the first lunar landing vehicle is Grumman production, but also production of civilian products, such as buses, fire trucks, aluminum boats, etc., but also nuclear fusion research. Since its establishment, has produced thirty-three thousand airplanes. Headquartered bottom has 10 branches, branches that one aircraft. Aircraft Branch has an advanced project under the Ministry, close by the branch vice president noted that pull competent, responsible for managing the X-29, fighter jets and other advanced technology projects, and now "saber" Ⅱ project, F-8 projects are under his jurisdiction . Just built a 45 building, is dedicated to the "saber" Ⅱ project covered, China and Pakistan as well as carry out his Grumman extraction "saber" Ⅱ personnel, focusing on where the office. This project has security restrictions, the room is separated, not scurry inside, do not go to the outside, only in the building. Grumman production aircraft used by the Navy, the Navy is also responsible for security, done well, they have to intervene. The last few words out of our gloomy. Confidentiality, we engage in military cooperation with foreign countries, including, also considered experienced, how now, had to wait and see. No wonder just into the headquarters of the door, at the reception desk before registration and obtain a visitor sign, the guard requires that each guest's briefcase all look to be opened, in which case the first time I encountered. To see whether the camera, or whether the weapon bomb? March 11, Grumman car to take us to visit his subordinates Calvin board factories, Pellet Hack and Romer accompany us to. This is an assembly and test plant in the east end of Long Island, New York. Our rapid bus traveling on the highway all the way, feel the Long Island Big deal, so far away ah. Located in Long Island Peisi Bei Qi from 50 miles away from the factory, the assembly are based aircraft, flight test, the aircraft from the runway on a slip out, that is the Atlantic Ocean, and their dedicated test flight in the vast expanse of blue sea and airspace above. Morning we left the hotel, somehow put Qiu Puda comrades left in the hotel, and I was worried that the way never happened regret things, to the factory, I discovered a car with another Grumman put Qiu Pu Meanwhile sent up their reception really deft. Plant manager who told us about the situation later, they began to visit the workshop. In the assembly line can simultaneously mounted 15-16 aircraft, first of all let's look at the Pellet Huck's proud name a variable-geometry wing aircraft carrier-based fighter heavy F-14, this aircraft was two per month, parts is factory shipped rivers, but there are a number of parts in the 6000 assembly here. F-14 assembly finished, by the company test pilot test three sorties, Navy test two vehicles are ready for shipping. Seater twin-twin vertical tails of the F-14, is open to us, the company has dedicated staff to visit our photo shoot. Very large aircraft, is indeed heavy fighter, for we are accustomed to small light fighter of the people, difficult to think of this monster in the air skill is still very flexible and supple. Deep impression is its binary Raked adjustable inlet and swept-wing big shaft. I study abroad in 1976 over "MiG" and Su -20 -23 variable sweep wing, this is the second time exposure to variable sweep wing it. F-14 variable-sweep wing is also no pylons. Unlike the later F-111 and the "Tornado" fighter with a follower pylons. Pellet Huck also specifically pointing to its carrier aircraft landing hooks to us, because the old Palestinian hope "Sabre" Ⅱ hook landing on the fringe, of course,
Is to prevent land-based landing runway use. Assembly line and A-6 carrier-based attack aircraft and heavy-duty E-2C early warning aircraft. A-6 is a high subsonic, both sides of the inlet, two-seater, available with 8 tons of bombs naval attack aircraft; its modified machine EA-6B electronic warfare aircraft is at sea, the main purpose is to interfere with the ground and the ship on the radar, the crew of four thousand. In order to shield radiation, its canopy glass is re-plated gold film treated with golden yellow. E-2C is relatively large, twin-turbo propeller installed, my wife can enter the cabin, upper fuselage mounted a large disc-shaped radome, it is reported that it can guard three million cubic miles of space. Factory took us to visit the anechoic chamber, a large darkroom, the entire aircraft F-14 can be used floating crane hanging into indoor electromagnetic measurements, it was introduced laboratory costs, 10 years ago, spent $ 5 million. Went to visit the test station, the station has two runways, each length of 10,000 feet and 7000 feet. There is an indoor test bed aircraft, a variety of aircraft in the indoor test, the aircraft ejected after plume flow channel folded upward angle of 45 ° to the external discharge, just over 90 db internal noise, indoor air has a huge ventilator , 3 times per second ventilation, the indoor test purpose is to avoid noise pollution of the environment and the test aircraft parameters available computers. Test station tower, a set of telemetry tracking systems, local flight, over 27 miles away from the base, but also at a distance of thousands of miles away here in California Edward airport flight from 25,000 miles above the geostationary satellites transmit information on all the tests on the aircraft between the two places telemetry information transfer was 0.25 seconds.
During the visit, leaders come forward by the factory at noon dinner in the evening, accompanied by the Wang Chengdong, went Pellet Huck's home, he asked us to go to a private banquet. Perry is also the home of Long Island, far from the company, close to the sea. According to him, to us, this area is relatively wealthy residential area, it really lush woods and along the way are a vast expanse of green grass, fresh air anomaly. Pei house, is a small independent house, around the house as usual, is a grass, on the ground floor basement of the house is relatively old, because the weather is still relatively cold, get in the door and went to the living room, but also specifically with Roast wood-burning fireplace, so we feel do not have fun, because usually with heating, a fireplace is idle, the basement, next to the stairs there is a small bar, displays colored wine, with a small enclosed garden high counters and stools. There is also a studio Pei, Pei's glass cabinet displays various honors souvenirs, presided over the 1970s to come up with such a high level of F-14 aircraft, for the evaluation of wear is very high. We Chinese are a total of 10 people, accompanied by Wang Chengdong a person, the owner 3 people, couples and Pellet Huck living in other parts of the daughters into the reception. 14 people in the restaurant around a dining table Onishi, of course, eating authentic American food, including the final dessert apple cake included, all his wife and daughter's hands. These foreign flavor, although I do not like to eat, but we highly emotional, with sour wine did not care, because the owner family hospitality, a compassionate one to the United States the next day, a stranger to the family, our country can not do to. The next day, the 12th, the company arranged for us to visit another factory a river plants. This plant in the middle of Long Island, more than Calvin Gordon plant near more. It also produces civilian military production, we went mainly to see its electronic segments. Segment 3,000 people with annual sales of 300 million U.S. dollars, the production of semiconductor devices to IBM's production of circuit boards, also produces airborne electronic equipment, video processors, electronic test equipment and ground cables and miniature connectors. Military cable production line is automated, there is a computer-controlled than a wired board, core automatic crimping equipment and jackets knitting machines, weaving through the jacket, the cable tie is very tight. Factory hospitality meal, by the Grumman American Chinese regional manager of the International Department, accompanied by Mr. Paul, see the house, we can not long stay in a hotel, too expensive, not easy to eat, it must live up to Find a Suitable 15-person family home to live down. Long Island saw two houses after sleety the way back, I want in a car, living in the U.S., such as no cars will definitely be very embarrassed. Night plane branch president Dr. Larry entertain us Carlo. 13, 2011 during a visit to forward-swept wing X-29 test machine before, Romer first introduced us to the forward-swept wing air
Dynamic features. He said that the advantages of forward-swept wing resistance greatly reduced, because it increases pressure on the lower wing surface, the upper wing surface shock weakened, wave resistance is small, the same lift, the drag can be reduced 13%; to spanwise view, its wing to wing root pressure moves the heart, so the smaller moments. If the same moment, to increase the aspect ratio can thus be further reduced resistance. Forward-swept wing aeroelastic divergence biggest problem is the problem, therefore, to take wing structure aeroelastic tailoring, with a graphite composite material wing panel, the elastic deformation and prevent divergence, special plies composite siding, thickness from 0.12 inches to the structure of the turning point, the thickness is 0.8 inches. Aircraft used on both sides of the inlet, three wing layout, variable camber forward-swept wing, there is a full-motion close-coupled canard, until after the machine side of the tail, extending a pair of elevator surface. The whole machine is still unstable, using a triplex digital FBW. In order to reduce development costs, X-29 uses a lot of finished parts from other aircraft, such as F5's nose, F-16's main landing gear and so on. See X-29 aircraft, the main purpose is that it built the F404 engine fuselage, aft fuselage is lower large openings, technology can refer to the "saber" Ⅱ top to increase our perceptual knowledge. After reading X-29, but also the way we looked at the company's headquarters on the edge of the Grumman factory mainly manufacture parts and assemblies riveting production line. In the X-29 aircraft parked nearby, a huge space shuttle wing, being upright in the assembly jig of doing assembly work. At noon, the company chairman Bill Mr. Wurth entertain us. I handed him flying into the company chairman Xie Ming letter to him. Chinese Embassy in the United Nations Head of the Military Staff Committee Zhang also attended the luncheon. Cooperation began for a common purpose, bilateral cooperation in a friendly atmosphere launched. U.S. CE (General Electric) quickly came to sell their produce F404 efforts. Grumman arranged for us to visit and reception three days, and its more open stance, initially gave us a "desire to have a good cooperation," the impression, because before this, which has not a group of Chinese people looking at this company to so much. United States is the five-day work, and after a Friday, the weekend two days, Mr. Paul International Department made arrangements for us. Saturday took us to Manhattan to visit the United Nations and the World Trade Center. 16, 2009, officially began our office, we went to the new No. 45 plant to work. This is a bungalow, has arranged for us four small office and I Chen Jinyan one, just as the project manager Romer next door, the old colonel Barcelona Antrim opposite us their offices. After settling in, the three parties together in the meeting room key personnel took a relative, said, "saber" Ⅱ feasibility study began. Then three responsible people together, technical manager Flyers hosted by the United States to discuss the future work. 5 months work is divided into three phases, the first six weeks of the first stage, with three weeks to discuss and decide eight technical solutions. After the completion of each stage of a review, the final completion of the final report. U.S. urgent that we bring information and data, because there is no official F-7M our aircraft data, they have no foundation for all the work, so the spot at which we gave them the first finishing off the information, they greatly pleased The two sides work thus began. To the office, we really found the U.S. technical personnel in an office inside the door locks on the door still says "Foreigners can not people inside." Americans who took our information department, on the inside, only when they need to and we discussed it. This is of course very limp twist, afraid we learned his technique? Water to soil cover, soldiers to be blocked, we had intended to provide information to them on a little bit of toothpaste, a feasibility study in the U.S. Fortunately, mainly the United States bear all responsibility. Tripartite leadership brief meeting once a day; been decided or plan, there are print file sharing; discussion, not really brainstorm, but someone has to prepare to say a pass that is finished, we have to gradually adapt to the American way of working. Feasibility study on the depth of the problem, Flyers give our answer is as deep or shallow, see how much money. This sentence seems vague, actually touches the truth. The original Grumman internally with the money management. They put the whole can be
OK research work is decomposed into three major phases, each phase decomposition of several tasks, each task and break out some detail, and expel the progress of work, which is called a work breakdown structure (WBS) bar. Then the tasks as a unit, has the task of coding, the budgeted amount, arrangement fees hours, and then decided to use the number of the completion date, work will "count the money to eat noodles." They put 1.5 million dollars at 300 000, 400 000, 400 000, 40 extreme stages, pumping engineers to do the work, done one, are written report, the cost to branch out. In this way, more money, you can spend hours, doing darker, less money, it can only do some of the light. It seems that we have to learn the art of management, still early. We wanted them to give us an additional sample of project feasibility study report, but did not give. How about the assessment, but also a moment did not find out. TAA, they were asked whether the U.S. government formally approved, they said in January the government submitted a TAA Jixiang, no reply of 30 days required by law, that is considered government is no objection. Now 30 Tianzao passed, so we have automatically take effect. It seems that the country is known as the rule of law, to deal with government bureaucracy, some really good way. Our approach is to report back to write on; if inappropriate, please I instructions. Meaning that is not granted to acknowledge that, but there is no legal guarantee. March 18, 1987, General Electric (GE) Company Mr. Zhang Wei, drive yourself to Grumman, me and Ma Chenglin, NIU Xin Tong three people picked up, went to visit their F404 engines. GE's aircraft engine division in the group belongs to Lynn Lynn, Massachusetts, not far from the eastern U.S. city of Boston. Mr. Zhang Wei originally stationed in Beijing, has twice accompanied his boss came into the fly, be regarded as old friends. He is now back to the U.S., at Lynn's Aero-Engine Group's overseas business unit vice president, in charge of Asian affairs. To "saber" Ⅱ sell F404, it was his business. He drove out the morning, afternoon and Long Island, three o'clock in the Grumman invited us to sit in his car on the road. Transferred by a car on Highway 295 through the U.S. Highway 95 north and south through the state of Connecticut to Massachusetts. Open for a long time, all the way to see the roadside without any crops, are the woods and meadows. Curiously, Americans do not land to grow food or too much? More than four hours later, Sherlock legislation to float, here is the Zhang residence, he wants us to eat dinner here, and visit his home. The original Chang's father, where he opened a can accommodate thousands of people at a time of large-scale Chinese restaurant named China Royal Hotel. This hotel daring greatly, decorated with antique, but there are many separate rooms. Car to the hotel, Zhang went to see what he might bring us over 70-year-old father, and has been prepared in advance a single hall ate a hearty and very different from the average American Chinese food in the restaurant. After dinner, drove to his home, which is a ground floor basement of a typical American home, Ms. Zhang home, very warmly received three of us. Zhang also took out a big enough to have two feet enlarged color photos, accompanied by his vice president, GE Group visit with me when flying into the F-7M in front of the plane of the photo. To leave his home, he went out of Boston, about an hour to the city, Zhang took us Interview with the famous Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Boston (MIT) and Harvard University, was already 23:00, Harvard University has been deserted, while Massachusetts Polytechnic is ablaze with lights, still a lot of people come and go in haste, we can see two completely different ethos of the school. MIT's libraries and computer rooms 24 hours without shutting down, we went to visit the library; really usual to open up with, the students read the book, library, and his hands are still a lot of copying data. The library has a "side of the body," the art of sculpture, very strange, we each took a phase pictures. I visited the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have some special feeling inside, liberation I entered Shanghai Jiaotong University, teachers and students at school, admired Massachusetts Institute of Technology, National Chiao Tung University of East claiming MIT, the operator inadvertently "towards a saint" At least the surface, it's hard to learn the atmosphere is not general. We pass through his teaching floor corridor, a variety of student activities handwritten notices and advertisements posted quite a few times, I thought then Jiaotong upper house probably learned his. Out of school, Zhang continued to drive, about 20 minutes, took us to a hotel stay near Lynn, has 12 points. On this day, no, actually half a day, Zhang Wei to our arrangement, a tight enough. The next morning, Zhang took us to eat breakfast, and went to GE's. Zhang said the road, he drove out every day to work from home, one way to be a half-hour, so the morning at 6 o'clock on the road, sometimes while driving
While even a bite to eat breakfast. From this city to another city every day to work, in our incredible. To GE's aviation engine project department Lynn military general manager Li Mao advanced projects, F404 project development manager Seppo etc. received us, told us about the F404 situation and took us to read the engine assembly plant, and went to the test cell. Gave me the distinct impression that the entire engine Yousi a carved artwork, turbine high temperature stainless steel outer previously been machine parts, the outer ring is not the future but the titanium sheet metal CNC machine parts , the same color of silvery white body glitter. Mounted on the left side of the engine electronic control system box is only a 32 hardcover book is so big, it is delicate. Visitors can, in order to favor VIP, deliberately let us together before a complete engine with a shadow. GE is the United States ranked 10 or less well-known companies (No. 4 in 1993), started from the production of light bulbs. 1917 began to engage in gas turbines, 40's, has become the world's three aircraft engine factory, in 1986 sales of aircraft engines, GE company has more than Pratt & Whitney. General Manager Li Mao (F404 Zhang Wei, said he was the father) said, F404 engines have been produced and delivered 1,250 units, mainly F/A-18 used (per machine twin), are four national service. Also some new aircraft such as the X-29, F-20, JAS-39, also used the F404. F404 is a replaceable unit body design, no regular maintenance and overhaul of the concept, and the use, as appropriate, maintain, identify problems, replace the unit body can, without alignment and commissioning. General concept, hot parts of life is 2000 hours, other parts of the life of 4000 hours, the actual statistical reliability, every 1,000 flight hours, removed from the aircraft's maintenance times, from 1980 to 14, reduced to 1986 less than two years. So no need to prepare a backup engine on an aircraft carrier, as long as there is some backup unit body can be. For example, an aircraft carrier, there are two squadrons (48) F-18, in seven months time, accumulated only 14 units removed from aircraft engines, of which 13 units on the aircraft carrier repaired, only one returned to the manufacturer repairs. Li Mao went on to say, in addition to high reliability in addition, F404 also very good operating performance, such as acceleration, from idle to full afterburner just 3.5 seconds, the aircraft to be missed very adaptable, machine operation is absolutely not stall. F/A-18 is double, and some aircraft such as the JAS-39, "saber" Ⅱ is single, firm in the ignition system, electric control system, hydraulic system, etc. are replaced by two redundant, and its reliable resistance than double but increased more than 10%, of course, so each cost about an additional 50,000 to 75,000. Future development, F/A-18 using 16,000 pounds thrust, JAS-39 is used on the thrust of 18,000 pounds, is being modified will be 20,000 pounds thrust, until then the engine thrust to weight ratio will reach 9, the engine basic shape unchanged, but slightly larger fan flow. I asked him, with his F404 engine, the aircraft is necessary into the lower part of the rear fuselage large openings? Li Mao said that from maintenance to consider, because the engine is a highly reliable, so there is no need to charge a lot of effort to go to fly lower rear fuselage change it into large openings. He said this, we can tell Pakistani Grumman empty, they can rest assured. Moving on to the wave soil Dayton eat lunch, Zhang took us to visit the city, and the 50-storey "sky walk" tour hall overlooking the city, in the last cup of coffee Collage of people such as Pratt & Whitney to pick us up. Zhang OK originally born prior appointment with Pratt & Whitney's people, where 2:30 the three of us to them.
◆ continue to compete GE, Pratt & Whitney and Pratt & Whitney aircraft engines are a pair of competitors in the "saber" Ⅱ project, we are both open competition. GE's F404 should be included in "saber" Ⅱ, Pratt & Whitney PW1216, we should also recommend to "saber", the latter advantage is not just a few days ago has been basically clearer. However, starting from business ethics, these two sales departments, or with mutual support and gracious. They get along with us, and never reviewed anything our competitors, this is their hospitality exchange information between themselves agreed.
Pratt & Whitney has knowingly at a disadvantage, but also have to make a final effort, in our three Chinese people to do the work. At 14:30 on March 19, Pratt & Whitney came to Boston "sky walk" hall on time to pick us up, we are once again thanks to Zhang, the Pratt & Whitney sent on cars. After two and a half hour car dealers, to the Connecticut Hartford City, to arrange a pre-determined hostels big room per stay. 6:00 pm, Pratt & Whitney's Chinese affairs manager Beth ladder Das, project managers rand and a Huaren Guo Asamoto other 4 people see us together, to go after Chinese restaurant to eat dinner. Here is the original Pratt & Whitney's large engine plant (civil Products Division), and small engine plant (Government Products Division) as far away as Florida. Bass ladder Das and his entourage flew specially come here just to meet with us. Quite hearty dinner, did not want to eat Chinese food, according to American habits, eat bear away, on the restaurant filled boxes to pack, Bass Das ladder behind them on the car away. The next day, in the morning to take us to the Pratt & Whitney, a first office for negotiations. Bass introduced the company ladder Das customary to start talking. He said Pratt & Whitney United Technologies Corp. company belongs, United Technologies Corporation is ranked seventh in the United States large companies, affiliated with 300 factories, 200,000 employees, Pratt & Whitney products under a government ministry, department and other civilian products. PW1216 engine is a modified engine J52, J52 has 25 years of history, with the A4, A6 and other aircraft, mainly for naval service. Bass ladder Das Then again raised the idea of Sino-US joint development PW1216, PW1216 with afterburner by the Chinese side to the cylinder, if the U.S. government approvals, China has also a part of the engine can produce. Afterburner cylinder can be used China's WP-13 to be improved on, and production of engines, because Chengdu JT8D engine company has produced some of the components in the future also, and Pratt & Whitney FT-8 production with gas turbines, so the possibility of also great. For details, Pratt & Whitney will be sent to China at the end of April to continue talks. NIU Xin Tong chimed regard, co-operation and investment issues, after you talk to Beijing. Bass ladder Das then spread out drawings Tan engine and the "saber" Ⅱ compatibility and interface issues, they give us the composition according to installation diagram drawn work very seriously. He also expressed the hope that can give them flying into the company's future aircraft and aircraft mission profile polar curve, I said, you should give us the engine performance curve to calculate the PW1216 whether we can meet, "saber" Ⅱ requirements. After back and forth Cheleyixia, bass ladder Das was spit mantra, he said the government approved the export PW1212, not 1216, but you can do the math engine performance curve because afterburner cylinder is yours. The answer really made me ridiculous. In talking about the process, Tony said PW1216 maximum number M is 1.4, I caught, and asked him how only to 1.4, we have but to 1.8. Tony replied, M1.4 is Grumman told us, Pakistani air actually only requires M0.9. I explicitly told him that it would never do. Tony, this is a design point selection problems, such as how the compressor outlet temperature selected, M number to improve the performance is not a problem, but life will be affected. I asked him how much life? He said J52 thermal component life 2000 hours, machine overhaul period 4000 hours, low cycle fatigue (actual usage) 8000 hours, of course, changed PW1216, the situation should change. Indeed, for the Pratt & Whitney PW1216, we feel relatively poor, old bus is not much interest, but now people invited us to talk about passion, it went up, so did not want to talk more deeply. After talking about the morning, afternoon they took us to visit their high-altitude engine test cell, because no local small engine can be visited. The high-altitude test stand much larger than our domestic, and one representing the PW4000 JT9D engine timing with a sliding door on the test section, the engine with inlet and partial wing, so the test section section greatly. They said that the future development of Pratt & Whitney engine re-numbered, PW1000 engine civilian, PW2000 is a military engine, PW3000 is a small engine, PW4000 engines for civilian development. PW5000 engines for military development. On this high-altitude test stand, they said, has a total investment of 10 billion dollars, has been tested 8000-10000 hours per test cost is $ 10,000, the test section air flow rate is 1200 pounds per second, a large gas storage system equipment flow rate of 12,000 pounds per second, with the gas pressure steam engines, steam boilers
Capacity of 1 million pounds per hour. Another JT4 engine with six ejector. Test, the civil engine can simulate to M0.8, altitude 35,000 feet. Military engine can be simulated to M3, altitude 70,000 feet. After three cooling the intake air temperature can be as low as former -80 ° F. Three of us are not engaged in the engine, a tour, which is long experience it, just do not know someone visited country did not. It left me with a "big" impression. This high-altitude test stand alone, we certainly have difficulties on the trunk aircraft to their engines on the mainline can be said to be more difficult, but where so much capital? After reading the altitude test, NIU Xin Tong with their Chinese president talked the next JT15D thing, and then hired a company to take us back to New York. ◆ went to Washington to report through further contact, we Grumman have a deeper understanding of each other. Horses and cattle Director Director scheduled to return to Beijing in late March, before this country to make time to go to the embassy to report once, so the use of 21 to 22 March this weekend, the three of us went to Washington. Downstream we entered the embassy reported to the relevant leaders began to cooperate with the Grumman "Sabre" Ⅱ project situation. Two years ago, that the leadership of the embassy know about this whole thing, because this is the first Sino-US cooperation in military aircraft, the U.S. government approached the embassy, but concrete progress is not clear. After listening to our report, the Ministry of Aeronautics catch it feels good, we are required in the future and more to the embassy informed and told us to act in the United States notes and working methods. We hope the embassy leadership when the opportunity to do some work to the U.S. government, do not add so much to the Chinese restrictions. 23, has started the first three weeks, I attended as usual with Chen Jinyan and US-Pakistan tripartite leadership brief meeting to discuss the related work. At last a clear division of responsibilities, which side of the work to write the final report of which party, also decided on April 13 that the first six weeks to begin the first review of the feasibility study by the Palestinian side Surrey Colonel Salim empty to Pakistan and China, respectively, domestic telex invitation. We propose the first review content just for engines, avionics and aircraft parts options, and the aircraft should shape and inlet arrangements and the exact whole machine performance estimation and evaluation Grumman agreed with us opinions. We found in the work of our engineers with the U.S. primarily interested in the information, and participate in our passion into his work does not, of course not. So a horse to leave the United States on the grounds that the Secretary, in the 24th by the horse and I went looking for Pellet Hack Grumman headquarters talk. Pellet Huck president's office from his office not far outside there a female secretary, his next-door is the chief architect of the original aircraft A6, present, and wear the same as when the company's consultants are meritorious Grumman the minister it. Perry's office into each other pleasantries, Perry picked up an aircraft model, vague and mysterious to say to us, which is being intend to develop new aircraft, I think it does not use X-29 forward-swept wing technology , strange is its belly and the wing has a wide strip across a reflective mirror, about to visual stealth use. But we come here is not intended to discuss new technology, so inconvenient questioning, get down to business. Sima long first horse out of the United States to Peiti engineers and we discussed much, cooperation is not tight enough problems, make the Chinese engineers, strong and so do not require wear when fulfilling his verbal commitment in Chengdu. Pei said: "I understand your idea, but the beginning of the current job, to be some prospect, especially after some of the data to be entered into the computer calculations, this is expected to Friday, you can sit down with Mr. Tu, Chen talked together." Ma said, "My idea is to allow all were able to act, as computer engineers can also fly into on."
Pei said: "I know it, and slowly will be better communication between the two sides. Course, some things are not necessarily all the engineers know and I'll tell Mr. Tu's special individual." Then Perry turned a topic, talking about Pakistan To Kamla Assembly "Sabre" Ⅱ, but also by the Palestinian side the head if the production, he felt Pakistan's manufacturing capacity is much worse than the Chinese, when they could manufacture the entire front fuselage? So he wanted to at least half of the nose in Chengdu manufacture as well, perhaps by the Chengdu manufacture the entire head, because it certainly time charge for China than the United States cheaper. Perry went on to say: "This idea does not have to tell the Palestinian side, Mr. Tu to understand it, we have to go to the government to clear this idea. Grumman do not intend to produce the nose, we now want is to get the F-8" peaceful pearl "retrofit project has been to you, Mr. Chairman Bierwosi Defense Minister Zhang talked about, both technically and compensation trade, we will be more than Boeing concessions that China needs technology, we can provide China We're training for the Singapore integrated avionics technology, in this respect only the hardware without software is not enough. fighter project compensation trade, you will be divided into many places to do it. "We listen to understand Grumman in to this kinds of chips to please, to strive for the right to contract modified F-8, the two of us on this course without power stand, the horse meet, said: "Sun a few days to come, and he can discuss these issues." In order to reverse the topic, Ma went on to say, "These days there are several U.S. Air Force Plant No. 45 to discuss technical issues, we have a few people such as Mr. Tu, Chen can participate?" Pei said: "The U.S. Air Force is totally invited Palestinian side is Salim of the discussions, no one in our company to participate, please Pakistan Air Force spent the money, he went to pay his money now! really do not understand, like to spend money on the Palestinian side, or fly into Grumman body, not better? "I chase, said:" You said in Chengdu, in addition to other outside avionics Chinese have participated in, I think we are involved in choosing the engine, etc., will be beneficial. "Pema said:" This is a few days I mainly focus on promoting the whole work, not spare the future Chinese engineers and American engineers will be treated the same. "Then wear again attributed to the U.S. government's restrictions, he said to the people in Washington are not smart, they Chinese officials do not want to participate in proposed aircraft performance aspects of the job, "but I am in favor of the Chinese side should participate, what is performance, which is explained to us, and you say we can do to improve aerodynamic aerodynamic data and curves, talking about the thrust thrust with the F-7M comparison, so you will know everything indirectly, these, we will try to deal with good. "Ma said at last:" I and Mr. Niu Thursday to return to Beijing, and I was gone, was slaughtered Mr. overall responsibility, if Mr. Tu has also taken on by Mr. Chen is responsible. "before walking horse again, and" saber "Ⅱ project manager exchanged views Romer, Romer said that some issues are not the same because the two sides produced work habits, I believe After slowly will be good, work in the organization, he can re-arrange better. Romer finally said emotionally: "Unfortunately, I am soon to move heart surgery and retired, can not see the end of this project a success." At the end I managed to contact the Bendix Corporation, together with a few comrades to leave New York to go far , NJ ladder De Bobo's Bendix company visits, saw their avionics products and instrumentation laboratory.
◆ The first is a rigorous scientific assessment, Chinese staff strict attitude towards work has won the respect of their U.S. counterparts Grumman's work, because of our cooperation is to assume from the original aircraft based on the F-7M to truly based on the actual aircraft of transformation. Their engineers with a contact, you can feel all of them are pragmatic engineering expert, the reaction is rapid and sensitive. Look from the process of cooperation, even though the Chinese side is responsible for the feasibility study, but also mainly in the United States have, as originally envisaged in Chengdu, the main idea is not practical, because the communication between too inconvenient, too formalities abroad trouble; And the cooperation between the three countries, the special relationship, different ideas, working methods and habits are different, there are new problems come out at any time, only 45 factory, resourcefulness against the interim decision. Our thoughts on this change, but also won the part and executives of CATIC
Recognition. Therefore, according to plan as soon as possible to send a batch from domestic engineers to the United States, also logical. Therefore, people originally wanted to squeeze as much as possible to go on in avionics, this list also in abroad reserved some people in the Grumman work practice for some time, I find that the U.S. side is very dead seal avionics, see There is no possibility of coming. March 26 tripartite brief meeting, we propose to add to the beauty engineer 7, Georgia looked after, only agreed to five, after the fight agreed to six. By-pass by the invitation Grumman generation CAC Song Kaiji, Ma Honghai, Zhong Jing-yuan, Fan Defu, Jiang Zhong Yuan, Yuan Shixiang name to support the feasibility study to the United States. Which the United States the most urgent thing is to bring the structural strength Song Kaiji that data because the entire aircraft weight increase of about 30% of the original F-7M aircraft structural potential is not so great, and now a big load, the structure how to do, urgent decisions. The U.S. side also anxious to F-7M electrical load diagram, the original power supply is not enough to analyze how to use the United States after the ready-constant frequency AC power, but he said that as long as the zone data to fly, power system engineers do not have to come, our hearts know that the United States was afraid I touched him avionics side, of course, to argue, and finally he had to agree Yuan Shixiang come. "Sabre" Ⅱ scenario, there are three candidates for the engine, F404/RM12; PW1216; RB199, in the feasibility study, mainly for performance comparison, as the overall program of structural arrangements, only made the F404, and avionics selection by the US-Pakistan bilateral responsible, we need only choose to participate cannon, we fully recommend China-made double-barreled 23-mm guns, because, as the U.S. multi-barrel guns, expensive and heavy, structural change is also large. Cover, front landing gear, the U.S. recommended F20 and F5, the chairs with Martin Baker MD-10L, we all agree. We recommend that both sides of the inlet based upon intake, we visited their X-29, it was found that both sides of the inlet and we almost CP type, the vertical placement of the rectangle is not adjustable air intake, so the two sides hit it off. In discussions with the Palestinian side performance of the aircraft, the Salim request "Sabre" Ⅱ can have 7 plug-in, specifically in the implementation of empty task, should be able to send simultaneously with two medium-range missile, two bombs and three hair dogfight a fuel tank; task in the implementation of the open space should be able to carry a four bombs and two fuel tanks, or four bombs, two hair dogfight missile and a drop tank. In order to achieve a large plug capability, maximum number M Salim said rather only 1.6. About landing performance, Salim required takeoff conditions at sea level 3000 feet slip off the summer maximum surface temperature 45 ℃. These requirements, we are the first time I heard, while the Palestinian side as early as 1985, the Grumman raised. According to our own programs to engage the F-7CP experience, we remind the Grumman Aircraft focus to move forward, and center of gravity backward, it will be a big problem, with special attention. Because they are the center of gravity than the F-7M program back up to 5% of the average aerodynamic chord, and "saber" Ⅱ wing is intact with the F-7M, and we find it difficult to adjust over. We listened to these views Georgia, seems indifferent. Flyers quite proud of this man, look down on Chinese people. Once before, he Qiao Qiao ground and Salim said dry "saber" Ⅱ has two major difficulties, one aircraft is old, technically backward, two of the Soviet Union did not design information to the Chinese people, incomplete data . Saying that he did not think Chinese people have the F-7 design capability, the Soviets do not give the Chinese people did not move. We also talked to Salim Grumman problem for me is technically blocked. The original Grumman's verbal commitment in China, the basic is not implemented. Salim also believe that both partners should be no confidentiality issues, if they go into the prototype development stage, we must relax, otherwise it does not go dry. Salim said that the first review, Farouk deputy chief of staff will come, and you have any comments, you can individually Farooq speak. About the "Sabre" Ⅱ, Salim said that it is a big issue in terms of the Palestinian side, the Chinese side to help engage in "saber" Ⅱ, is a big deal, but Grumman is a company from doing business starting to dry can quit , the responsibility is not the same. In order to reduce aircraft costs, reduce development risk, we agree with the U.S. aircraft workload changes or whether the body should be as little as possible mechanical systems, avionics, mechanical parts are finished and aircraft used wherever possible shelf products, shelf product that English words is what we learned in this partnership. At first thought Huck Pellet much we want to change a number, so that we can learn more things, and later he came to talk with us, I immediately clarified that the decision is no such meaning. So the two sides were in a meeting of Sino-US crew to change as little as possible to convey this
Principle. In order to make the maintenance of the aircraft is good, wear repeatedly done our job, advocating lower fuselage after taking the form of large openings, he said, the army's ground staff, only six years the cultural level, low quality, so as much as possible so that maintenance work is simple, clear and easy to see. April 14 Start "Sabre" Ⅱ first review the feasibility study, the assessment will be carried out within Grumman headquarters. Pakistani air operations and deputy chief of staff, Major General Farooq Pakistan United States for a military attache two prospective future. The Chinese side panel of judges composed of four persons; Victor Fan, Gu Songfen, Yangbao Shu came to the United States to participate, Sun Zhaoqing Secretary is returning from South America just in time for the New York route assessment. U.S. Department of Defense and the Air Force should also sent invitation to participate in the Palestinian side, we have to fly in the United States who all participated. 14 morning assessment, in fact by the United States and other technical manager Flyers review information has been prepared by a front projector sheets in English say again, talked some, and asked, what is the problem, do not continue to speak, speak more than one hour and rest snack, tell more than one hour, over, for lunch. Grumman headquarters at noon in the basement cafeteria to eat, CMB staff entertained by the Grumman, the U.S. Department of Defense and Air Force personnel of their own money to buy food. Afternoon, they arranged the Chinese side to browse, the actual avionics he speaks, not to participate in China, we do not have to browse, make time for internal discussions. The next morning continue to review, in less than an hour to finish it. Afternoon on behalf of the Palestinian side to listen to the views of the U.S. military, of course we do not participate. Our internal discussions, the general principle, technically that would govern a matter within our division, of course, if the overall change in price will grow big, period should be extended, so the risk is big, it should be concerned. Our main problem is related to the lower fuselage after a big opening, it will affect the whole machine stiffness involving the weak link is the tail flutter characteristics; wing increases plug, outer wing is too thin, there flutter; cannon try to convince adopt double-barreled 23-mm guns; Overall, the focus is now over, is not easy to adjust, fix will not hold the wing position; machine oil must implement, or fail flight profile requirements, the program will stand up. On the third day, we talk alone with Major General Farooq, Farooq said after listening to our advice, you will not be afraid of many problems, feasibility studies began, now is not the final solution. Certainly not much change, the performance requirements will not reach, changed much, the weight added to the cost also increased, this contradiction indeed exist. But now, your eyes get used to release a number of engineers, more program analysis, feasibility studies, etc. is over, let's set. China to participate in the assessment of the leadership, also felt in the United States co-specificity. So Secretary decided that I want to work in the United States and APPLIED & ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY top in the end, we commissioned the feasibility stage discretionary management, because the Ministry of CATIC and factory leaders have come here only temporarily. Gu Songfen vice president also suggested how to strengthen domestic work and work in the U.S. contact, some calculations, the Chinese side also counted in the country, if necessary, let someone run back and forth, even spend some money for it. China to again review group is not easy, we want to take a look at Grumman raised his composite material processing and telex control system, they replied that the composite materials processing required by the Government can not see, fly-you can see. Later, he took us to see the rush cursory test chamber, is actually a static test stand, far from iron bird test rig is to meet us on what is still the case, it is unclear about it. April 19 our assessment group from New York back to Beijing, Shen Yong Yuan, Shao-side on the same plane home. Urged the United States as soon as possible in order to provide us with some basic information, I and Chen Jinyan formally written to the Grumman made 28 comments, asking them to answer. During this time, my classmates, Shanghai 640 shipped 10 architect Ma Feng-shan just led the long-term cooperation in the McDonnell Douglas formula designed with no external bypass turbofan (paddle fan) engine plane, I talk with him several times, asking him to McDonnell Douglas proposal sent to the expert group to investigate into the flight, flying hopes to produce MD-80 nose. Soon, McDonnell Douglas went really sent. By the end of April, Ma said to me on the phone, McDonnell Douglas after the company went into a fly very pleased, and said, finally in China to find the best partner for it.
◆ Grumman dismissed him sacked the chief architect Flyers, on the one hand shows Grumman for "saber" Ⅱ project's importance, but it is also reflects the modern scientific enterprise employment system. Our cooperation with Grumman has since entered a new phase Song Kaiji 6 people on April 11 evening arrived in New York, they are one and the review group together Victor Fan, Grumman received by the review group to live inn go, Song, etc. are live with us, but when they went to the assessment. Song Kaiji, Fan Defu them after work, structural strength work had begun it. We are always concerned about the increase in the weight and center of gravity moved too many questions gradually Grumman attention, our internal study, also presented to them for weight loss advice. As we come New people, we propose to take a look at X-29, 4 月 22 日 Grumman also organized us to see. Because the F404 engine of the aircraft has been removed, we can see the proposed engine, they promised to be studied. 23 Pellet Huck himself came and we discussed several issues, a beginning, he angrily questioned said to me and Chen Jinyan, the core issues are great, why do not you remind the Chinese side? I immediately said, we have a few to Flyers this question raised by Mr. came, he could not seriously. Pei After listening mood a little more calm, to talk about the two programs seek our opinion, one of the entire engine forward five inches, the second is the nose and the pilot cockpit moved forward eight inches, of course, this will lead to AIRCRAFT go to war. We analyzed the pros and cons of two programs, a program will reduce the amount of oil inside the machine, two programs will increase the weight of the aircraft, saying they want to do further work, and sometimes not a good decision. Perry talked of the aircraft weight and increasing problem of plug capability, artillery certainly use our double-barreled 23-mm guns, because with the U.S. M61 to gain weight 511 pounds, can not afford the aircraft back. In order to increase the external capacity must be increased maximum takeoff weight of the aircraft, not only involves takeoff performance, but also relates to the main landing gear and braking load capacity. 28, Perry ran to our office for me and Chen Jinyan announced a feasibility study of a major dramatic events. He first apologized to us, and the last aircraft center of gravity of the issue wronged China, he said, China is a very experienced engineer, you should better play the role, and now Grumman opened a high-level Council decided three things: one, except avionics weapons outside of China decryption, the air lock door open, so that Chinese engineers in, and Grumman people work together, this week to adjust; Second, Flyers Mr. retired, please also a good man, Mr. Karan felt pulled to preside over the feasibility study; three, will ask you to look at the cockpit ready model. This is certainly a surprise. Afterwards knew Pellet Huck find solutions to serious problems, traced to the Flyers who found that he could look down on China's views, then directly to the company's chairman, made the decision. These three decisions, the first after a month of practice, affirmed China Grumman engineer's experience and capabilities, forcing them to open the door to better cooperate with the Chinese people, because there is no Chinese cooperation, Turkoglu doors are not to engage in "saber" Ⅱ come; second at midway horses, the equivalent of the chief architect of the technical manager to replace it, and practice, we seem, some cruel, so less than the retirement age Eph Scholes retired early to say that this is a merciless punishment; Third, let us look at his nose 1:1 cockpit model, as is an open part of the original to prevent contact with avionics is friendly. This of course is very good, it should be said that our big victory. Strike while the iron is hot, I took the opportunity for Perry said that we talked about the Chinese side again send some engineers to the United States, the Romer and Flyers said Mr. May will end the work of engineers, will be diverted to commercial aspects of the work, and I surprised. I think that from a technical point of view the work program, in May will be the climax of the technical work, and not the end. Pellet Huck said, I agree with you. Later, Mr. Flyers really left the company retired to 45 plant to tell you goodbye, I specifically went and Chen Jinyan send him a small gift represents farewell. Although he does not respect our past, very arrogant, but this time the company wanted him to retire early, rather dingy, we have some not bear it. Speaking of American personnel system,
As project manager Roemer's secretary, five months has changed three, we contacted, they all work very good, from the phone, power transmission, print files to deal with daily chores, do anything, but the head was not the substitutions, I do not know whether a change is dismissed. Weekend, Mr. Paul to accompany us to New York City, except by boat to the Statue of Liberty Staten Island about halfway point of view, mainly to visit the aircraft carrier. Ship moored in the Hudson River on the "Invincible" aircraft carrier, is in the U.S. Navy retired after 31 years, and now as a Naval Air and Space Museum for visitors. Because Grumman produces carrier-based aircraft, and display unit has a relationship with a letter of introduction to the company, it is free boarding it. Ship of more than 70 aircraft on display, there are many missile weapons and satellites, spacecraft and so on. Mothership cab, flight deck and hangar below are open fancy visiting, we are the first to see an aircraft carrier, with great interest, especially for a variety of carrier aircraft tail hook, because the "saber" Ⅱ to be installed , we are very careful. On the 29th, the British Rolls-Royce is to "saber" Ⅱ program recommended RB199 engines, specially sent to New York to do the work to us, please meet me and Chen Jinyan to Manhattan, about his engine, we also pay attention to the work done and friendly. F404 to solve problems, to come forward with GE Grumman contact the company by GE company invited us to his discussion there to see the engines and technical issues, we decided to Chen and I led, Qiu Zheng, Fan, Jiang Huang, Yuan, etc. 8 people go, Mr. Zhang Wei scheduling or by the use of a Sunday, May 3 morning departure to Boston, the specific route by Zhang telex sue me. Sherlock legislation to floating Chinese Royal Hotel, Ms. Zhang Weixie and daughter in there waiting for us, ate lunch together. Later, proceed to Boston and then by Zhang took the shops, visit the "air gap" to see MIT, stay hotel. The next day, the 4th is a Monday morning to Lynn's GE's activities in one day. Listen briefing, after watching the F404 engine, visit the assembly line, test cell, and then we are ready to sit down and answer questions, in addition to not give the performance curve, but our questions are answered, we are more satisfied with the original 15:30 to leave the company after the extension to 5:00 before leaving.
◆ prime Grumman engineers limited degree of confidentiality until the small door opened, although small, but for bilateral cooperation essence is a qualitative leap May 5 Grumman to go to work, we are able to successfully jump 45 plants that road there is a number of locked doors. "Sabre" Ⅱ division of aircraft programs, we are responsible in the aft fuselage and the wings, tail and various mechanical systems, so the structural strength of the fatigue life is our focus here involve how to coordinate the two different specifications of the problem, including load who to decide, how to plan experimental work, in particular how to determine the fatigue load spectrum and so on, in addition, the Palestinian side dished out combat flight profiles after he throws a different plug-in state, increasing the weight of the aircraft, changing work volume is also growing, some of the key issues that must be Song Kaiji, who in mid-May along with the United States before returning to find out. Early May Zhang Gongxun, Shi Gan Bao, WANG Zai Gao Gang and Xu He later, Dai often to the United States, landing gear modifications and optional wheels so rafts work schedule. Grumman for the overall development program supporting aircraft development schedule, but also flush out preliminary discussions with us. June 2 to start the second review, the domestic dispatched Ma Chenglin, Gu Songfen, Yangbao Shu, NIU Xin Tong to participate in the assessment. Prior to this, we have the situation in the United States working in the written report back home, so they come to participate in the assessment made prior to the plan, including the progress of the third stage, division of labor, the principle of cost estimates. Pakistan and the U.S. Air Force is still the first person to review. Grumman's work plan is very strong, but also very specific plan, set up, must complete. Reflect their organizational capacity so that we admire. Second review of the material prepared more fully, there are as many as 250, the General Assembly reports a day and a half, pulled by the Karan feel any protagonist, a lady made a part of the report avionics
Reports, we all participated. Which can be considered from Grumman after the change of policy to continue. In my separate review group to accompany Chen and Tan Huck Pellet prototype development progress and programs of the major technical problems, Pellet said Huck: So our minds have doubts, but three months since the work together, you become fly engineers, give me a deep impression, they are all first-class engineers, with high levels of knowledge, they do not spend their time here. CATIC in part and in front of the leaders, he praised these sincere words to make people feel that our months of intense work, the Sino-US cooperation in military aircraft for the first time, we fulfill our mission into a trapeze for the Chinese people to fight the light, the CAC fight the light. Prior to this, Grumman International Department Mr. Paul also told us that you and I have contact with the group over a number of groups, is not the same, and you work hard, really to pursue their careers, and his words, on the one hand Some of China's past shame to go abroad, but also motivate us even more to redouble efforts. In and Pakistani Maj. Gen. empty Faro talk alone when Farooq suggested that we are still engaged in a large opening rear fuselage. He said, you should get this technology, even though the "saber" Ⅱ engage, and master this technology is also good for you. Farooq also calls for increased plug, increased takeoff weight, when it deems necessary to carry out some on the wings can lift measures. I said, wing changed, the money will more. Farouk joked that you would like to share in 8,000,000 6,000,000? Everyone burst into laughter. I again Farooq said that Pakistan provides fatigue spectral data too, is unreasonable. Farooq said that as long as the new version of MIL specification almost can. Farooq asked, and now the Chinese Grumman data to how the situation like? I say better than before, but some still give. Farooq said that through Salim go to. "Sabre" Ⅱ programs, high subsonic good mobility, but only to the maximum number of M 1.6, empty combat radius can reach 180km requirements Palestinian side, but not up to the state space, the electronic device can be and F16 quite as extensive use of the F16 avionics, problems are still not satisfied with the Palestinian side plug-in capability, F20 can plug 5 tons, "saber" Ⅱ only hang two tons more. U.S. Air Force during the first assessment had asked three questions: 1. Plug-in capacity is small; 2. Palestinians fear life requires 3000 hours to reach; 3. Aircraft electronic equipment used ones. The review, the proposed review comments as much as seven, including both sides of the engine inlet stability and matching; combat radius problem; infrared pod integrated design; external load significantly increased body To re-design; due to fatigue spectrum up to 5 times the original aircraft endurance work must invest a lot of manpower; main landing gear to increase the feasibility of carrying capacity; horizontal tail aft fuselage change because there is a serious flutter; related fuel system, hydraulic systems, environmental control systems, power systems, avionics systems, weapons systems, crew systems. Also proposed aircraft must have a specification or system specifications to determine the "saber" Ⅱ aircraft capacity to meet its own task against a predetermined threat and develop a comprehensive test plan. These comments are good advice, I see the old bus, please review the Air Force, is not only a monitored gobbledygook, technically they have the ability to come up with ideas, and therefore still very worthwhile invited. China, as we review the party cooperation, but also to write a written review comments submitted to the United States, with a copy to the Palestinian side. We review group also wrote before returning to the domestic reporting assessment report back, Fan Defu, five people along with Beijing. Second review after Xude Huan, Liu Yuanxiao, Wang Yue Xin, Wang Zhibin, Mashu Tang, XU Zhen Court and CATIC Zhou Lan Yuan, respectively, to the United States, Du scheduled Huan is factory provisional decision on behalf of the Programme, Financial and talk "saber" Ⅱ a quote. Grumman after the two assessment reports prepared a feasibility report outline and RFP that is, "Request for Comments" outline, which is the contractor on behalf of the ordering party mimic the equivalent aircraft cooperative combat skills required documents, it reference to the drafting of the U.S. Air Force to replace the Chinese F-8 issued by the U.S. contractor modified the tender documents. We learn by doing, this kind of work for the United States to gradually have a more concrete understanding. As China's tasks in the second evaluation, we Grumman provided by the division to 11 copies in English feasibility study report, are: intensity loads, the main landing gear systems, engine systems, fuel systems, increased heart weight calculation, body structure, wings and tail structure, life of the body, the tail hook landing, hydraulic and air-conditioning systems, aircraft control systems. This is the work of our domestic and foreign research results of combining formal submission
Georgia ago, I and Chen Jinyan together literally overnight overtime was reviewed. After the second assessment, but also provides a five copies. The end of June, the U.S. newspaper reported that Pakistani national newspapers news that China will export F-7M fighters Pakistan 200, the first batch will be delivered within a few months, while Pakistani Foreign Ministry denied that the bilateral relations are still negotiating medium. Grumman has been re-designated as project manager and technical manager of Karan feel pulled in Pellet Huck led assessment together after the two had a special visit Pakistan to seek the views of a wider range of people, back to the United States, said, Pakistan satisfactory for most programs are only made five specific questions: F-6 aircraft control systems arm regulator problem, "saber" Ⅱ should pay attention; takeoff characteristics of high temperature problem; 3000 hours life issues; avionics systems all use the F16 do not change; low-speed large table should be increased to 1200 km / h. On overall progress and hope to start mass production in 1990, 1996 finished production; aircraft price, that more than nine million are not acceptable. Back this information through research Grumman will then send personnel to Pakistan. ◆ UK ogle the third review, making the addition of hand ready to fly. Grumman for "saber" Ⅱ is smug, while the Palestinian side is a set of its own small 99 June 1987, at the Paris International Air Show, Mo Wenxiang minister met with British minister of industry. British Chancellor of the proposed cooperation, on the basis of the F-7M develop into export-oriented light fighters, the British Rolls-Royce engines RB199, using GEC Avionics Phelan section (Ferranti) radar-based facilities, joint investment by the tripartite cooperation development, reached an agreement of intent on the spot. After the news reached home, flying F-7C are doing type scheme work, could be transformed into a type CE. At that time the F-7C-based work has been actively underway, and some parts have been developed to detailed design, based on domestic engine based. If they can take advantage of Britain's engines and avionics, can raise the level of the aircraft, but also export models share the investment risk, and increased job selling power, the development of C-type than we alone good, than to engage in Sino-US cooperation "saber "Ⅱ good. Because China-US cooperation, our hands autonomy rarely, if Sino-British, at least all of our body. We coordination with RB199 engine, which started in early 86, and later the Ministry since the J-7CP requirements into products, we have actively sought to Rolls-Royce in China to negotiate directly with me. 86 In December 2008, the two sides in Shanghai conducted a formal negotiation, we by the SHEN Yong Yuan, Wang Zhong whole host talks. March 1987, Rolls-Royce officially responded to our technical issues raised, and also provides the engine performance curve, but it is the MK103 type, ground afterburning only 73 kN (7448.9 kg). Guide made a report to the United States is once again participate in the final completion of the third review and feasibility study. July, Pellet Huck accompanied Grumman Chairman Bill Worth to Pakistan to go again. Pakistan was on the "Sabre" Ⅱ very optimistic in the past that Pakistan Defense and the Air Force have different views, this time to go, and Mustafa met three times face, confirming that they are consistent. In the National Day reception, Bill Worth also met Pakistani Prime Minister General Zia ul Haq. Us before leaving Beijing, Mao Dehua with military bureau, Ma Chenglin Secretary, Foreign Affairs Bureau Sun Zhaoqing, Liu Guomin Secretary Victor Fan assistant vice president and consultants Songfen such a trip to the United States together to discuss various issues, Gu conflict because of something, can not go three assessment . Liu Guomin Li Tzar Fan want to go to Pakistan and then diverted to the United States. I Before leaving Beijing for talks with the Pakistani side to prepare the aircraft fatigue life spectrum, specifically looking SAC plant comrades talked F-6 Life situation and want to be flying south to the fatigue strength -5 spectrum test report, please help me to total care collected some other models situations. To Grumman after the 16th I talk about that 约佩莱哈克 and Salim aircraft fatigue spectral problem, I think, according to the Palestinian side to the flight profile calculated load spectrum is too severe, both the F-6 and Q-5 an example case. Estimated Yin Gelu door Estimating aircraft costs, Pei initiative, said that the United States is in a meeting inside, to reverse the idea that this "saber" Ⅱ is modified, not the new design, of course Grumman has the ability to change anything, then to try, try out how much life, give much life, so save costs and cycles. Salim disagrees, saying, can not wait and see approach, can change the material? Necessary for the whole lifetime of the wing? Salim but do not agree to amend the flight profile and other raw data, and finally no one has to convince anyone. The 17th and feel and Latin America with Karan talked maximum takeoff weight of the load and the main landing gear problems, as well as the progress of aircraft development issues. The third review, the Chinese assessment group, except me and single fathers than Mao, Liu Guomin, Victor Fan from Pakistan to the United States, Ma Chenglin, Yang Baoshu 19, from Beijing, the ROC representative Xiongshan Jun CATIC come from Los Angeles, and the translation of Housing Ying eight thousand. Liu, Li went to Pakistan, met with Mustafa and Farooq, bring some reflection of the Palestinian side. Pakistan Air Farouk four major problems that exist in solution: the carrying capacity of the landing gear, plug lack of capacity, a large landing speed; aircraft maximum overload is too small. After the feasibility study done on the plan, the Palestinian side intends to wait until the official final report, a draft tender (RFP) and quotes after the combined U.S. Air Force to write reports and CATIC's report, together with the decision of whether to stay here before. Decided to stay here, then, will the United States issued a formal tender Aircraft Company, now in addition to outside Grumman, another Boeing, Lockheed expressed interest in bidding, General Dynamics is still opposed to "saber" Ⅱ, want to sell him The F-16, and to help build Kamra base for conditions to attract the Palestinian side; French Dassault heard the news, but also to participate in the bidding. Hair is never too early tender estimates may be at the end of the job. Pakistan has talked about in case "Sabre" Ⅱ fails, China and Pakistan can study how the two sides will cooperate. On the development fee, the Palestinian side heard Grumman to nearly 1.5 one hundred million (dollars) development fee that is too high. Liu Li on Mu said that we have heard from 2 to 250 million. Mustafa said that this project had to end. 19 Liu came forward to do the work alone fete Manuel Hacker, Lee and I accompany them, housing Ying translation. During the meeting, Liu Pei indirectly advised, Grumman development fee quotation should not be too high. But Perry for "saber" Ⅱ confident the future, although also know that General Dynamics threat. Perry also said that in order to engage Grumman feasibility study has already spent 3.5 million dollars, implies that Grumman great determination, at the pocket as much as 2 million. Speaking of aircraft life issues, Perry said, to the seller, you can not say no, when necessary, for spare parts, of course, if you can reduce the load spectrum Pakistani air better. Question about progress, Pei said that there are 10 months before the contract can be used as a formal contract is estimated to be between April and May next year. July 21 and 22, two days will be assessed officially opened, approaches still as ever, report only the 21st General Assembly one day, the next day the parties were active. Because this is the last review, the program content is more abundant, in addition to aircraft technology, it also includes a variety of technical analysis (handling and stability characteristics analysis, flutter analysis, reliability, maintainability safety analysis), ground tests, flight tests arrangements and their assessment, logistical support, manufacturing planning and scheduling, etc.. About avionics, Grumman
Requested by the Palestinian side has been officially selected to APG-66 radar-based F-16A full set of equipment, and in which APG-66 medium-range guided missiles can be modified, and HUD, the next display, inertial navigation, mission computer you are the F-16C can be said, with considerable advanced. Evening, our ambassador to the United Nations Mission Wang Jiahua come forward to buffet reception hosted bar, grid guests, which means that celebrate the Chinese group as a whole and technical review group attended accompany them. During the meeting, Pellet Huck asked me one day during the day and listened to the report of how to feel? I said, well, of the feasibility study are included in all aspects into account, since four and a half hours, the efficiency is very high. The next day we US-Pakistani soil mainly people together to discuss future cooperation and division of labor organization. During the discussion, Pellet Huck and publicly against Liu Guomin, Ma Chenglin Secretary said: Chinese engineers working here is very hard, you should fly into a team with so proud.
◆ completed the feasibility study old Palestinian said, "saber" Ⅱ only have a father! Thus, the two sides are weighing the relationship between father and uncle. "Sabre" Ⅱ in weighing the feasibility study being completed after our internal preparations after 22, we Yue Gelu door at his headquarters in the upper discuss several important issues, in addition to Manuel Hacker Georgia, the aircraft segment Vice President noted that pull close, open another project consultant Mike Bo, a total of five people attended the Chinese side, I am outside, Liu, Ma, Li, Yang Chen attended to discuss the first focused on the future form of organization Grumman proposed between China and the U.S. contractor to build a ACA (contractor federation), pass each other technical information, coordination of technical interfaces. According to reports in the U.S. weapons system development, which is a widely used approach, we agree that it is technically possible such forms of organization, but the business issues, such as the cost involved, and progress should be how to do? In addition, if technically there are differences, what can they do? Grumman said that business by the WS, RB (Weapon Systems and Accreditation Committee) to a proposal, since it is often technically demanding change, involving costs, then only the problem together, presented the Palestinian side to decide, if technically there are differences, it will be submitted to the Palestinian side to decide. We say that the Chairman of the Committee, it is best to bear by the Palestinian side, if willing to act as chairman of the Palestinian side, the general contractor may be chaired by the United States, subject to the Chinese Vice-Presidents, and has veto power, there are disagreements on the Palestinian side presented and not ruled by the President himself. Grumman agree with us. The second issue is discussed in the final report and the RFP, the Chinese division of labor inside the work involved, we require the draft to us, we want to propose amendments. Mike is responsible for drafting the RFP that open Bo said, this can not unilaterally by the Grumman to China, Pakistan should seek advice, we strongly disagree, I say this first of the two sides should be discussed first, and then submitted to the Palestinian side, the grid Truman did not have much reason to finally agree to our opinions. The third problem is the life of the body and fatigue spectrum, we believe that spectrum too serious, Georgia experts also believe that this spectrum to be used, such as longevity, the structure now only reach fifth life. But the macro perspective, Georgia to consider the issue and believe that China is too conservative, that they comply with the motto is that customers ask for anything, can be achieved. Finally, we agree that we are done directly by the Palestinian side of the work. On how to use the contract of 10 months left before the time, Perry said Grumman things to spend money is not going to do it again, for fear of lack of future contract, but do some research and written work or Yes, to answer questions raised by the Palestinian side in the future. Liu Guomin we talk, we question the Chinese no-bid, where Palestinians want us to do the work, we want to continue doing, hope Grumman support us. 23, we find Major General Farooq Pakistan empty talk. After my more detailed explanation, Farouk consent rough structure of the body under the same conditions to make life a modification of the maximum principle. Farooq also agree that regardless of the final report on this issue how to write, and China should continue to do the work, do not put the Palestinian issue as a reason for termination of the project. Speaking of the RFP, when Liu copy should be formally proposed to me, very simply Farooq said, 0K!
Liu urged the Pakistani General Contractors of America in deciding the future before you tell the Chinese side. Farooq said that we've talked in the past, Pakistan decided everything, and will tell the Chinese side. Mr. Liu said, of course, the final decision who is general contracting, we respect the decision of the Palestinian side, even though you selected Grumman, we will work closely with them. Liu also told him that we unanimously found with Grumman future forms of cooperation, the two sides have a general contractor, respectively, signed a contract with the Palestinian side, and then organize an ACA and a Committee. Speaking here, Farooq said wait one minute, he turned and Salim discussed with Wu Erdu language for a moment, then said to us in English, this issue requires further research, I personally think that the Committee should be chaired by Pakistan party served. Finally Farouk explained, we require a U.S. aircraft overall responsibility for the general contractor, including the completion of each test, the final product by the United States to complete, so that they take responsibility, this does not mean you do not trust the Chinese or underestimated. Then he talked about the "saber" Ⅱ maximum takeoff weight, plug-in capability, design, development and progress overall. After the meeting, Liu talked to several of our morning he and Farooq were closeted situation in which there is one caught us by surprise, then, France Liu said that if the Palestinian side is selected when the general contractor General Dynamics, You do not be surprised. On the 24th, the Chinese group to review the 3rd workshop Grumman, visit its parts machining workshop, saw their 780 trillion cattle, 20000PSI large hydraulic machines, large vacuum electron beam welding (F14 alloy can be welded panels), the wall board peen forming, CNC forming skin temperature tolerance than military targets complete cycle of heat treatment and other large equipment. Most of the technical review group and group members left New York on the 26th repatriation, including Liu, Li two went to Washington to report again to the bar and then return home. Finally leaving five people, and I Chenxin Yan, Qiu Puda, Liu trees and cattle CATIC new tong Grumman finally ended with the reliability of all the work. Grumman's final report and the draft RFP to us after the 27th, we carefully weigh after August 3 in writing to the proposed three memoranda pull Karan sleep, an expression of our final report, RFP and third second assessment material revisions. Because the RFP will be issued by the Palestinian side to accept the tender of the United States to each aircraft company, so we propose a modification of the RFP emphasized the principle of "saber" Ⅱ meet the requirements under the premise empty bar should try to expand relative to F - 7M aircraft design and manufacturing inheritance succession, to achieve the most economical cost and fastest progress. In addition, since 13 frames after the body including the tail of the aircraft main landing gear belonging to the Chinese division of responsibility does not belong to the scope of U.S. aircraft companies to bid, so the RFP who comes to this part of the content should be from simple. F-7M technical indicators do not have to introduce the "Sabre" Ⅱ contrast. We also recommend that, in addition to the United States of the engine, avionics, in principle, should follow the F-7M norms and standards. Both sides in the prototype stage research cooperation, the two sides should send Liaison leader in each other, in order to understand the situation and provide technical support. 3 at noon, we have 45 factories office official farewell luncheon way all my colleagues in the US-Pakistan parties. I speak on behalf of China, for their work in five months appreciates the cooperation and expressed through bilateral cooperation, enhance mutual understanding between the people of the three countries, although we have different lifestyles, different histories, different philosophy, but we talk between technology, a talk about the aircraft, we have a common language, perhaps this is a bigger harvest, is the basis for further cooperation in the future. Finished, everyone applauded, which means that the same way. 4, we individually and Pakistan Air Force Salim farewell. Conversation, Salim showing that if the U.S. government does not think that the final report and RFP for China, it is not necessary to engage in this project anymore, do not spend anymore. Because cooperation between the two parties, engage in one-way confidentiality, the project is not go dry, as to spend money is wasted. Pakistan is a poor country, the flowers spend, waste not. Sa said, to make the project go forward, there is much work to be done, after General Contractors of America, may not Grumman, you have to them the details of the F-7M and "saber" Ⅱ program. 6, 2009, we went to meet the company's chairman Bill Worth, both bid farewell, and to do some work, I hope, chairman determined to make Grumman make some money before the contract work. Bill Wirth said to us, "and
Flat pearl "items have been reviewed by Grumman won the bid, so in the future Grumman cooperation with China will be more open and I said, you" Peace Pearl "hand is a welcome thing, but also the money, you can" saber " Ⅱ project to make some risk investing. Bill Wirth said, yes, but we can not go too fast, because the user is still rocking, undecided, he added, "saber" Ⅱ not only the Palestinian side to 150 Other countries will be, and you will become a focal point into the fly, too busy to Seven years later, you will accumulate a lot of experience, when you dry in 2000 after the aircraft of their own design, there is a way the same day, Bob and Mike we opened. Karan felt pulled by one interviews and Salim opinions on revising our RFP About China to attend all the tests carried out in the United States the problem, the United States said that some can, but there are some restrictions, such as doing at NASA stall wind tunnel test, which is government-controlled items, we can not regard the general contractor, we adhere to both the United States have a general contractor, is to coordinate the relationship between the two, rather than the parent-child relationship. Salim says , "saber" Ⅱ only have one father, can not have two fathers, at most, have an uncle this day, we have submitted to the Palestinian side of our development cost estimates and price quotes. Grumman due to the Palestinian side of the pay him the money has not yet received, a formal final report postponed until the end of August was sent to Pakistan and China. officially send my final report missing avionics chapter, but the reality is that we have finished the first draft of the text, It says Ming Kalan feel pull will do the work we are in America the last few days, the completion of the internal summary of the work, in addition to elaborate profiles outside respectively achievements and harvest, total program situation, the U.S. project management, our method of work and future work are discussed. months, the CAC has sent 26 people, CATIC sent three people to participate in technical groups, in order to review, the Ministry of organs, CATIC and CAC has another six relevant leaders attended. money with the Palestinian side, China's military aircraft designers and U.S. military aircraft designers first time in history sit together to work together, to take that step is not easy, so you can say that all experience is very valuable
6 evening reception Grumman is responsible for the work of James. Forde President invited us to his home in five people for dinner, accompanied by the Wang Chengdong, this is our last activity at this stage. Forde was originally a test tube an engineer, in the "saber" Ⅱ tube reception and throughout the project life, always warm and friendly, and now this project is completed, and ordered him to have to return to technical management positions go up. 8 August, the five of us went to John F. Kennedy International Airport Depart repatriation, March 8 since the start of a full five months of "saber" Ⅱ feasibility study completed historic. ◆ began to "saber" Ⅱ reform wing aircraft performance improvement is out of the heap with money, When the "Sabre" Ⅱ due to improved performance among shrouded in shadow, the domestic high-performance aircraft for the international market but also because of the progress of the sharp increase in the cost of developing a five-month feasibility study iffy, the conclusion is feasible Technically replaced by the F-7M "Sabre" Ⅱ, can meet the requirements of the Palestinian side; aircraft price, progress and future development division production, are also feasible. Grumman reported only research costs are too high Of course, these are also included in the feasibility of the U.S. government agreed to export to Pakistan, including the F404 engine and avionics. remaining question now is whether Pakistan accordingly decided to "saber" Ⅱ aircraft into prototype development phase. Palestine has decided to purchase the first batch of F-7M, regardless of the "saber" Ⅱ do not engage in it, have to buy. engage in "saber" Ⅱ, F-7M will buy fewer; pursue the "Sabre" Ⅱ, buy more F-7M , that is to buy a small amount of F-16 to a greater number of F-7M. So for us, effortless good job, "saber" Ⅱ feasibility study, it is at least err and Gains. To F-7M the Palestinian side proposed 59 requires improved little problem, I looked after, which has a complicated Jane some small, estimated that only partial implementation, the largest is required to one pair of tube 23 guns, involving structural change too much, fear should be to convince the Palestinian side should not be changed.
Our party back to Beijing from the United States. Arrangements by CATIC, August 12, I flew directly from Beijing, Shenzhen, participate in the ministry of foreign trade is being held working meetings. Vice Minister Jiang, Sun, Director Liu and Cheng Fei Hou director are there, at the meeting to thematic studies "Sabre" Ⅱ projects and the Palestinian side on the F-7M improvement requirements, as well as our own export successor problem. In conclusion, the General Assembly, ginger Ministers and Secretary are clearly necessary to develop various models of export successor, the market has grown to impossible to come up with a ready-made aircraft to open the international military market phase. In early September, Grumman Pellet Hack, Karan sleep six people to pull his party Chengdu, Ma Chenglin, Victor Fan, cattle to participate in the negotiations with the new skirts. Larsen has been in Beijing after talking to fly back. Karan feel pulled first informed us that they went to Pakistan to report the results of the feasibility study the situation. And confidently puts forward the "Sabre" Ⅱ project management organization chart. They suggested that the project manager to be set below six departments, from engineering to manufacturing sector has been integrated logistics support, equipment procurement and contract financial sector, China also hopes to have a corresponding regulatory agencies. Speaking of "saber" Ⅱ program when Grumman asked 22 questions with us individually discussed. The larger changes are: 1. To meet the bar are of the "saber" Ⅱ performance requirements and increase the ability to plug desire to consider changing the geometry of the wing, the wing to increase lift apparatus 2. In order to calculate that they can fly into the "saber" Ⅱ hovering performance Grumman agreed to provide us five points of the engine thrust data. 3. With regard to future arrangements Grumman initiative, once the prototype contract is established, the feasibility study based on the work, to conduct preliminary design, which must be made by the two sides joint work, for which the CAC may send 50 Grumman engineers went to work. Tense negotiations carried out two days, and finally reached a total of 18 points by the composition of the Memorandum of Understanding. In the reform wing Grumman program, in addition to comparing performance calculations, the structural changes while doing the feasibility analysis, mainly worried about the wing root bending moment can not be increased too much, so that the existing structure can not adapt blanks. China's reform wing of our initial program a total of seven, and Grumman programs as are calculated out of the five points hovering performance. After discussion, the two sides initially decided to use China's Plan B (double delta) and the United States with leading edge slats 4 program, pending further work after the Palestinian side is recommended. Pellet Huck says that to change the wing, the essence is to engage in a new aircraft, as hair, heavy workload test, F-16 reform wing spent 400 million U.S. dollars, estimated the Palestinian side can not have more money. To improve the western wing aircraft company, generally do not change the basic wing, but only in the lift system efforts. Because the wing to change the "saber" Ⅱ program has a greater change. The negotiations Gu Songfen comrades to attend it. In the feasibility study report, despite our multiple Grumman advice, proposed a development cost of $ 285 million dollars in big-budget (not including the Chinese part of the development division fee of about 50 million), in Pakistan we touch party has "more expensive to terminate" intent upon one kind of ominous always shrouded in our minds. If the "Sabre" Ⅱ engage in, and we still have independent development of export successor. The idea is to fly into the air intake side of the body along with matching engine, as the first fly flying platform, weapons avionics, after further to resolve. This is called the master, round trip, step by step solution. But they do not agree with the Secretary Sun Zhaoqing go step by step, we must first come up with a complete merchandise aircraft, not only to the selected engine, avionics weapons should also be selected in order to decisively move forward, and performance of the aircraft must be good. So we had ongoing F-7C type scheme, no longer suited to the situation, the level must be raised to the "saber" Ⅱ quite this level. Therefore, given the original C-program evaluation pursue, the ministry has also been hung not proceed. The new C-type scheme, aircraft wing how to change, how to pick the engine avionics, to be re-argument. RB199 and foreign F404 engine has two objects, Rolls-Royce talks come in mid-September, but the possibility of a small number of imports. We consider one kind of two engines mounted fuselage to accommodate future users may have different orders. Of course, in addition to technical solutions, there are critical issues of research costs. Higher levels, changes should be large, but also the use of foreign engines and avionics, development fee will not be less than 3 million. And we want to get the original flying platform, change
About the body, with the domestic engine, estimated to spend tens of millions on it. Can be determined within the Ministry. If you want 300 million or more, there is no co-investment of foreign users, it is impossible. In mid-September, Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu to Beijing meeting, the Minister called them to report the problem outlet successor. Mo minister criticized at the Ministry did not approve, before flying into their own hands can not expand C-Machine. But to the Ministry approved the premise must have a market forecast, get some orders. Vice Minister Wang also believes that if there is no order can not engage in export successor. In short, Benniao can not fly first, stuck.
◆ Coordinate are not satisfied, "saber" Ⅱ project, only to fly on the surface and Grumman two involved, and in fact, the U.S. General Motors has been invisible in the dark to plug in. This makes the "Sabre" Ⅱ project more complicated the prospects scheduled on the Palestinian side, "saber" Ⅱ eventually forming opinions decisions, have seen China's formal opinion. To this end, we drafted in the name of the Minister of Aviation Industry in early October to the Pakistani government issued letters, expressed mainly three points. To the effect that: 1. Replaced by the F-7M "Sabre" Ⅱ, technically feasible, according to the division of labor, the Chinese have the ability to undertake the design, manufacture and test work; 2. Future work must give full play to fly engineers familiar with the F-7M wealth of technical experience, so you must make a closer Sino-US cooperation; 3. Future cooperation must follow the principles of equality and mutual benefit, it is recommended by the Palestinian side as weapon systems integrated assessment committee. Appended a letter CAC RFP and the final report on the technical solutions, partnerships and certain aspects of the division three formal opinion. 10 months, Grumman Karan feel pulled and Manuel Hack with Wang Chengdong, James Forde to Beijing again to discuss the reform wing of both programs. I and Chen Jinyan, Liu Yunxiao trio went to Beijing to negotiate. In the latter part of the feasibility study, the Palestinian side has complained that "saber" Ⅱ program subsonic circled poor performance, not as good as the F-6. To this end, we are going to the Grumman F-6 performance of a manual, also calculated by five points hovering performance of the F-6. They have come, in addition to the five improved wing programs are described individually, but also a list of contrast and F-6, F-7, "saber" Ⅱ, "saber" Ⅱ change, as well as F-20, F- 16 of the data. In the oral presentation, the Karan felt that if they can spend some pull big capital, such as automatic maneuvering into full span trailing edge flaps and flap maneuver, the "saber" Ⅱ hovering performance will be changed with the F- 16 compared to, of course, now do not pursue such high targets. We brought eight programs, also made the same calculation and analysis, comparing the two sides briefed each other selections, the last two programs focus on, and then continue to do some work, intends to recommend the Palestinian side. Moving on, they went directly to Pakistan. After talking back to Beijing intended to inform us, so I'm waiting for him to stay in Beijing and Chen Jinyan echo. As early as 87 years on October 2, Islamabad, Pakistan Muslim Daily News published a special report, entitled Pakistan plans to use U.S. air engines and avionics update Chinese-made F-7. Along with the a "saber" Ⅱ model pictures. Text explicitly say "saber" Ⅱ project after five months of feasibility studies have been selected APG-66 radar and F404 engines, the article says whether to approve the project depends retrofit costs, it appears that this is not a general feature articles Correspondent reports, but from Pakistani official undoubtedly. Grumman saw that, should also inspire. Grumman personnel to Beijing in mid-October before CATIC Liu Guomin, Victor Fan on October 9 Grumman went to Pakistan before the negotiations. Farooq has met with Major General in Pakistan, Jamal Mustafa Admiral and Secretary of State, later also brought back the reply of the Minister Mustafa to mo. Taken together, although the Pakistani empty until as late as the end of its formal opinion Defence, the earliest spring of next year the Pakistani government before making a final decision, but the Pakistani air of the "Sabre" Ⅱ feasibility study, the response is poor.
The first is not satisfied with the performance of the aircraft, poor mobility, individual states might as F-7M, weak arms plug, combat radius. The second is the development cost is too high, the unit price does not drop down, the Palestinian side calculate life cycle cost will be higher than F-16. Third, require the use of aircraft for 20 years, but 3000 hours life, expected only use 10-15 years, can not meet the need. Fourth, the armed forces of the time, compared with the purchase of ready-made airplanes too late, but we have to take the risk of development. Pakistan explained that the perception is the result of a feasibility study realized. So spend some money to conduct a feasibility study is worthwhile Grumman to Pakistan guaranteed performance indicators, cost estimates, etc., the Palestinian side were to remain calm and objective attitude, do not believe that he organized a team to deliberate comparison. To be fair, in addition to the development charges are too high in this one, other issues, the Palestinian side in the feasibility study of the RFP is not strictly required, but the buyer is the emperor, he is now proposed picky, you can not go to argue, others do not, you do not use. Behind all this, the U.S. General Dynamics, with preferential terms to sell F-16 to undercut squeezed "Sabre" Ⅱ, the "saber" Ⅱ greatest threat. In Pakistan talks at the meeting, Palestinian leaders have repeatedly stressed that Pakistan, Pakistan-US relationship is completely different, the U.S. businessman opponent is, what can be promised, insincere. And between China and Pakistan, have long-term friendship, reliable. Therefore, the willingness of the Chinese side to improve the cooperation between China and Pakistan Pakistani F-7M called "one to one" scenario. From this Liu, Lee's trip to Pakistan to see the Palestinian side of the "Sabre" Ⅱ program has made it clear that coordinate are not satisfied, so unless there is a breakthrough Grumman this change, otherwise, "saber" Ⅱ is difficult to go on. From Pakistan to China to appease see, the idea of the perceived Palestinian side. From China's consistent standpoint, we will respect the final decision on the Palestinian side will not go undisputed. The Palestinian side also explicitly mention the Palestinian side initially asked to buy a number of F-7M aircraft, specifically, the Pakistani government has approved the first purchase of 20 F-7M, at the end of signing a formal contract. 4-6 months in order to ensure delivery of the aircraft next year, in only the first operation, the reply of the Minister Mustafa to Mo official mention this, can be used as the basis for China ahead of schedule. Pakistan also requested to deliver the first batch of F-7M at the same time, by an FT-7 to the Palestinian side short-term use. Pakistan purchase the second batch of F-7M's decision will be made within a year. Regardless of "one to one" or "saber" Ⅱ whether to proceed, the decision to buy the F-7M is unaffected. This is our negotiations to Pakistan since 1980 since the beginning of eight years unremitting effort, from the F-7I type, F -7 Ⅱ type comes F-7M type exported to Pakistan F-7 aircraft has finally become a reality, not easy. Grumman Karan feel pulling and Pellet Hack in the 16th wing with two sides agreed improvement program to Pakistan, Pakistani method Rook only meet them until the 20th, the 23rd they returned to Beijing to us briefing. About wing improvement program, Jamaal like to have leading edge flaps program, he further questioning the reliability of the program, Karan felt pulled to answer him, this will be clear only after the preliminary design to answer. Mustafa talked about the high cost of the development, the possibility envisaged by the Pakistan Muslim said three Sino-US joint venture development of risk-taking? Card told us that he did not know chairman would you not, so I said Mustafa, Pakistan before the first investment made nine months of preliminary design, and then later decide whether joint investment of risks. Mu believe that the development is divided into two stages, first carry out a preliminary design, and then engage in prototype development is reasonable, but the money to the Palestinian side is not made up. About the F-16 competition, Karan sleep pull analysis, the U.S. can not give Pakistan 150 F-16, price is certainly more than "saber" Ⅱ expensive. Wang Chengdong chimed, the Palestinian side a little money to spend 2 million to engage in "saber" Ⅱ feasibility analysis, many advantages, such as to buy F-16, a competitive, F-16 price, saving billions in costs before Pakistan, the Palestinian side has been greatly cheap. We are one, really the case, which shows that we scholar, analyzing not go there. In a complex environment of international struggle, things half-truths, we are just people in the hands of a card do? In short, the situation Karan feel pulled back, and we heard from the Deputy Director Liu Guomin almost. New
Now the question, one has to do first a Grumman nine months of preliminary design idea, the second is the Palestinian side suggested tripartite investment. United States does not know is that the Palestinian side has to be F-16 at the same time, buy a fleet of F-7M idea. Karan sleep pull off the line, the next day we CATIC specifically discussed with the Secretary of the "one to one" solution envisaged. And later alone with Grumman Bell discussed how to modify "Sabre" Ⅱ fatigue life of the body to increase the spectrum of 4000 hours and other issues. October 25 I and Chen returned to Chengdu. ◆ Pakistani empty set the tone no longer dry Grumman wishful thinking because, ultimately rising quotes make Pakistan lost interest. "Sabre" Ⅱ program only become depress GM's F-16's weight came back from Beijing, we are on the one hand, "saber" Ⅱ programs continue to improve, including the improvement and extension of life of the body wing, another hand grasp to do the F-7CP programs. The new CP program is better than the F-7M has significant advantages, but not up to "saber" Ⅱ, and therefore not a substitute for "saber" Ⅱ, the reason is that Pakistan hopes that "one to one" option is cheaper, price 5000000 level. We then imagine once it came out, there should be potential for further development. Alternative is to coordinate argument, namely, technical status, development cost and unit price, development progress. First consider the use of cheaper domestic engine, with foreign engines, should more expensive, the Palestinian side to install F404, they go by the imports. For the comrades, in addition to the design so alia, planned at Liying Bo, the Treasury's Xupeng Hui, and everyone worked intensively for 20 days. The end of November, the program sent to Beijing CATIC. Director Xie Ming just visit McDonnell Douglas returned to the United States, where the Sun, Mr Ma to discuss the "saber" Ⅱ and CP relations programs, in order to not affect the "Sabre" Ⅱ decision, unanimously agreed to suspend the CP sent to Pakistan programs. In order to discuss with the Grumman wing and life issues, Chen Jinyan, Qiu Puda, Song Kaiji, Liu Yunxi other four in the United States on November 30, work in the U.S. for two weeks. United States to participate in a total concentration of 16 engineers, Karan feel pulled chair. Aircraft Division vice president noted that pulled himself close to participate in the study were hospitalized (second cancer surgery) of Pellet Huck temporarily out of the hospital two half participate in the discussions, the United States is a very great importance to the upper and lower work. Grumman recommended slats, provide us with the F-14 slats physical structure for our reference. The two sides also discussed the drafting of the preliminary design of Grumman's SOW. Grumman for "saber" Ⅱ very confident that the world is no less than 10 tons of new small fighter, and "saber" Ⅱ is the cooperation with China, the price is certainly low in the international market will be very competitive . They analyzed the Palestinian side is difficult to settle down shortly. First, the Palestinian side there is no money; second is whether the U.S. government agreed to sell a large number of F-16 to Pakistan, it is difficult to give the Palestinian side straightforward answer. Therefore, as long as the Palestinian side Grumman promised to this aircraft, even if the Palestinians do not invest, Grumman have to stay here. Abroad to the Secretary and the group returned to Beijing Bureau Maoju Zhang aircraft were reported, respectively, who have expressed support for the preliminary design of the nine months it would go. Meanwhile, the president of Grumman International Larsen and Otto Richter again went to Pakistan to do the work. Go to Pakistan before the first Chinese, and exchange views CATIC Li Tzar Fan opinion as far as I answered the phone the United States, if the preliminary design for nine months, China accounts for about 40% of the workload to 50%, accounted for about one quarter . Larsen also brought a copy of their director Bill Worth on November 30 and will give Jamal Mustafa Secretary of State's letter. The letter said the feasibility study is completed, Grumman is committed to improving the "saber" Ⅱ performance and reduce costs extra work. In order to reduce development risk, Bill Worth formally proposed to "saber" Ⅱ research is divided into two stages full-size, first made nine months after the preliminary design, Turkoglu goalkeeper funded study whether participation in the common investments. Lorena special oral statement that the preliminary design to the Palestinian side proposed to spend 30 million dollars, 23 million to the Palestinian side.
Should the U.S. proposal, the two sides drafted a letter from Larsen and CATIC president Sun Zhaoqing joint letter signed by Larsen went with Pakistan. December 14 Austrian Chatwin flew back to Beijing to CATIC informed. This time they went to Pakistan to understand the Palestinian side on replacing the retiring F-6, there are four options available: 1. Developed 150 "Sabre" Ⅱ; 2. All replaced with the F-16; 3. Buy 20-30 aircraft F-16 plus a certain number of F-7M, 4. Buy 20-30 old F-16 aircraft plus 150 "Sabre" Ⅱ. In this regard, his analysis, the Palestinian side is now somewhat hooked on the F-16, the U.S. government does not see through diplomatic language, in fact, the U.S. government can not sell a large number of F-16 to Pakistan empty, because in order to maintain regional balance, if the United States to sell an F-16 to Pakistan, the Soviet Union will be two "MiG" -29 to India. Austrian Chatterton said they found the Pakistani military figures to Pakistan see the "Sabre" Ⅱ final report less than 10 people, it should be further to the bar to do publicity work, including the request to China to do a number of "saber" Ⅱ model, the appropriate dissemination , Grumman to pay. Lorena special back to Mustafa's letter to Bill Worth, letter reminded points: Requirements of the "Sabre" Ⅱ development fee to re-offer (that is, to keep the prices down), to make a joint investment and joint investment in both non- program, to raise the maximum amount of work to Kamla list and technological base layout programs. The end of November, came the news that Pakistan "saber" Ⅱ project director Salim has been promoted to brigadier general, of course, is another another job, no longer control "saber" Ⅱ, and we had a premonition "Sabre" Ⅱ prospects for the future. December 19, Ministry of Aviation Industry Minister Mo Wenxiang a delegation visit to Pakistan, Ma Chenglin, Liu Guomin, Victor Fan, etc. along. In Pakistan met President, Prime Minister, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, also met with Chief of Staff of the Air Force and Department of Defense, Secretary of State will Jamal Mustafa. In Pakistan during the export of China and Pakistan signed a 20 F-7M contract, because there are some small change, renamed F-7P. During the meeting, also specifically talked about "Sabre" Ⅱ project. Mo Minister Mustafa said on the 20th: the results of the feasibility study, this should be sufficient to enable the Palestinian side of the "Sabre" Ⅱ project to make a decision, and now they spend money to do the preliminary design, very difficult, difficult to accept. Grumman said that if realized by Grumman as prime contractor "Sabre" Ⅱ development, the development fee is down, I said, the competition is not impossible, it is the country's requirements. Unless Grumman participate in the "saber" Ⅱ joint investment, you can not compete. The Palestinian side of the "Sabre" Ⅱ feel three questions; 1. Maneuvering performance of less than (required); 2. Now obviously no solution scope for further development and potential; 3. The entire project development costs and price than originally expected 25% higher, which is worrying. Mustafa followed the conversation into another equipment programs: the purchase of part of the purchase of F-16 and some of the F-7M, said Pakistani air of hope and cooperation to further improve the AVIC F-7M. Mo minister said that the first request to the Palestinian side, the two sides discussed again. Mu said, a formal request must be of the "saber" Ⅱ make a decision and notify Grumman proposed before. Then Mu Mo asked for "saber" Ⅱ view Mo replied: China "Sabre" Ⅱ project's attitude, as always, respect for the views of the Palestinian side, if it continues to engage in it, China is fully supported, if the Palestinians decide to suspend, China also had no comment. Mike asked if I could spend less money in the case of further improving the F-7M? Mo replied that, first of all, "saber" Ⅱ project decisions and improve the F-7M should be something to distinguish; secondly, to improve the F-7M is only a small change can not press the "saber" Ⅱ state of technology to change , as it is impossible to replace the F404 engine, Mu appreciate. 22, Jamaal will meet Mo minister. Speaking of "saber" Ⅱ project, Jia said, after a feasibility study, China and Pakistan to engage in a new aircraft recognize how complex and difficult. Now the aircraft's performance and cost can not meet our minimum requirements unless Grumman has changed dramatically, we can reconsider. We are negotiating with General Dynamics ordered F-16, but in order to take advantage of the competition between the two companies, to General Dynamics company to "Sabre" Ⅱ impression in progress in order to suppress the price of the F-16, so before January Notification Grumman. So far, Pakistan has actually empty views clear: Do not "saber" Ⅱ it. Playing "Sabre" Ⅱ pretense, just to press the F-16 price. Wang Chengdong view has been confirmed.
Mo minister returned to Beijing, Liu Guomin, Victor Fan continue to stay in Pakistan. December 26 Liu Li went to Major General Farooq met. France said the current "saber" Ⅱ and F-16 on the scale measure disparities. F-16 fully equipped, there is potential for further development, and long life, easy maintenance. Pakistan already familiar with it empty. So unless the U.S. government does not allow Palestinians buy F-16, and to "saber" Ⅱ comparable aircraft with India, or Pakistan is certainly not empty "Sabre" Ⅱ with the F-16 and F-7M plus "mixed fleet" package. December 27 Liu Li went to met Mustafa. Mu said that from the perspective of DoD military production, "saber" Ⅱ is very attractive project, but the cost is too expensive is a big problem. Air Force are not satisfied with its performance, the potential is very small. Therefore, the Air Force no longer willing to promote this project, we are also subject to two Department of Defense may be the attitude of both positive and doubt, and therefore will not go facilitated. You and Grumman jointly wrote a letter, we can imagine that it was prompted by the Grumman wrote. Let us spend more money on the preliminary design, and then make a decision on the project is not reasonable. We hope that the Chinese side from the brother's point of view, this project made sound advice. Thus, Pakistan has clear views of the Department of Defense. End of 1987, the F-7CP flying into the internal work suspended due to unauthorized Ministry. Total complete a variety of hair test 3000 times, and the overall design to complete system solutions proofing design a total of about 40,000 A4 paper, complete the corresponding calculations and the system simulation testing. At their own expense because the company invested, try to save expenses.
◆ "Sabre" Ⅱ into ultra -7 Pakistan eventually gave up, "saber" Ⅱ, the United States proposed that China and Singapore Tripartite together in the "saber" Ⅱ based on the development of ultra -7 fighter early 1988, the U.S. Department of Defense between Pakistan semiannual Regular consultative meetings held in Pakistan, the United States sent Assistant Secretary of Defense and the others to attend the meeting. It was a decision to military aid and military cooperation important meeting. Before Grumman Washington several times to send personnel to do "Sabre" Ⅱ support lobbying efforts, Karan felt that pull visited twice, has been the Department of Defense who promised they would bar the negotiation meeting Fang said, to engage in "saber" Ⅱ is appropriate, the United States can not give the Palestinians a lot of F-16. To carefully gauge, Grumman chairman Bill Worth in December 1987 and the Assistant to the Secretary of Defense Minister Amit Carucci Tagg wrote letters respectively, indicating that "saber" Ⅱ situation and competitors (actually refers to General Dynamics company) intends to sell it F-16 aircraft to Pakistan empty, and promised not undergo U.S. military sales department but with direct commercial sales channels (to the U.S. Department of Defense General Dynamics exposing a little trick). Grumman hope that through these activities affect the Palestinian side of the "Sabre" Ⅱ decisions. Some time earlier, the Palestinian Ministry of Defence State Secretary to the Grumman chairman Mustafa letter said that Pakistan air of the "Sabre" Ⅱ base a conclusion, I hope before the end of January Grumman saber Ⅱ gives the minimum quote, in the offer and consider Grumman joint investment and other issues. To this end, Grumman decided to prepare based on the work in late January to send personnel to Pakistan. January 12, Karan feel pulled Wang Chengdong and Grumman aerodynamic experts noted grid and the others from the United States via Hong Kong flew directly to Chengdu. Before pulling sleep Karan has sent me faxes, said this trip to discuss with us: change the wing program; improve the body's life programs; shift workloads to reduce the price of the aircraft to Kamla idea; hair plans arrangements and asked to look at a wind tunnel Mianyang: and decided to change the shape and structure of the rear wing on the development schedule arrangements. On the 13th we began negotiations. Required to change the wing and the requirement to reduce costs to expedite progress, is clearly contradictory. Additional work primarily in our division, our best efforts are not increasing costs and maintain the original schedule. Total cost must be pressed Grumman and related vendors to make contributions into pieces. Negotiations, Grumman proposed some jobs such as performance test, fatigue test can be changed in China, Grumman's work shifted from the Long Island to Florida
To carry out, in order to reduce administrative costs, so that the original 300 million dollars to develop fee compressed to 240 million. Also to be reduced into pieces requires some ancillary costs 5-10%, so that the Palestinian side Kamra base earlier made a number of mechanical parts and nose of the aircraft price card in the price of 8,000,000 yuan repeated, such as the sharing of research, including fee, not to exceed 10 million yuan per aircraft. Improve aircraft maneuverability wing improvement program, calculated after the two sides have been concentrated in two preferred option, the final selection will depend on the future of wind tunnel tests. The two sides also agreed to reduce the weight of the aircraft is essential for ensuring the performance of the aircraft, so in the future to further improve weight control efforts. Life of the aircraft will be required to improve the Palestinian side to 4800 hours or 20 years, during which a new wing replacement. 15, Chen Jinyan accompany them to go to Mianyang, visited the tunnel base. In discussing the wing to improve and wind tunnel test program, Gu Songfen vice president made a special trip to attend it. After Hou Jianwu Xie Ming, chairman and CEO, met Grumman guests. Karan feel pulled, said Pakistan had received U.S. military aid much money, a total of 6 years, 16 million a year on average only 2.6 billion dollars, which is shared by the three armed services. Palestinians, however, has a lot of weapons and equipment to be as they want early warning aircraft, and to E3A, only three E3A, will 800 million, in use to spend one hundred million annual support costs, if the change to buy E3C, also spend $ 400 million a year to spend 1/300 million of support costs. In addition to aircraft, they are also helicopters, missiles, warships, etc., how to allocate, is a big problem. Karan feel pull added that after this time, if the Palestinians decide to quit, "saber" Ⅱ, and how cooperative Sino-US two stay here, they will inform the Chinese side. Moving on in Chengdu, Karan and the others feel that pull to Beijing, and the 18th from the U.S. to Beijing International branch president Grumman Larsen and Lorena special rendezvous, flew to Pakistan. While in Beijing, CATIC informed them of the situation Mo minister went to Pakistan, Larsen informed their domestic activities. Larsen said he went to Washington, the information obtained from the Department of Defense, F-16 sale price, single price not less than 16 million, the whole machine will be 18 million. The General Dynamics on the Palestinian side that the single price can be reduced from 10.5 to 12.5 million, which imprecise. Real "Sabre" Ⅱ only half the price, there are still attractive. If the Palestinians want to buy part of the F-16, can not buy 150 "Sabre" Ⅱ, as long as the Palestinian side set to only buy dozens frame "Sabre" Ⅱ can, but you do not reduce the Palestinian side, "saber" Ⅱ reputation, we can also go to the fourth country to sell, such as Egypt, "saber" Ⅱ also interested. Larsen also decided to entrust us to do on behalf of a group of "saber" Ⅱ model and consider going to the Paris Air Show exhibition to expand its influence. Went to Pakistan, Larsen, chairman Bill Worth brought them to the President of Pakistan Zia. Huck and the Prime Minister Junejo similar content strongly promote the "saber" Ⅱ letter and give Mustafa a detailed reply to the Palestinian side several issues of concern that letter. After we saw a copy of it and felt Grumman has to make a final sprint. Grumman row in Pakistan saw Jamal Admiral, Admiral and Mustafa Farooq, Secretary of State, the direct return to the United States by Larsen and Xie Ming Sun Zhaoqing, respectively, to write, to go to Pakistan informed of their line. The overall impression is that outlook is not optimistic, because frankly informed the Palestinian side, although the "saber" Ⅱ is still one of the options are optional, but they are assessing the feasibility of purchasing the F-16. Victor Fan received this letter and give me a call after flying into leadership together for a discussion. Xie Ming Officer considers departure from the company to develop its own, we should do something, we should go all out to promote the three joint stay here, in favor of the preliminary design of the first dry months. Hou Jianwu general manager of that in the "Sabre" Ⅱ, the pay would fly into some of the work, in line with China's cheap labor advantage, eligible to participate in the international circle this climate, although our risks, but also our opportunity to advance, so anyway We should strive to "saber" Ⅱ project pushed up. Finally decided Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu come forward to write to Sun Zhaoqing, a formal position on behalf of CAC, said after
Over the two sides together in the aircraft performance, life, development fees have been a lot of progress on the issue, the decision to postpone the Palestinian side, the Palestinian side proposed originally, now have to start considering the Grumman US Pakistan tripartite joint investment proposal, after attracting the Palestinian side tendencies "saber" Ⅱ a good way to fly remained in Beijing on November 87 discussion point in favor of joint investment, hoping CATIC efforts to promote, it is recommended to visit Turkoglu Sun CEO in March in front of Together with the CAC prepare negotiations preparatory work. By the end of February, Chen Jinyan with our preparedness programs to Beijing. March 1 at CATIC to Sun Zhaoqing, Liu Guomin, Victor Fan made a report. Decided to concentrate on the spot to study two options: 1. Tripartite joint venture, the proposed $ 150 million investment in the Palestinian side, Grumman 100 million, our 050 million. Estimated Pakistan decided to "saber" Ⅱ, 1.5 亿 this number is only acceptable Pakistan. 2. If Pakistan can not be still a moment, then seek to promote Sino-US two parties engage in joint 9 month preliminary design, cost the two sides themselves, each payment individually, as a pre-investment projects. Georgia job offer 16.9 million U.S. dollars, the Chinese side has agreed to offer their own division portion 6,000,000 dollars. Internally, this part of the work we only spent 2.5 million that is enough, CATIC requirements and CAC investment each half into the flight portion of hair and is mainly used for domestic labor and other costs. It was also analyzed the overall development of the situation, that the current situation by the Chinese decision to go directly to urge the Palestinian side, on the "saber" Ⅱ and exports to Pakistan F-7M aircraft unfavorable, but by Grumman to urge the Palestinian side is more favorable. Therefore, before the United States Sunzong should not go to a bar. Then Sunzong in 88 years the United States on March 7, after two days of talks with the president of Grumman International Larsen on the Niuyue Da became a "saber" Ⅱ memorandum of agreement, the two sides will be decided in April Beijing on 9 months preliminary design collaboration for specific negotiations. By the end of March Grumman International Department of the Austrian Chatwin go to Pakistan and Singapore, and then diverted to Beijing briefing. He said that Pakistan Air Force has decided not to "saber" Ⅱ, but the Pakistani government has not been finally fixed. Working with the United States about further acquired 40 F-16, due to the price differences, it has not been struck dead. Singapore is a new situation. Singapore's aviation industry has long been among the Grumman partnership. Grumman for the SIA training and avionics integrated CAD and other professionals; Singapore where purchased from Grumman E2C early warning aircraft, Grumman help Singapore plant maintenance; Grumman also help SIA build composite structure manufacturing plants. In late March, SIA president visit Grumman, through their introduction of the "saber" Ⅱ interested in the project. Grumman accordingly made immediately tripartite joint investment in the development of Sino-US new ultra -7 (super-7) recommendation by the Austrian Chatwin to Singapore. Ultra -7 is starting a new model, the body does not change just to change the wing is the "saber" Ⅱ, both modified fuselage has also changed over the wing is renamed -7, the same time it is different for Pakistan's development by the Pakistan named the "saber" Ⅱ. Grumman proposal by the head of the Singapore manufacturing, assembly and test, SIA can also go to the international market to sell. By Grumman estimates, sales of ultra -7 world potential market can be nearly rack, target mainly being used in place of "MiG" -21, F-5 and A-4. Briefing to us, Lorena special ultra -7 talked so competitive, they suggested that we simplify the ultra -7 combat skills to surgery to minimize the price of the aircraft. Here, Grumman also received the Egyptian Air Force Commander Major General Bala Decatur invitation, please Grumman in early May to send teams to go to Egypt Description "Sabre" Ⅱ project. ◆ High Noon episode Singapore, the United States and Pakistan cooperation, "saber" Ⅱ project is dying, when Singapore show interest, "super -7" is the name finally surfaced in Singapore May 88 Embraer president Guo Bao hair Mr. Sun CEO to CATIC electricity directly hit
Then go to Singapore confirms Grumman recently introduced ultra-7 if this is true, and agreed duo will be in May 19 meeting in Shenzhen interview. Interviews decided June 1 SIA chief engineer Mr. Lin Luhe sent flying into the investigation and the others to learn more about super -7 development. To fly into, we feel they are primarily concerned with technical solutions except aircraft, the first market prospects, the second is cost. They feel Grumman proposed budget is too high, but also worried that Turkoglu goalkeeper to even prices. By this time to fly into actual contact, SIA fly into the work carried out so much, and have complete information, expressed surprise, saying that contrary to their expectation. June 18 to 19 two days, the French Snecma 3 Aviation Administration in Beijing by the force of law, accompanied by one person offices to Chengdu and we are talking about M88 engines with modified F-7 aircraft. We listened to their presentation, M88 felt really good, small, thrust to weight ratio, and there is potential for development. M88-2 F404 light weight, thrust of 7500 kg, the next stage of development for the M88-3, available at 8700 kg thrust, thrust-weight ratio of 9.5. Unfortunately, can be expensive. Victor Fan mid-June visit to Pakistan came back, that the Pakistani government formally decided not to "saber" Ⅱ, but not published in Li Gelu door can continue to do the work. Grumman From there, the Palestinian side has been known for the two sides intend to continue cooperation ultra -7 project, although the decision to the Palestinian side, "saber" Ⅱ project is discontinued, but still continue to receive the Chinese side expressed the hope that the progress of ultra -7. After Palestinian State Secretary Mustafa officially communicated this decision Sun CEO. Soon, the Pakistani Air Chief of Staff and Secretary of State for defense production are replaced, Haji Moore opened the Air Force will be appointed Chief of Air Staff, Lieutenant General Maisuo De Ren Secretary of State for Defence Production. Chairman of the end of July Grumman must change by now so took over as chairman, president Aobo, Grumman financial constraints, Aobo let power, policy change? Pakistan and Grumman these roles change over -7 to bring more uncertain. July 6, I and Chen Jinyan, Qiu Puda Beijing to negotiate with Grumman, Turkoglu martial Austrian Chatwin and Wang Chengdong talk. Lorena special to us first informed of the negotiations with Singapore's Embraer situation. He said summed up in Singapore with 8 points: 1. The development of ultra-high cost of -7, hoping to control the 150 million U.S. dollars within; 2. Grumman hopes to assume the workload of all hardware transferred to Singapore to do; 3. Desired to develop aircraft flight and ground tests done all in Singapore; 4. Requires nine months of preliminary design cost both sides fell by the 16190000 10000000: 5. I hope Grumman can guarantee Pakistan, Egypt and China can buy super -7 aircraft; 6. Grumman Aircraft as a guarantee ultra -7 Grumman aircraft to sell, rather than Singapore aircraft; 7. US-supplied radar, the software should also be provided to Singapore; 8. Grumman they should come up with one million cash. We heard later that the first feeling is that Singaporeans are too smart. In this regard, Grumman's answer is required Grumman fell to 150 million development cost, it is possible, but to re-division of labor, in the batch, has begun production of 5,6 Grumman may be required a head, could later be produced entirely by Singapore. Development of new aircraft, such as the flight from Singapore is responsible, Grumman Aircraft Performance can not be guaranteed. Grumman agreed to spend 1 million to do the preliminary design, while also doing marketing work out 1000000. For these, Grumman was going to answer with a formal letter of Singapore, Singapore, but suddenly received a letter say ready to participate in a joint venture between the ultra -7, Grumman do not have to go to Singapore talk about it. In fact, this situation also with bottom of our hearts. 6 months, we've got CATIC representatives in Hong Kong to the domestic FENG Xun Information: Singapore Aviation Industry Corporation Chief Engineer Lin has written Grumman, disagreed alone invest in Singapore by the ultra -7 Grumman development projects, while joint investment must be made by Grumman job, risk-sharing. While the United States for which the Office of CATIC came the news that Singapore is mainly felt that the project is too risky, because the Chinese Air Force can not buy super -7. Austrian Chatwin continue told us that he believes Pakistan, Egypt, ultra -7 to be promising, as the Chinese Air Force, is also likely to be, apply to the Government Grumman engines, avionics export, including to China exports, CATIC do hope to do the work of the Air Force, Air Force ultra -7 ask what special needs. Austria went on to say,
This time we both issues to be discussed is whether the parties have not we can stay here in Singapore, we dry up, Singapore may take the initiative to participate in, and this is much better than what we find in Singapore. There you Without you, we have two dry, do not your way, you have a big opening to us with your approach to Singapore, Malaysia treat for us. Wang Chengdong chimed in, and we are going to stay here a two cooperation programs. We say that it is to hear your ideas. Lorena special confidently say that we both have a lot of places is the same, of course, there are inconsistencies. But for ultra -7, 1st. We both wanted to stay here, appears to be consistent; 2. Improved by a fly wing into dry; 3. In principle the entire aircraft by flying into the body dry, including the nose, the U.S. government might agree, since you can make Singapore dry, why not doing it in China? Section 4. About the market, we propose three types of objects analyzed the potential market may have 1000, the first category is available immediately to secure the market, there are Pakistan, Egypt, China, I believe that if we dry up, within 12 months, They may all be expressed. Hou Cheng Fei president last month with the Chengdu Municipal Party Committee Secretary Wuxi Hai to visit his Grumman Speaking Chinese Air Force will not have to exceed -7 time, Hou said that the Chinese Air Force will be interested, if you include the F404 engine can give China . I interrupted, super -7 F404 engine aircraft including of course included. Austria went on to say, the first five. We discuss both sides, super -7 performance, mobility, etc., can not by changing the new wing and F-16 to achieve a level; 6. The key is how to find ways to find super -7 first users, investors how to solve? NIU Xin Tong asked two dry, how the investment is that you half my half? Austrian Chatterton said Grumman not so much money, we make new chairman Aobo to October visit to Beijing to Chengdu, you may find a high-level talks with the Chinese Air Force leadership when interviewed expressed willingness if China Air Force , Aobo let's determination will be even greater. On the other hand, if you can stand either Pakistan or Egypt, issued a long super -7 can meet the requirements of the letter of intent to purchase much shelf, not orders, like, Grumman which can go on loan investments. With sellers, money, Grumman can think of ways, such as no sellers, then do not dry. I said, the biggest risk, investment risk, with the seller, not the risk of the investment, the rest is technical risk one can not meet the requirements, or even out of the letter of intent, also have reason to not order. Wang Chengdong added stressed that Grumman's attitude is, there is no buyer, stopped. NIU Xin Tong asked, Grumman main attitude is this? Lorena special easing that Grumman main attitude is to find ways to continue to stay here, if there is no buyer, their money is limited. 9 months in some of our preliminary design division, but also 10 million today to study, what a way out. Chen Jinyan said that the original Singapore to participate, that is willing to take risks, three Fangdou Cheng risks, no buyer is also dry, while dry, while looking for the user. Austrian Chatterton said Grumman is a private enterprise, with China, Singapore is not the same, China, Singapore is the state-owned companies, Grumman can not take too many risks. I said, on this point, Grumman in the past did not, originally said that two co-good, three cooperation, all want to do first preliminary design, while looking for a buyer. Now change is not done without the purchaser, which is Grumman recent changes? Austrian Chatterton said, you put it right, not first have the original purchaser, also said cooperation to find people to come, it was shared, and perhaps all of a sudden can not find. Now the company financially not, a dead end. I said this a dead end, and chicken, egg, and you even have the preliminary design are not, who will become buyers? NIU Xin Tong circles said that to stay here, work a minimum Grumman How much? Austrian Chatterton said, I estimate, at least 8.3 million, plus some margin, 9,000,000 it. We envision that in order to save costs, the future is not Peisi Bei Qi preliminary design to do, and instead do in Bo Haman's development centers, where the management fee may be less, are not subject to government restrictions, a commercial sector. I said, in the "Peace Pearl" project to make money, you can come up with something to invest.
Wang Chengdong smiled, and did not say so. The next day, we intend to bypass the user questions, and talk about how Georgia division of the preliminary design stage to reduce costs, reduce development costs and aircraft price, and to focus on how their own expense by the Sino-US cooperation bears do first two preliminary design, the first step to go first out, talking about the middle of the Austrian Chatwin repeatedly emphasized Grumman financial difficulties no money. No money, that does not ghost. Speaking on July 12, the Austrian Chatwin throw a misappropriation "Peace Pearl" project with China compensation trade credit when money is spent solution. This is how one would thing? The original "Peace Pearl" project, bought the U.S. a lot of hardware, there are 30% of the compensation of the right to trade, and to make these compensation trade lines, representing Grumman compensation trade credit to spend 1/15 of the cost of work . So if you give up some of China's trading rights to compensation, Grumman would save the cost of this work to turn over -7 preliminary design purposes. The Chinese side, it can be made to compensate for trade of course, but experience has shown to be fully completed compensation trade is difficult, we give up some lines replaced Grumman internal ready money can be used for ultra-7, may well be a way . Thus, this game of chess super -7, somewhat alive.
◆ While the Palestinian side to make renewed efforts termination of the "Sabre" Ⅱ plan, but in America the two sides still have the project be continued desire to still strive for new progress in the first batch of F-7P delivered to Pakistan empty ribbon-cutting ceremony, 88 July 26 AM stations in the CAC test plant was held. A new emblem sprayed with the Pakistan Air Force's F-7P aircraft parked at the venue dressed in a big red flower ahead. Pakistani Defence Production Secretary of State Maisuo De Lieutenant Pakistani air combat Deputy Chief of Staff Major General Farooq Pakistan fourteen guests Vice Minister Jiang, Sun, Director Liu, accompanied arrived in Chengdu yesterday, today attended the meeting. China and Pakistan speech, cut the ribbon for the new aircraft, watched the flight demonstrations. Afternoon I accompanied the guests visited the production line, in order to want to promote exports, and specifically cited Farouk other watched F -7 Ⅲ type, but afterwards Farouk on Sun Director Liu said that they were not interested in type Ⅲ. Because the governor come out at night dinner guests Palestinian side, the story of the first arrangement after lunch, with the two hours, we and the Sun, Director Liu together and Farooq, Maisuo De negotiations. I prepared and Chen Jinyan price of $ 5 million program to Pakistan F-7CP CLC. Introduction, Farooq said, "saber" Ⅱ feasibility studies, Yin Gelu door to ask for the development fees are too high, so do not want to do anymore. Through feasibility studies, we have learned some knowledge, it appears that a third party does not necessarily need to collaborate from our friendly and cooperative relations between China and Pakistan and past business relations, our cooperation between China and Pakistan, more favorable. About F-7CP this program, if someone interested in it while another development, the Palestinian side will be interested to participate, and today Pakistan had not put an empty F-7CP as equipment ideas, but do not rule out the future you out F-7CP , Pakistan in tomorrow or the day to empty the F-7CP aircraft. Window was open, but no wide open. Pakistani empty principle is best to buy ready-made aircraft, a user can not be only our aircraft. "Sabre" Ⅱ can not engage, develop charges too much. Farooq said that we want the F-7P, because the body is not on how they change, do not spend a lot of money, if the F-7P ranging radar can improve the look, the better. We use the F-7P is used for point defense, not long voyage does not matter, the remote attack by the F-16 served. Because in the past previous to Palestinian talks are Liu, deputy director went, they saw the Secretary Farooq, the Sun will take over the topic, consider again suggested Pakistan Pakistan Air America to engage in tripartite cooperation ultra -7. Secretary hearts that 5000000 monovalent F-7CP scheme is not easy to become a low-grade some, or ultra -7 program appropriate. Mr Suen said, "saber" Ⅱ development costs Grumman to more than 200 million, is too high, we have suggested that they reconsider, I suggest to 1.5 million additional aircraft avionics with the "peace pearl ", development fees and single
Price may come down, F404 is a good engine, the Palestinian side can get. I think the cost down, based on the tripartite can continue operating on ultra -7. Farooq said jokingly, to come up with super -7 after you put the F-7P buy back? We can not change models frequently Yeah! Sun said, super -7 least five years after the thing with you to buy the F-7P is not contradictory. Maisuo De said, I have to take in new jobs, in the study, the first to listen well. You just made, we go back and think, go back and Mr. Mustafa discuss. Farouk nodded, agreed, no longer speak. In short, the Palestinian side of this right and ultra -7 F-7CP reaction is not positive. Good is that the Palestinian side has decided in principle to indicate to renew a number of F-7P and FT -7. Able to expand exports like. Farouk home soon, he was promoted to Air Marshal, the first deputy chief of staff of Pakistan empty. According to Beijing in mid-July Grumman negotiation situation CATIC Sun Zhaoqing president in 88 years on July 23 to Grumman International president Larsen sends a very important telex, hope Larsen transferred to its new and old Directors Bill Voss and Aobo so long. Telex that refused to participate in the Singapore Super -7 cooperation, only by the United States and China to cooperate over -7 preliminary design, but to assume Grumman by CATIC project cost is obviously impossible, the only viable approach is the preliminary design work, Grumman transferred to China as much work to do in order to reduce the cost of Grumman, but neither provide each other fees. CATIC agreed to use "Peace Pearl" compensation trade diversion costs exceed -7 working with, but the compensation amount should not be more than 15 million U.S. dollars. Sun CEO final recommendations, given the ultra -7 has good prospects for development, it is worth Grumman CATIC and engage in cooperation continues, and if Grumman agreed that China will send a team to the United States, to discuss with ultra -7 Grumman The first stage of the preliminary design of the division of labor matters. Grumman Larsen came quickly call back, agreeing Sun president's proposal and invited the Chinese side sent experts to the United States as soon as possible negotiations. We negotiated, the group consists of five members, in addition to military Secretary Ma Chenglin, NIU Xin Tong CATIC, the CAC sent me, Chen Jinyan, Qiu Puda three, translate a tree by the Liu served. Before departure, we have prepared a preliminary design for nine months working draft agreement on the draft SOW Grumman amendments and internal staffing, development cost estimates, development schedule and division of labor conceived and so on. 88 years on August 23, we flew to Beijing line 4. Victor Fan CATIC first talk there, I talked about our preparations. Victor Fan said that the negotiations with the U.S. to the general idea is to prevent Grumman want less risk and more money. Lee has introduced a situation in which the Singapore aviation industry companies want to get involved this US negotiations. SIA chairman to Beijing recently to talk about cooperation and shipped 12 light helicopters to do with the temporary insertion Sun CEO talks about more than an hour of ultra -7 problem, he wanted to send someone to New York, as an observer to understand the situation of Sino-US talks , then go back and decisions, and then by the Farnborough Air Show in the United Kingdom during the discussions with Sun CEO. New parties do not want to deal directly with Grumman, Grumman feel good cooperation, so the new party to participate in ultra -7 cooperation does not intend US new tripod, but the two sides join as a partner in the new, to come forward by the Chinese cooperation with Grumman . The next day, we went to the office of the president Sun reported. Sun said he and Lee will go to England to participate in exhibitions, we went to the US negotiations, if, when necessary, he can directly from Britain to the United States. About Singapore thing, he estimated that Singapore's ultra -7 preliminary design stage only to understand the situation, such as preliminary design completed, another user wants super -7, and he was formally invested attend. Thus, they may not agree Grumman, has users, so why let you come fishing readily available, unless you participate in the preliminary design, that to understand the situation the same time, you are also out of some money. Sun worried over -7 level is too low, he advocated should be designed with high levels of some low level to do, such as "saber"
Ⅱ program that will no one wants. Sun said that the Soviet Union will be on public display at the British air show "MiG" -29, which means that the Soviet Union will vigorously promote the international market, "MiG" -29, so super -7 to have to deal with "MIG "-29 like ability, or users of the future is not attractive. Anyway, can not make do with dry ultra -7, preliminary design finished, still can not find the user, not as early as possible do not dry. About cooperation with Grumman, Sun said Singapore is not considered likely to be involved, we do not exist, and Grumman are likely to invest in Singapore fantasy, to avoid delays things. About Commerce estimated that the issue had agreed to let the 15 million dollars "Peace Pearl" compensation trade limits, Grumman will not be satisfied, Sun authorize us to retreat to 20 million or 22 million, to about 150 million dollars in working costs can be misappropriation. Since the visa is not timely received, scheduled on the 24th did not go into abroad. We went to the military department made a report to the Director Zhu Rong Zhang. ◆ Also crossing the oceans from the "Sabre" Ⅱ project began, Chinese officials began to frequently cross the wide Pacific Ocean, the ocean has been very easy to cross the era of super -7 projects are still considerable obstacles to be faced 88 years on August 30, Our party of six people sitting CA989 flight, at the Capital Airport departure to the United States. This tour is a non-stop flight stopover in Tokyo Shanghai but the plane landed at Narita Airport, a break in the waiting room for about an hour to take off again. After Japan, near the sea, you can see Mount Fuji far. Master all filled with aircraft, so far from looking back seat space to lie down to rest. The original positive opening times, mostly on the same plane to go abroad to study in the United States doll, sitting near me are two recently graduated from university doctoral directly to the United States, there are two high school before graduation girl, go abroad to exchange to attend university, is completely child, and not the big city students. The first time that they sat it across the oceans to fly a Boeing 747, I, as elders, really good for them to learn and to have this opportunity and happy. After flying 16,000 kilometers in the air, we went to New York's Kennedy Airport, Grumman Wang Chengdong and Austria Chatwin to pick us up, arranged in a motel near the Long Island Expressway stay. The next day on the 31st, we went to Grumman is a civilian development centers with Karan sleep and Latin negotiations. In another briefing, the two groups according to technical and commercial negotiations. CATIC representatives in New York Sun Deqing comrades to attend. Karan feel a pull to us Grumman in May this year to control their arms Office of the State Council report on the application, the content is requested for Grumman and CATIC, Singapore aviation industry developed in cooperation between the super - 7 The first stage of the preliminary design of the aircraft's Technical Assistance Agreement (TAA). Grumman ultra -7 envisaged in the report sales targets in Egypt, Pakistan, Singapore and Thailand. TAA with ultra -7 after the first stage of conceptual design SOW; ultra -7 aircraft and F-7M contrast; ultra -7 first stage of technology transfer control of five attachments. Report clearly super -7 is a modified F-7M machine, not much technical secrets. It seems Grumman foreign cooperation in order to do a lot of work, to prepare for negotiations, prior to the government to make formal referrals, this way they are more rigorous. To sum up, our technicians are friendly and smooth negotiation, business negotiation is difficult. Last Modified good SOW text, includes a nine-month preliminary design work should reach 10 purposes: 1. Conduct adequate aerodynamic wind tunnel testing and analysis to determine the expected performance of the aircraft; 2. Determine the fatigue life of 3000 hours the aircraft modification program; 3. The aircraft's center of gravity control, optimization Jing'an qualitative margin; 4. Provides the technical requirements of each subsystem;
5. The acceptable weight, fatigue life and performance requirements within the structure of a preliminary analysis to assess structural integrity; 6. Work out the cost of the second phase, the aircraft's price and production, integrated logistics costs; 7. Completion of the second phase of the work schedule; 8. Provides avionics, weapons, and other external requirements; 9. Ready for presentation to potential users profile information; 10. In order to get the two sides to continue this project the necessary government approvals. In the SOW, the clear division of labor between the two sides, the main body count Grumman tasks 18, plus two avionics work, fly into the main body of the task 21. These, we and the United States have carried out one by one sentence discussions clear meaning and how the two sides cooperate. Nine months after the completion of freezing technology has not yet reached the state, because there is no pro-rata design details preliminary design. In the discussion, we fully agree with Karan feel pull on ultra -7 ought to take the views of the shelf products, the price of the aircraft as it can reduce development cost, development time can be saved, greatly improved reliability and maintainability. Grumman successfully developed X-29 test machine, with a large number of F-14, F-16 of the finished product, not only fast and province, but had to fly more than 200 landings, what fault has not occurred, the effect is great . About the engine, pull sleep Karan says, F404 U.S. government data released to the Chinese side has not yet ratified, so many things can only be done by a Grumman. But Rolls-Royce RB-199 has data to China, so China can do something yourself equipped RB-199's work, including performance estimates, but its expensive price than the F404 some, there may be in the future for different user requirements equipped with different engines. In discussing SOW when Karan please feel pulled their company's engineering and Mr. Watson, president of another competent engineer to join files. Because nine months Grumman preliminary design work involves a lot of manpower within our engineering department arrangements, although Foreign mainly ultra -7 project director Karan sleep trombone, but his internal project management, coordination between departments matrix is also more complicated. Thus, the two sides signed SOW text, the United States felt the pull and Watson Karan signed two words. Discuss intermediate company aircraft division vice president noted that pull too dense to attend too. U.S. first Monday in September is National Day, the equivalent of our Labour Day holiday. This weekend, together with three days of rest. May Day this year is September 5. 3, Karan feel invited us to pull the original Long Island's Republic Airport Hotel aircraft to dinner. Republic Aircraft Company in the past production F-84, F-105, now bankrupt, partly Grumman received. Airport are private and some do show a small plane with a tailwheel small trainer, also stopped an airship. Opened up a nearby tourist area, the hotel itself is decorated both inside and outside of logs, with some venison bar. After dinner, we pull into the nearby golf course and the Atlantic edge of the beach walk. Seaside scenery is beautiful, the sand Whitewater Pitt, sunny and pleasant. The next day, Wang Chengdong and then we went to New York to sit cruise around the island of Manhattan, ring the island of Manhattan from the East River to the Hudson River in a circle, a full three hours, but unfortunately the weather is not the same as yesterday, are the next rain, bored in cabin, photography was not allowed. Business negotiation group discussions, because of money problems Chezhu. Grumman except Austria Chatwin, the international president of Larsen also out of several rounds of interviews. They insist the company's own cash investments impossible, in nine months the preliminary design work, he shall spend three million dollars, only from the "Peace Pearl" compensation trade work expenses set aside 500,000, and the remaining 2.5 million dollars to the Chinese advance, and then by the Grumman five years to ensure that CATIC made 37.5 million dollars of export items sold back, CATIC to recoup 10% of the management fee of 2.5 million dollars compensation for principal and interest advances. We insist Grumman yourself out of 100 million in cash, 1,000,000 from the "Peace Pearl" amount of compensation, one million buyback program according to their first by the Chinese advance. While the parties have shown interest to continue the project, but the issue of money has been talked about on the 13th not the same. This episode in the middle of our internal, September 7 Sun CEO in London to listen to horses, cattle two calls to the report declared that we must Grumman their own 1 million, to be a little hard, not talk down to go back up .
When we meet in the evening inside, I was a bit impetuous, though I'm not responsible for commercial negotiations, but whether it can exceed -7 project life continues, but the problems related to export organic successor, I say we should still striving mess cooperation or at least make the project can not continue disconnection, if this came out, we engage in off the line, we bear the historical responsibility. I speak one at which apparently silent for a while. I speak of course, is to offend people, but as to the people sent into the fly in a pinch, the attitude is not clear not. Finally, the views of the two common ground business problems write memo on talks, the new chairman of Aobo left Grumman Let October visit to China, and then interviews with senior Chinese. Larsen said in an oral two opinions in the United States in a compromise, the two sides signed a Memorandum of Understanding. Our party of 14 from New York home. Karan got me feel JFK sent us, and when we said goodbye, quite parting meaning, it seems a premonition rare collaborated again. Grumman big companies, even one million dollars could get it out, as a technician heart is also upset.
◆ resolve international military markets risks increasing competitive pressure, there is no high quality products will be no place, the Chinese side, after careful study, the determination under the risk-taking returned to Beijing September 15 , just Sun Zhaoqing, Victor Fan from the UK to participate in the Farnborough International Airshow back. Lee told us about the first time in the Soviet Union before the public exhibition of the "MiG" -29, as well as its on-site flight show "tail red" flying live. We hear a prominent feeling is: International military aircraft market competition increasing pressure. Sun when reporting to the president, first discussed Grumman to our 2.5 million in cash, according to a statement Grumman than 15, it is necessary that he made $ 3.5 million with the export trade. So many exports, the United States is only handed directory sleeve like small parts, five years to get out whether you can pin? The sales middlemen "China House" company can guarantee to sell? CAC five years whether the quality and quantity produced? It seems a lot of doubt. Discuss results, or the first person to ask Turkoglu sects, the CAC has been compacted in the library's $ 300,000 bushings first to sell, this road go through after watching. Sun CEO in the United Kingdom met with Singapore Airlines Industries GUO Lin Luhe president and chief engineer of hair. Guo overall view is not good cooperation with the United States, restricted too politically risky, but the price did not discuss the bargaining room. Better cooperation with the United Kingdom, the United Kingdom and Singapore, a good relationship, a good relationship with China. So he suggested that as the British engines and avionics, and later he saw Chinese people always say things with the United States, he said, even if the United States should also engage in a program of supporting British equipment to compete as a backup programs. The next day Sun Also requests the Secretary for National Development of Singapore Yang talk about super -7 cooperation. The Yang 30 years old, very young, his wife, surnamed Ho, also one up. His aviation aspects of the situation are aware, only recently went to Beijing to accompany Prime Minister Lee visited the Chinese also have a certain understanding. He said ultra-7 aircraft model has been placed on my table with Grumman cooperation is good, but we are the second level of cooperation between China and your Grumman is the first level of cooperation, we work with Chinese cooperation, not directly on the Grumman as a project by the three co bad. Sun said the aircraft to come up, you can assume the Singapore assembly flight. Young Ho said with a smile, flight no, people want to for comments. Sun said, then you dry nose bar. Yang said, our main share of such computer software integrated avionics to work. Sun asked Yang, you it is not the same ideas and Guo. Yang said, because now Singapore and China has not yet established diplomatic relations and the United States played the banner Grumman cooperation, political pass too. Sun has been further said Yang, now Grumman had no money, to 200-300 million dollars, began to cooperate ultra -7 preliminary design. Yang said with a smile, Grumman big companies lack the money? Houge Lu, chairman of the door to go to China, you can tell him in Singapore with 200 -
3000000, we are two co-Grumman engineers out, but that will directly tell Aobo so, do not fall into the hands Larsen. After talks with Yang, once they saw Lin Sun, Sun asked Lin, Guo and Yang insights not the same, are we supposed to? Lin Yang said you heard, he represented the competent government. Then to Sunjie Shao Lin background that SIA is a Department of Defense pipe, the chief men of the forest engineering department has 90 designers, in the modified aircraft missions, there are about 105 gang dealing with the relationship between suppliers. Also invited Grumman Northrop retired engineer and other companies as a consultant. Lin also said that cooperation with Grumman and more expensive, he can help find or Sweden British Aerospace FFA cooperation will be cheaper. Sun does not stand for this. On cooperation on the grid, adhere to the Sun that the first "peaceful pearl" 15 million compensation trade lines folded one million dollars, because this figure Ministers has approved. About resold export parts, which did not grasp, I will not speak, even super -7 engage in export parts can always be, not contradictory. Can you cast it depends Singapore 2000000? Ultra -7 touches the tactical and technical requirements, it seems to be higher because as I watched "MiG" -29, very powerful ah. We return to Chengdu soon, early October Grumman Karan feel pulled, Austria Chatwin and Paul Nobuaki trio to discuss business issues in Beijing, is his money. Cheng Fei Chen Jinyan sent to Beijing to participate. The negotiations to make ultra -7 situation worsened, and China has decided to invest risks. Finally given is in addition to "Peace Pearl" compensation trade 15 million facility mentioned above, coupled with China's advances 2,000,000 dollars for him to do resold trade, basically meet Grumman's wishes. Some money problems, others will be easier. The two sides decided to start early next year, preliminary design, in December we went to talk super -7 tactical and technical requirements, within 11 months Grumman begin to make preparations that focus on human work. About two million dollars to take the risk of problems in the promised Grumman before CATIC internal research is very careful. To really make 30 million of buyback trade, is not easy. To this end, Sun Zhaoqing summoned Liu Guomin, Wang Dawei, Victor Fan, NIU Xin Tong and other people had a meeting, we propose to develop export successor could go after this two million paying no income will be in vain, we do it? Everyone at the table of the state, agreed under this determination. Unity of views, also the Vice Minister Jiang referrals, ginger also agree that bear risk road to this point. As you know, 87 years to engage in "saber" Ⅱ, investors are Pakistan, the engage Super -7, can be different, the investor is our own. In order to secure the two sides agreed that in the 89 years prior to January, first with their compensation trade work Grumman misappropriated 500,000, paid by us to the end of Jan. 1 million, to 89 in early May and then pay him 1 million, Turkoglu The other 50 万 door to July utilized.
10 months, the new chairman of Aobo Grumman let China. Schedule specifically on ultra -7 co-operation, to find Zhang Aiping Wang Defense and Air Force commander, deputy commander Lin Hu. November 18, Singapore's Embraer engineers Mr. Huang Songjin to fly into, to understand the situation and discuss the ultra -7 Could equipped with RB-199 engine thing. SIA's intention is in a stage (preliminary design) only to send observers to participate in the second phase of the proposed investment to work. After I listened, felt that they currently do not really want water, we do not have to SIA placed more hope. To prepare for December to talk about super -7 combat skills requirements, our in-house to do the program, guiding ideology is also horse a good horse and eat it too, which is at a low price to win as much as possible under the premise of performance out of the better, focusing on the wing improvement program. Do this kind of article is really a design art, our designers have repeatedly demonstrated how much, really struggled. November 29, we have a line 7, I, Chen Jinyan, Qiu Puda, Song Kaiji, Zhengwei Chuan, Liu Yunxiao and Translation Liu tree on the same plane arrived in Beijing, the United States prepared to negotiate with the ultra -7 Grumman combat skills requirements, arrange 9 month work plan and personnel exchanges plan to implement our future designers working and living conditions to the United States, officially signed with Grumman TAA and accessories. Before leaving, we went to the Air Ministry Mao Dehua consult the Secretary to report there. Mao said, the program is necessary to consider the nature, but also consider the user's actual possibilities and costs, so the price should be low level aircraft, in principle, should as much as possible
Inheritance F-7 aircraft, wing only small change. Necessary division step by step, so have buyers, you can continue to expand changed faces. Management, should be strengthened in the future, of course, technically, Chen Jinyan said, we have heard; foreign affairs activities, CATIC mainly working abroad want to authorize, significant problems to the domestic telex consultation by telephone referrals. In short, we very much support the project. I made a post out of ideas, can agree to fight Grumman preliminary design work next year on January 9 that officially began, so we fly into seven people that left five people do not go, do not waste the travel costs. Mao agreed that a passport may first click, and then go out to discuss with Grumman. Second Sino-US cooperation began after exiting Pakistan, China and Grumman's intention to continue to cooperate to reach a well carried out preliminary work, ultra -7 project finally overcome funding difficulties, began running up our line of nine people, into fly seven people, CATIC Niu Tong, military Secretary Ren years at December 3, 1988 the United States take the CA981 flight left Beijing to begin a second collaboration with Grumman. Airplane over sunset near Japan have been dark, starry ground if there Formosa cities, rich soil mountains looming. After that in the vast Pacific Ocean, almost dark, the stars also very bleak high-altitude, there is no moon, lunar calendar today is the day I do not know. I suddenly thought, in this dark night ocean flying, our lives have been paid in boarding buzz in the normal operation of the aircraft, if there is any case of catastrophic accidents, about what contingency measures are not used, and what people can not help busy. Human beings have the ability to design and manufacture this high security of the aircraft, without security often is artificial, it is not a human tragedy do? Very crowded on the plane, there is nothing extra space to sleep, we had to doze in their seats. The same plane to the United States we have 82 projects Mao Dehua counterparts, Li duo, Du Zhiguang test equipment inspection team four people, model engineering electronic survey team four people, our industry really heat it! Flying over 15,000 kilometers in the air, we arrived in New York's Kennedy Airport, Grumman Austrian Chatwin and Wang Chengdong to pick the scheduled hotel stay. The 5th morning, we went to a line 900 Grumman plant with project managers Karan sleep and Latin negotiations. Within a few days we discuss the ultra -7 aircraft design goals include task status; nine months of phased work, including the three assessment time, scheduled the first and final review in the United States, second review conducted to China , will be doing wind tunnel tests; total project schedule as well as our work in the U.S. and other conditions, such as computer preparation. Obtain consistent macroeconomic issues after the 8th overall program began in principle each subsystem solutions are discussed. In discussing the inlet, we still favor the maximum number of M should reach 1.8. The 13th British Rolls-Royce RB-199 engine architect duo to Sri Lanka by the Sartre recommended to us RB-199 various types of engines. The 14th General Electric Company sent to notify F404 engine case. On the 15th sent to the British General Electric Company introduced aviation FBW. In short, we Grumman cooperation ultra -7 be launched, the relevant large companies are also fashion, take the initiative involved. After two weeks of working together to complete the scheduled tasks, bear the cost issue is resolved, the other is to talk about. Grumman's men began to gather, the organization appears to be serious, but with the 1987 to engage in "saber" compared to the feasibility study, the majority of engineering and technical personnel have changed. Our engineers in the future to the United States control of the rotation number of people working between 25 to 30 people. In order to encourage them to work faster, we recommend that after the New Year on January 9 the two sides formally start work, we Chen Jinyan, five people left to prepare for work, do not return to the country. Scheduled for 9 months is not enough to determine the final assessment scheduled for October, ending in November finished. The United States agreed, so the two sides initialed the ultra seven preliminary design SOW, negotiated a technical assistance agreement TAA, signed with super -7 performance requirements, structural design, avionics mission requirements of the summary of the talks.
In the negotiations, TAA There Appendix F, is the U.S. government's restrictions on the Chinese side, we insist should be canceled, the U.S. insisted on the need to finally get a compromise is improved much more relaxed character. During this period, we have produced a conflict within the group. I advocate Chen, five people do not go left. First, do some preparatory work in advance, including continuing discussions and Grumman wing program, including the implementation of a good future, we come to the housing and other living conditions of the car, and the second, saving travel expenses to come and go, it will not re- visa formalities delays. But do not agree with Comrade Tong Niu, advocates go back together again after over 20 days. I do not understand how he thought, had repeated to him and do any of the work, but fortunately I did not want to leave their own. But foreign affairs is a person disposes of CATIC, I had to do the work of persuasion. 14, 82 engineering staff residence to the United States, only two at home in broad daylight, armed burglary by several masked robbers looted, only cash, cameras, jewelry and other total loss of as much as $ 7,000, and this duo scare cruelly. Subsequently reported the matter to the police, there is nothing. 82 Engineering and later ran a person, accidents are more, this is something, as opposed to my super -7 items, we more safely. In the United States, I feel pulled to Karan proposed increase in the first review are invited to fly Xie Ming, chairman, Hou Jianwu president to attend, in order to enhance the CAC leadership's determination to pull heard that Karan feel very necessary. Prior to this, in order to expand the influence of public opinion, Grumman has passed the United States, "Aviation Week" published an ultra -7 US cooperation project reports article that explains the preliminary design to do first nine months, and then the second step to engage in full-size prototype development. This regard, they capable than we are. 18, I and Niu Tong, Ren, the Song Kaiji same plane back to Beijing, respectively, CATIC and military aircraft to report to the Secretary. Arranged after flying into an organization ready to begin. Determine the list of persons reported 90 people abroad, according to each division of domestic technology in doing preparatory work, the cooperation of the United States abroad 12 batches design. Since two have to work at home and abroad, deputy division chief architect of four people, Chen Qiu two middle section of pipe in the United States. I returned to Chengdu after the emergency work, so that existing passports Fan Defu, Huang Qing Xiang, HU Xin-like, often four people wearing dry quickly accreditation to the United States as the first group, and finally in January 11, 1989 left Beijing departure. The second batch of eight medium-check rule Jan. 24 departure. Shortly after New Year's Day, January 5 Chen Jinyan, etc. that is to plant 116 Grumman super -7 project office to work. Here, in addition to leading the management offices and meeting rooms are small, the two sides engineers are in a mixed office lobby, is particularly advantageous for us. Buy a computer has been shipped, Grumman began to focus on 22 people who seem to be more serious.
key problem remains the user to ensure low cost and shorten the development cycle, Grumman using proven technologies and parts, although there is a risk of technology transfer, but decided the future of the project or the user questions 6 February 1989 is the Chinese New Year, as flying in the United States to work a day off themselves, will once meal. Previously, Grumman Chinese officials to celebrate the Spring Festival, please eat a Chinese meal. February 22, Zhang Gongxun third installment of the United States and other 10 people. 22 U.S. midnight, except for Kim Yan called me a scary Phone: 10 people to the United States in the group Huzheng Lin, allowed to enter the United States Customs clearance, to stay in San Francisco it. This can be sudden death of me. Night Chen Jinyan contact with the parties, through the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China consulate in San Francisco on behalf of looking for me to come forward to deal with. Originally Huzheng Lin took messenger bags (built-in technical information), customs and passport that does not match with the red messenger bags must hold a diplomatic passport. So with the U.S. State Department consular representations through customs until the next day to New York. This period, and into the Grumman Aircraft Corporation, the focus is on both sides of the selected edge of the wing, including the aerodynamic and structural programs; arrange hair model design and manufacture, the first built in the United States to seize shape modulus; analysis wingtip hanging bombs aerodynamic, structural, chatter problems; research slat aerodynamic shape, institutions and manipulation; study whether the reference X-29 inlet direct experience; implement CAC and Grumman computer compatibility issues; body Structural
Procedure using NASTRAN finite element model for stress analysis. To capitalize on the work, the people who work in New York to 18:00, Saturdays overtime. Work in the United States according to plan, scheduled April 10 meeting at ultra -7 Grumman preliminary design review will be the first time. In order to understand the earlier work, CATIC invited me in advance please Grumman and Ma Chenglin, NIU Xin Tong in the United States in mid-March, when the accreditation See Liu Guomin, Gu Songfen, Xie Ming and Hou Jianwu attend. I fly on March 15 Beijing. The next day at CATIC and Sun and Liu, together opened a small horse will know the leadership of the Ministry's attitude is not the same ultra -7. This time to participate in the first assessment, necessarily involves the preliminary design. , The next step to take, CATIC, Cheng Fei and Grumman three must have an estimate as to whether to cross the next one mind, go on, take some risks. Of course, a user problem, we should actively grasp, namely Sui Tong Niu CATIC Vice Zhaoguang Chen went to Egypt, Liu Guomin also go to Palestine before the United States were to do the work. About the aircraft level, everyone agreed that the level is higher, including life expectancy is longer, and there'll develop vitality. Of course, the cost is still under control. March 18, my horse, deputy director of the departure to the United States. I went and met with Deputy Director Ma Project Manager Karan feel pulled. Card informed us about the progress of work recently to talk about a very important point, namely ultra -7 nose radome size trade-offs. Radar antenna size is large, blunt nose had it, but will increase the resistance: To resistance is small, the number of the head to the tip, but to a smaller antenna size. How to choose? He believes that there must be 90 years of aircraft launch medium-range missiles BVR capability, so would rather sacrifice some supersonic performance, but also to maintain good BVR capability. Of course dogfight capabilities are required. Card talked about control aircraft factory price issue. He said he could press manufactured by the Grumman nose for research, but really cheap to make aircraft, flying into the whole machine body made by the best. Thus, even super -7 not much new technology, the future second phase (full-size prototype development) had U.S. government approval, including some technology transfer issues, such as to improve the life, there is the problem materials, manufacturing process issues, including of course exports of engines and avionics problems. Therefore, the Chinese Government to the high-level lobbying for the U.S. government. Now super -7 cooperation is commercial channels. This channel can be maintained, it is difficult to say. In retrospect, it was able to pull Karan told us feel these words are very sincere, is indeed an honest engineer. Can be maintained on the commercial channels of problems, although there is no indication at that time, but two months later "64" incident occurred, the United States Government to immediately intervene on ultra -7 project confirmed the pull Karan feel predictable and Our U.S. superficial understanding. Card also told us that the problem of looking for market users. He said that the first user must find, no exact user, but said potential users or the market is not enough, because the second stage to the United States government for approval, it must be clear to whom ultra -7 engage, even to engage in testing machine, also Be sure to ask to whom it comes out, or batches are not allowed. Singapore and Pakistan wants to send someone to participate in the first review, Karan Please feel pull that is not good, they do not pay, again reviewed all the information away, not good. As in the assessment, if they are interested in, and then to introduce them individually, good control data. Some of the preliminary design of specific technical issues, and the whole machine two in the professional level, the two sides have frequently exchanged views. After both sides discussed a week after the written records and scheduling, printed weekly, submit the relevant personnel. This way of working, apparently much more than our domestic rigorous, high efficiency, less controversial, have archival value, transparency is high. 28, NIU Xin Tong coming from Egypt York, after four of us went to Grumman Larsen, president of the international talks. Larsen informed the cattle activities in Egypt, hoping common in Egypt shortly afterwards when the United States Air Force Commander to his influence to persuade Egypt to participate in investment or a letter of intent to manufacture a prototype. Larsen repeatedly stressed the need for the user and can not be repeated in the Northrop F-20 error on the $ 1.6 billion spent in vain.
April 2, horses, cattle, and I went to Washington, three people, the next day to report to the embassy ultra -7 cooperation and reported in the future as commercial channels not, may go intergovernmental cooperation relationship, such as foreign military aid user fees utilized , then you must take the FMS mark. To prepare for the first assessment, the two sides are in the intense work. Preliminary design layout to be frozen at this stage, state of the art, of course, many problems, such as the user is not found, nine months Grumman preliminary design will do in the end, but also some dangers. Because someone Grumman internal discussions, such as the user is not found within a few months, the grid is no longer spend money on this project should be stopped. March 31 Karan feel pulled in writing to the Chinese horse, Tu, Chen, cattle 4 issued a memorandum, in addition to a number of key technical issues statement, but also specifically raised business questions, suggestions, CATIC and CAC leadership careful consideration, before the user is not found, do not spend more money. For example, no longer Grumman in May to pay a second one million yuan U.S. dollars. This memo also send Grumman leadership. April 6, Grumman chairman Aobo make decisions Grumman not take the initiative quit, just give China an opportunity to consider the Chinese quit, Grumman may agree to quit. Super -7 accreditation review team members arrived in China began to participate in the United States over -7 reviewed to determine the design of ultra -7, Grumman was awkwardly placed on the economy, the project did not disperse the clouds over the April 5, 1989 Day, Cheng Fei Xie Ming, Hou Jianwu and aviation ministry in the translation Zhang Daxin Gu Songfen United States to participate, accompanied by the first ultra -7 preliminary design review. United States to fly the same plane along with designer Xude Huan, Xu Fu Hok, Luo Zhen and Xu Lin. April 7th Japan-China vice president of CATIC Ying Liu Guomin with room to fly from Pakistan beauty. At this point the Chinese assessment team members have all gotten together. April 7 Liu arrived, I'll thank Houma cattle to visit Allied Signal in New Jersey ladder Rohe flight systems division. This segment was originally part of the Bendix Corporation, is an engineering administrative divisions, 2000 employees, only 280 people have software engineers. Production line in Pennsylvania, there are three hours away from this car road. Its products developed areas Helmet, HUD, under the display, the map meter, digital and analog flight control systems (including the F-16C / D and B-52's), and management of integrated avionics systems, engine and flight instrument monitoring systems. In addition to listening to his briefing, we also attended their trials, including flight control, also saw that they are developing light-emitting diode display, etc., feel that this company is very powerful. Liu arrived, we exchanged with the case against Grumman memorandum analyzed, this purpose, first, participate in the assessment, the second is to make our decision investigation. We believe that now not expected to run into the situation, but not to change the way we adhere to the nine months to do the preliminary design in the end point of this approach. In the first review before the drafting of the Chinese modified by Grumman after completion of the preliminary design described state of the art ultra -7 nearly 300 formal review materials bound volume. Work in three months, the Chinese technical documents submitted to the United States a total of 44, the two sides signed a memorandum 12 parts, as well as weekly working 12 parts, the overall program, shape modulus, high-speed winds die design are finished, the structure of the overall arrangements, system solutions are also agreed. Attended by both staff, though small, amount of work is relatively large. Accreditation will be April 10 to 12 conducted by Karan feel pulled hosted entirely by Grumman executives to make a report, there is no translation, the two sides all the staff all to attend. Here Shen Yong Yuan arrived in the United States and Song Kaiji, also just in time. At the meeting with the two half days time to report the overall layout of the whole machine, the body design criteria, subsystems (engine, fuel, hydraulic, environmental control) an overview of the avionics system overview, aircraft performance targets and forecasts, wind tunnel test program, development and production cost estimates, the market situation, the project schedule and its related problems. Last half summary report is generally someone over, you ask, what is the problem is not, we are you silent, go to 0K. The reason is repeatedly discussed it beforehand. The real highlight is the small meeting behind the scenes.
Small conference and on BVR combat and supersonic performance, aircraft service life indicator, plug-ability, wing and market improvement program, schedule, price, etc. were discussed. Finally the two sides signed a memorandum of the first review. U.S. project management a difficult job, mainly Grumman internal financial support for the project is not enough manpower and sources causing tension. To this end, Mr. Liu went to find a grid chairman Aobo so, to him, go to the market, the Chinese side will take greater responsibility. China can not agree with the preliminary design halfway, requires Grumman one pair to make some projects supported by the Austrian promised to strengthen Georgia's work force. After review, Mr. Liu went to Pakistan and do the work, Ma Chenglin and Chen Jinyan, Qiu Puda returned to Beijing and other 15. April 13 and 14, I and cattle accompanied Xie Hou Yun Gu visit GE's engine division by Grumman accompanied by Mr. Paul to Boston. General Electric Company sent entertain stay at the Holiday Inn in Greater China in the restaurant for dinner. The next day General Electric Company's Zhang accompanied us to visit our company. The visit, General Electric Company attaches great importance to the Chinese guests specially printed presentation materials. In the introduction that, General Electric Company in the world total of 30 million people, in 1988 a turnover of 40 billion U.S. dollars, accounting for one sixth of which engine, or 65 billion dollars (52% of which military engine), employees 38,000 people in more than 16 factories. During the discussion, I propose to the General Electric, in order to improve the performance of ultra -7 supersonic, F404 can add some thrust, or usual state of war work? They answered every available five minutes of combat, available during the entire life of 25 hours, with more on the impact of engine life. Situation clearly. 15, I to the United Nations Military Staff Committee Yuhua Dong Xie Hou colonel himself was driving with my three people to travel long Forest Park. Passing Philadelphia, we visited the U.S. Independence Hall and the Liberty Bell monument. Long billionaire Dupont Forest Park was originally a private garden, and later donated for public tours, each received $ 6 tickets for maintenance environments. A very large area, lawn trees, flowers, fountains, decorated boldness of vision, structured, excellent environment, especially a few large indoor greenhouse, rare flowers bloom around the fountain, such as balls, really rare a tour, but unfortunately it rains more than, hands on the umbrella. The next day, CATIC ROC representative Sunde Qing Xie Hou personally drove me to go to Washington Embassy report, I'll go. Niu Tse Hau and Tong, accompanied by a tree on the 20th Liu returned home country. After assessment activities, preliminary design work has entered a second phase of refinement structures and systems design. April 26, the company sent the Italian FIAR again introduce their GRIFO radar, and detailed answers to questions prepared in advance Grumman. Hou Kalan feel something pulling me say that this radar is good, after the event the U.S. government does not sell APG-6, it can be used instead. He suggested that the Chinese side in the future more and FIAR company. At that time, Grumman ultra -7 in working with us, while they are engaged by the company contracted F 8 "Peace Pearl" project. This arrangement of items in 11 plant adjacent plant work, so the daily commute, we often gay and Shenyang distant sea, but not between each other. My temporary return home, April 28, and Karan talked once, then pull sleep. Karan feel pulling said, "Peace Pearl" has been decided not to consider the modification of the F404. If the "Peace Pearl" No F404, namely Chinese government does not formally apply to the United States imports F404, that China is not getting this engine, so super -7 to consider alternative solutions, such as using RB-199 engines. If you want super -7 Pakistan, the U.S. Government will give him the F404, because the U.S. government has agreed to grant F404 to India, Pakistan, and no problems, while China is another case. Therefore, China should consider the use of European avionics and engine alternatives. If the buyer is not sure, just do testing machine, to the U.S. government approved the payment of an engine designed to use the data, it is difficult. Unless it is involved in the design and test flight in the United States, that cost will go up, this is not OK. I asked him, in the absence of buyers in the case of the development fee, can only build a test machine, do not use it to destroy the static test after test God, limiting overload test. He said that this can be, but must be a detailed design and drawings of the same batch, but not necessarily the beginning of life to 4,000 hours, you can not install the radar. X-29 aircraft made the two are test flight, which is done without destroying a static test before
Fly. I asked him, Mr. Liu Guomin find Aobo allow support for ultra -7, Austria promised to strengthen the ultra -7 project, and now our facilities really enhance this project up? He said Grumman currently experiencing serious problems, the U.S. Department of Defense to reduce the budget as much as $ 10 billion, so the F-14 to cut the budget, to stop production of F-14D, and the F-14D Price per aircraft up to $ 75 million. This year has just completed the development, production six aircraft, not production, leaving only the production of F-14A aircraft and other modifications, estimated that only two good production. If the production of D-type production is at least another 4-5 years. Grumman now in a difficult period. I get the message that it would be difficult to get more super -7 supported. The news of course for us at a disadvantage. Once again, I said to him, hoping Grumman further demonstration BVR combat capability and supersonic aircraft performance trade-offs between the two. Karan feel pulled insisted that 90 years of the aircraft, must have BVR combat capability, not close to the enemy in front, a long-range attack capability, this is very important. Grumman design aircraft weapons systems around the role to design. Of course, the final look at the buyer's needs. Sure enough, shortly after Grumman chairman Aobo so to all employees of the Company issued an open letter asking everyone to Long Island congressman wrote to exert its influence to prevent the government to reduce F-14 budget. In view of this situation is indeed serious. May 1, I took the news poorly, kai Huzheng Lin and other leave New York home.
Super -7 cooperation is suspended due to unreasonable U.S. sanctions, military cooperation the two sides have been "hung up", and the project has also been the U.S. super -7 terminated, it will become the next "Sabre" item? "Cultural Revolution", there is a new word, denounced a cadre, let him step aside, called the "hang up", meaning that neither dismissed nor let his tenure. Coincidentally, the United States there is a literal word "suspend", both hanging, hanging meaning, another pause, suspend meaning. 1989 China over "64" after the incident, U.S. President George W. Bush on June 5 announced: "suspend all arms sales to China-US intergovernmental and commercial arms exports, interruption of Sino-US military exchanges of visits between leaders activities ...... . "This suspension of the original word is" suspend ". Note that this suspension is not terminated, is suspended meaning. F-8 "Peace Pearl" project and ultra -7 cooperation projects are in the suspension of the column. Super -7 been "hanging up" the. June 8 at 7 pm (in New York morning 7:00) and we have received in the United States is responsible for co-deputy chief designer of ultra -7 Shen Yong Yuan to long-distance telephone, said Grumman has officially received the notification from the Government, Ultra -7 project has been aborted. Karan pull notification Shen Yong Yuan Jue, Chinese officials on June 9 Grumman not have to go to work, but today can go to the office to retrieve all the information, supplies. About due to inter-company collaboration, Grumman spared the 5th card is being greeted with Shen Yong Yuan, 6,7 two before they lose to Japan to ask questions and obtain relevant data. The "Peace Pearl" items, unannounced in advance, on the 7th before work one hour notice that on the 8th not enter the office. Really outrageous, non-starting material clinics. Suddenly the storm, the boat light victorious Britain. After such consultation and Chen Jinyan, general manager of the Beijing Sun Zhaoqing report. He has received CATIC ROC representative Sun Deqing report, saying that the super -7 cooperation Grumman civil projects, they can still fight for recovery. I swim in the 9th to Shen Yuan hang calls, tell him three things: (1) designers in the United States to continue working in the residence until the planned partial return; scheduled in batches to the United States who will not go. If the project can not restore a moment, Shen Yong Yuan, Wu Shao-end and translation Zhang Daxin three people left behind. Our people in the United States, stand-observation, can Grumman feel the pressure. They have the responsibility to an early resumption of cooperation activities. (2) has to retrieve information for all the people to return home early to fight me back, in case of emergency, should focus on the future can not be restored. If you pause too long, we have not afford to delay. (3) as
In the United States to exchange information with Grumman, Yin Gelu door inner workings are still ongoing interruption. Press the hands of our domestic preparation, has spent the money, as much as possible for the restoration. But another hand authentication scheme, as "East does not shine bright" plans. Thus, the United States has been ready to go to Beijing Fang Yulong, Liu shore Bin Kang Zhengbo, Pu Xiaoyu, including cases show, five people, at first because of unrest take no foreign exchange, the project is now suspended, had exhumation Chengdu. Scheduled to attend the Paris Air Show, where he will meet with Farouk and Larsen Sunzong, also decided not to go. Prior to this, the British Marconi company made a new set of avionics systems, aviation department leaders decided to ultra -7 for the installed objects. Limao Jie Cheng Fei, deputy chief engineer sent to Beijing to negotiate, as the United States outside the other hand avionics preparation. Aircraft, we do spend less actively involved in the validation machine program, not a hope of the U.S. engine. The end of May. We sent Qiu Puda with CATIC with people who go to Egypt introduced ultra -7, and later Mr. Liu also rush to the hope that the Egyptian Defense Department can issue a letter of intent to be ultra -7, draft also intends to rape, and just hit Egypt New Defense Minister assumed office, domestic and out of the "64" incident, had confessed CATIC representatives in Egypt, to continue its activities, Qiu other on the back. 6 months, Chen Jinyan sleep with Karan pull directly on the phone, the card says there are still 10 Grumman engineers at work, but did not support a trapeze, hard carrying it. Is now being done to increase the resistance of the head lower than the elongated work head to be extended two feet. Issues relating to the suspension, the card that this is a process, Grumman was in Washington to do dredge work, to thaw estimated to be three months time, he thought the U.S. government would not undermine state relations between the two countries. But think the worst, such as suspension of time is too long, such as more than one year, you will be very difficult to pick up again. Chen allow card to consider if we style hole test card can send engineers to take a look? Card said that if the government does not thaw, it is impossible to come. June 20, Sun Deqing Shen Yong Yuan sleep in New York to meet with Karan pull the two copies of the card: the U.S. State Department about the suspension of cooperation ultra -7 Grumman TAA notification and formally notified CATIC suspend cooperation ultra -7 letters, pay to the Sun and Shen. And said he hoped China can do nine months of preliminary design in the end, a clear plan to take to do demonstrator and said let Grumman demonstrator work on technical support. Grumman formal referrals to the Chinese side, will be hands-on preparation for the resumption of technical support to the government permits, once the two countries political climate warming can formally submit this application. But here is mainly engaged in said demonstrator or prototype, rather than doing paperwork, only the paper work, the technical support of the weight is not enough, Grumman difficult to apply. In addition to Shen and other three people left behind, the last batch of CAC engineers, Song Kaiji 9 people evacuated on July 2 in New York. Grumman Karan, five people feel pulled in July 12 to Stanford met Sun Deqing and Shen Yong Yuan, the two sides agreed to meet again as soon as possible, by CATIC invitation to Beijing talks. In the direction of the Grumman has formally expressed, if the super -7 preliminary design is stopped, the Chinese side will necessarily consider to compensate for economic loss claims. Grumman think super -7 suspend cooperation beyond the scope of Grumman's control, so China's lawful claims, is not Grumman's responsibility. This Houge Lu door to head again to be claimed by the State Council decided to apply for the suspension to be reviewed. Larsen has sent a letter to Liu Guomin, suggested Chinese preparatory work to do first, and then once the negotiations in September. Although the situation has changed, but the design continues ultra -7 preliminary design work. July 11, 1989, I and Chen Jinyan and other people heard about Song Kaiji ultra -7 operating system program reports, Yang Yan reported that the ultra-dry -7 aileron control system intended to refer to the arrangement of the E-type aircraft, which has two booster behind rocker arm and two pull defend. I said that this arrangement does not work, the support stiffness bad aileron gap is also large, is to generate chattering. Link between the booster and ailerons should better, up to a rocker and a pull defend, E-type machine this proposal is wrong, the chief architect of the sheep should report back to it. After the meeting, I met on the corridor of the building E-type machine head the life of static aeroelastic Bokang, and told him of the E-type machine aileron control system wrong thing, ask him to go back and carefully considered. July 24, 1989, Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Corporation was established. Former Chengdu Aircraft Development Center has completed its historic mission, I Incumbent deputy director disappear naturally, he was named senior adviser.
Shao ends in early September was ordered to return. At this point the internal ultra -7 Grumman has been a full stop, withdraw all personnel in order to save costs. 10 months, Grumman International Department James, Paul Nobuaki and Wang Chengdong 3 borrow Beijing Airshow opportunity to talk about super -7 Beijing, China Liu Guomin, Victor Fan, NIU Xin Tong, Ren and Chen Jinyan years to attend. I have another meeting, I saw the side. James brought a super -7 Grumman on the status of the work and recommendations to me. Grumman guests said initial design unspent money is still preserved until the U.S. government to lift the ban after continued cooperation. They participate in the second phase of work super -7 still interested, but do not directly bear the design and manufacturing. We expressed the hope that in November Karan sleep pull wind tunnel tests can run. We know from other sources "MiG" -29 engine PД33 situation and the process of collecting information in order to have more candidates ultra -7 engines, Nov. write a feasibility analysis. The end of November we are super -7 wind tunnel tests (low) concluded, CATIC Sunzong call Aobo allow, it is recommended to discuss the Gelug sects who test results and the next phase of work. Early December Aobo so requires its international department maintain long-term relations with China, in the "Peace Pearl" the official resumption of cooperation, once again discussed with the Government to solve ultra -7 cooperation, and in the name of the State Council was Aobo let thaw reports, results still no whereabouts. It is estimated that the real key is to: (1) Grumman own economic difficulties, not the implementation of the first ultra -7 users, no money is coming from, lack of confidence; (2) the U.S. Congress and the government for export to China and other controversial F404 also involves ultra -7 out out there for sale F-16 competition, so greater resistance. Man may be the beginning of 1990 corporate events out CATIC towards America cooperation shaken. Since within the Ministry of Cooperation with the United States has been super -7 do not send too much hope, so in this case Jiang Cheng Fei, deputy minister requested the preliminary design to engage in their own end, in 1993 the prototype out out. The Soviet Union could be envisaged mounted engine, mounted on the days of the British or Italian avionics. February 1990, the AVIC Avionics visited the Soviet Union as Sunzong ago, I wrote a proposal and asked him in English the way touch the RB-199 exporting our country's possibilities in order to choose the engine can walk on two legs, and send ultra -7 loaded RB-199's initial program to him. March 5, Shen Yong Yuan, Zhang Daxin settled in New York, everything go, leave home. Second cooperation with the United States to this termination. Finally it is worth mentioning that the final settlement of the United States takes us into a trapeze all foreign exchange costs, by the "saber" Project Palestinian side has to pay 50 million U.S. Jincheng Fei share of 450,000 dollars in revenue expenditure. Because we save money everywhere, so far there are savings. Three years, twice Grumman cooperation with the United States, has made technology and information to improve our level, an increase of our knowledge. So you can comfort the whole company, which is also a success. It can be said in the international triangular situation, we can enter the United States military aircraft design to do a limited partnership is an opportunity to play an extremely successful occasional wipe with the ball. Although ultra -7 did not succeed, but really experienced co-design, no doubt is unprecedented. This has gone through three years of Sino-US cooperation in military aircraft design, as with the following five indispensable condition, resulting in the fragile "saber" / Ultra -7 project, even after the conditions have changed because of which , leading to not move forward. 1, there is a fly into the international military aircraft market has opened the F-7M aircraft; 2, the old money and is willing to engage with Pakistani F-7M variant of the "saber" , and open up the U.S. relationship; 3, the United States has a rich Military aircraft development experience, but are not yet entered into the plight of desperate Grumman; 4, CATIC, Chengdu Aircraft Company and the Ministry of Aviation authorities have a number of public interest in mind and thus minded, enthusiastic matter is perhaps naive enthusiasm molecule; 5, during the Cold War Triangle, the Sino-US relations the political climate is better. This is a special historical events, history, as it should write a separate chapter.
European cooperation the two sides began in the ultra -7 cooperation projects for political reasons into a frozen state, light fighter F-7 level can no longer meet the need to use after 2000, China will face a light fighter production can no longer be based on the world market, danger light fighter, waits for no man, the Chinese began to seek cooperation with European countries, especially in the engine and avionics systems CATIC Sun Zhaoqing president looked at me in February 1990 proposal, in the year March in the UK and Marconi, Rolls-Royce and the Royal Aeronautical Establishment (RAE) meeting together to discuss ultra -7 (the British called the F-7MM) in the U.S. sanctions after the possibility of cooperation with the British company. English This three very enthusiastic response, willing to actively participate. Rolls-Royce RB199 data that has been provided over China, but if they feel something missing, you can ask them to. Marconi hope that the current system is still under discussion avionics settle down quickly, or it may not keep the aircraft program. RAE willing to serve as a technical adviser aircraft to help China reduce the technical risks. Later, Lucas companies also expressed its willingness to Sun CEO onboard accessories, such as the manipulation of motor and other leading-edge flaps to provide co-operation. "Peace Pearl" program after the resumption of cooperation, in the middle of an excuse Grumman proposed to increase the contract costs over two hundred million dollars, which is the hallmark of Singapore unwilling to cooperate directly with the grid the whole story, when Singaporeans have told us, Grumman often in the middle to overweight. April, Grumman chairman Aobo let Given the U.S. government did not lift the ban on ultra -7 prospects, wrote Sunzong, in addition to apologize, but not yet ready to run out of funds returned to China. These have deepened our commitment to European cooperation steering. Cheng Fei internal, super -7 for the completion of the preliminary design of the 42 sub-reports, are discussed one by one in order to coordinate between the various subsystems to resolve pending issues. April 6, also sent the French Snecma M88 engines fitted to light super -7 thing, I went to Beijing to participate in the negotiations and Chen Jinyan, CATIC by the Yantian Nan supervisor. M88 can be mounted in the ultra -7 on, just some small type thrust and thrust can type , is still in the development phase, we asked the French side to invite government position, can provide China. Prior to this, in March 1988 and in June, Snecma to Chengdu talked about the two, we feel M88 nice, smaller, lighter, technology is relatively new, but the costs may be more expensive in Beijing , we also find 606 weekly total, about their progress 14 turbojet and turbofan 14 offered the possibility of change. This ultra -7 with what engine will have four options: United States, Britain, and the Soviet Union, France, to add our own turbojet 14, on five kinds of it. U.S. F404 also gave eight blueprint, including interfaces, signal cross-linking, dimensions, two electrical schematics, etc., to carry out mechanical design is enough, but did not give the performance data. The Rolls-Royce RB199, 12 times in the years after exposure, in 88 years in July gave the performance of the tape, and user manuals, data representing a whole. M88 also gave some of the data, only the Soviet Union PД33, data is much worse; April 24, 1990, the Department of Aerospace Lin Zongtang Minister Wang Cheng Fei engineer to inspect his work, listened to us about the super -7 reporting. Report, Minister Lim said, I do not mind super -7 past, today heard was unexpected big gains. I advocate and foreign cooperative super -7 to dry, ultra -7 must engage, we have a strategic vision, exports occupy the international market. Wang said, I went to the Soviet Union, saw PД33, also talked about, they say as for single-engine aircraft, must be changed, it is to cooperate. But Wang is still stressed first have intentionality users. This problem, we all know. Rolls-Royce with enthusiasm again on June 11 sent to China. I went to Beijing to participate in the negotiations and Chen Jinyan, CATIC Yantian Nan, NIU Xin Tong attend. We decided after talking with Rolls-Royce with a six months time the two sides cooperate to conduct a feasibility study to select what type RB199 with more appropriate, from the performance, cost, effort, and trade-offs between the price of the aircraft. Early July in Beijing sent two men negotiate with RAE cooperation, they are Mark
Art Bennett brings Disney Company. But this relationship is later found Marconi lead us to use it as bait on the hook avionics, thanks in advance I had told not to place undue weakness in the RAE, he can not prevent the formation of non-appearance, remaining passive. November again with Rolls-Royce talks in Beijing, the Rolls-Royce of Mr. Martin is very active, to participate in aircraft co to international marketing. Finally, in Chengdu, reached by three months memorandum of understanding for a feasibility study. At the end of the two sides formally signed a memorandum. The feasibility study is to analyze what risks exist for both sides decisions. RB199 engine annoying problem is more expensive, it is the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy combined production of Rolls-Royce a final say. Faster export successor confidential, within the Ministry of Aeronautics and Astronautics everyone was in favor. Ministry comrades think in the past to engage in "saber" , now engaged in ultra -7, the current engine changed, it should be reported after the demonstration project, "August" There is no draft plans of its location. Later, after all the efforts, and finally included in the "Eighth Five" program. Document No. 1 of the year 1991 appeared the ultra -7 planned projects, but there is no guarantee of funds. Prior to this, the Ministry decided in September 1990 to early 1992 by the Yangbao Shu comrades then general manager of classes, so the company has embarked on a comprehensive work Young, no specific command ultra -7 items. By the end of 1990, after Hou Yang two studies, told CATIC, ultra -7 project the future by the Deputy General Manager Cheng Zhiming, chief designer Chen Jinyan, senior consultant Tu Jida three tubes. January 17, 1991 morning, affect the future development of aviation weapons Gulf War. Lin Zongtang Minister shall exceed -7 project requirements, write to the Soviet Ministry of Aviation Industry Minister Francis Niyazov proposed to welcome the Soviet side to participate in our super -7 cooperation and the Soviet side of PД33 intended to be imported engines, suggested that both sides engage in substantive negotiations. Su Fang quickly wrote back and sent on March 1 overall Mikoyan design bureau experts Qiapu gold four people come to Beijing to discuss cooperation. I and Chen Jinyan Beijing to participate. We want them to engines, engine design bureau that they do not send a person who has sent aircraft to make us wonder. They came and said, because the engine can not be directly loaded on our aircraft, engines to be changed, to be installed on the plane, it must first have aircraft design collaboration. We know they want an expansion of cooperation in controlling our aircraft and earn our money, saying that the truth is also that. The two sides briefed each other on the situation after the Soviet experts also made a special trip to Chengdu Cheng Fei looked after in Beijing signed a letter of intent. In the middle of talking, Qiapu Kim said the mid-1990s out of the single-engine fighter, of course, should be better than F-16 is good. We quickly explained that we much money, you also feel enough, so we do not pursue so advanced, he finally said to understand. Of course, we also know, from the Mikoyan design bureau level is concerned, should be more than the F-16 is very natural idea, and they come out of the aircraft low level of cooperation is also detrimental to its image. This also reminds us that in the future to cooperate with Mikoyan, to prevent this tendency. In the negotiations, we know PД33 engine weight 1050 kg is a theoretical weight, called net weight, in fact, to be fitted to the aircraft weight to 122l kg, which is not the same as the Western definition of the weight, it is known as a weight ratio 8, the actual Anti less than 7, which makes us feel disappointed. We use the projector in Chengdu to introduce them super -7 program, the Soviets seemed first saw this device, they are very curious to look carefully, ask us how much a desk, and said to each other, look at the structure not complicated. Famous in the world, highly authoritative Mikoyan Design Bureau, to develop the world's first-class fighter, but it appears that the level of occlusion was enough. Decision engine partner, to become the greatest super -7 advance key, I on February 9, 1991 wrote a written opinion, the leadership of the company to look after the CATIC Sun, Director Liu, advocates RB199 and PД33 are arrested, two legs to walk. They look after the basic agree with my opinion. Went to Beijing after he talked to them face to face. April, the French company SAGEM sent to Cheng Fei, introduce their avionics situation. End, Chen Jinyan met in Beijing with China due to other projects Soviet Klimov engine design bureau chief architect Sacchi Denisov, a preliminary understanding of its PД33 moved below the engine casing from the top is technically feasible, but the amount of change bigger. Sacchi Denisov said, if you can buy 100 engines, I anything can be changed. But to be changed, and the Mikoyan design bureau must cooperate job. This tone, it seems they had the caliber of national unity, and indeed in
Within the Soviet Union, the aircraft design bureau is the boss. Chen also met in Beijing Grumman Wang Chengdong by Niu Tong came forward and asked him dined. Recently found to have gastric king to open the knife, and now a business trip to China. After a year of efforts to clear the good cooperation between the Soviet Union after the decision in May CATIC Sun Zhaoqing led by the Soviet Union and the United Kingdom delegation going to talk about two engines and Mikoyan, Marconi collaboration and Lucas system products, may be involved in the relationship between the RAE. Prior to this, CATIC Yantian Nan has visited over Rolls-Royce and Snecma, and I want to visit Chen Jinyan Rolls-Royce and Marconi's visa has to do it once, because of the cooperation between the Soviet Union did not take a good while dragging down. In Soviet Union, the British missions, flying by me, Chen Jinyan, Cheng Zhiming attend. The three of us on the trip before the negotiations to write a number of specific strategies and principles to master's report, at Hou, Yang two leaders agreed instructions. Back in October 1990, Beijing opened the Games, scheduled to soon be promoted Chief of Staff Lieutenant rate Pakistan Pakistani empty Farouk sports delegation to Beijing. Sun Zhaoqing Please Farooq dinner. Farooq said on Sun, Grumman relationships do not break in the Grumman where the money do not get it back, you can resume cooperation ultra -7 someday, if priced at 10 million dollars less, get out before 1995, but also can The. Therefore, although the chairman of Aobo Grumman let in April 1990 has informed Sun to retrieve the balance, to July Austrian resigned as chairman, Larry slope succession by the card, to May 1991, CATIC yet go to checkout. On the other hand, CATIC is continuing to do the work of an empty bar, for they can represent an ultra -7 written intentions. In the engine, the Pakistani air-to PД33 interesting. Estimated departure from the political relations.
trip to the former Soviet Union Soviet relations twists and turns in Sino-US cooperation is suspended on the occasion, the Sino-Soviet cooperation in the door has been opened, but the Soviet Union at this time is candle in the wind, with the Soviet aviation industry in the ultra -7 Project cooperation is still not on a level road May 17, 1991, we have a line fly to Beijing, in Beijing in conjunction with the Sun Zhaoqing, Ma Chenglin, NIU Xin Tong at the 20th sitting CA909 flight Boeing 767 flights to Moscow. 17:00 takeoff, flight 8 hours 40 minutes after landing at the international airport. Out off the plane, drove to Moscow Domestic Airport, take their own aircraft Mikoyan Design Bureau Jacques -40 go to Leningrad. On the plane, it has not fly, and they knew the Soviet soaring prices, flight times tune request for additional wages, still negotiating, such as negotiations fail, will be from 21 am to strike. Fortunately, soon after negotiations victory, we took off, flying a half hour to Leningrad, Klimov Design Bureau of the car to pick. Way car has been hindered by the bridge on the Neva River, the original of this middle of the bridge can be opened to allow the ship through, 2:00 to 3:05 into pass ship time. Such a torment to the hostel carat Asimov Design Bureau, after supper asleep, is more than 4:00. In Beijing, the hearing was introduced, the Soviet Union should be prepared to go hungry, skeptical. On our domestic flights, the stewardess said, we want to save with the cup, because the aircraft to Moscow, did not supply can be, you need to stay home with a few cups. We have a premonition that something bad, so we try to supply the aircraft eaten. Jacques -40 aircraft to switch to the next, the reception lady brought us mineral water and sandwiches, and only a quarter of the size of ordinary bread and two small pieces of black bread clip a small piece of sausage, we do not eat. I was hungry and ate two. Most comrades have been more than eight hours without eating. Soviet rubles at the airport to see the official price is $ 1 for 1.7 rubles, but the black market in Moscow, $ 1 for 30 rubles. Rising prices two or three times, the state decided to grant each employee 100 rubles, 60 rubles per child allowance, of course, can not keep up prices. Design Bureau experts wage dissatisfaction 1,000 rubles, was the chief architect of 1,500 rubles. Press the black market exchange rate, one yuan is approximately equal to 6 rubles, compared with their past, their salary is very meager. Black 1 kg sausage 40 rubles, with the U.S. only 1 yuan, it is very cheap. Sleeping two or three hours, 21 morning 8:30, we went Klimov Design Bureau. It is based on Cremo
Cardiff research and production association named Leningrad. This year happens to be the 75th anniversary, now is the third chief designer, the mouth of the building has won two "Soviet Hero" will be the title of a bronze bust of Klimov. We are the first time in their history, the reception of the Chinese guests. To g bureau we first eat breakfast. G Bureau participated in the negotiations with a bunch of people, led by the chief engineer is equivalent to the chief architect, called Sida Luo volts Jicin Cove, there are a few of the Commonwealth's vice president. (Design Bureau chief of them is the chief architect (General Designer), after the reform of foreign president or general manager, said, there is a tube technology deputies, also translated as the chief architect (Chief Designer)). Mikoyan Design Bureau deputy chief power plant experts do not wish to stay Teke also came to participate in it. StarTech beginning negotiations that opposition from the top of the engine accessory gearbox changed to nod. StarTech Sunzong straightforward question, are you going to give us the engine is not the latest model, the Star said, yes. (Note: this Lisidasa lied) to the factory to see the next morning and it's aircraft engine accessory gearbox. "MiG" -29 is double, but only one aircraft accessory gearbox mounted on double top middle of the back of the aircraft maintenance work is carried out, super -7 machine back to engage in maintenance can not open big mouth, so use RD33, for non- can not be changed. Engine control is electronic analog-style, large and heavy, to be installed in aircraft, each engine with two boxes, weighing 25 kg, the total volume of 36 liters. The Western engine power transfer box attached to only one book on the engine size of the gap between the two is evident. I asked them why so big? They replied that it was dry out the 1970s, has been used now, after not going to change. Of course you want to change the design bureau, the Factories Branch no right to change the design. Aircraft accessory gearbox drive shaft is big and heavy. There is also a complication that the engine nozzle to 5 °, is not simply drop nozzle 5 °, but by the engine air intake unit oral drooping 3 °, axial downward bias of 150-200 mm. Then end vents under partial 2 °, two-part comprehensive formed. Afternoon and on the third day discussions focused on the accessory gearbox position and ultra -7 what aircraft accessories, engine mounting, air starter oxygen systems, fuel systems and pumps, inlet matching technical problems.

Interesting potential development coming out of the recent Paris Airshow:


Source: JDW


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Authorities investigating JF-17 crash into Arabia Sea

Source: Geo • 2 days ago

ISLAMABAD: A commission has been formed to investigate why a Pakistani JF-17 Thunder jet crashed into the Arabian Sea earlier this week, Geo News has learnt.

According to sources, the incident took place after pilot took off on a routine exercise flight from the Masroor Airbase in Karachi on Tuesday, September 27.

The pilot, however, stayed unhurt after he skillfully managed to eject before the aircraft crashed into water.

Sources say the commission will investigate the reasons behind the crash of the aircraft and will submit its findings which will become part of the Pakistan Air Force records.

The JF-17 aircraft series is Pakistan's own jet built jointly in collaboration with China.
Images show Myanmar Air Force JF-17/FC-1 conducting flight tests in China
Hood said:
The JF-17 is to be offered with an AESA radar to boost its export prospects and perhaps eventually upgrade Block I and II aircraft already in use with the PAF.
The AESA radar is the KLJ-7A developed by the Nanjing Research Institutie of Electronics Technology (NRIET).

The description of AESA is somewhat informative as it also give some insight in cooling namely air. Sometime ago i tried making prediction of possible emitted power and later range, with some assumptions of number of TRM. The air cooling is typically capable of providing 2.3 kW/Sqm of antenna aperture.

My calculations suggest possible range of up to 191 km vs 5 sqm RCS and like 1 kW of peak power. depending on TRM Efficiency (25-33% with current state of the art)
There are now two competing AESA radars for JF-17/FC-1.

LKF601E AESA radar by Leihua Electronic Technology Research Institute (LETRI) is air-cooled, with a range of 170km.
KLJ-7A by Nanjing Research Institute of Electronics Technology (NRIET) has gained additional side mounted AESA panels.


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From Krila 2/1988.


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Pakistanese movie stars JF-17 (let's hope the interesting bids get to end-up on Youtube) :
In one of the film’s highlights a JF-17, a fourth-generation fighter jointly developed by China and Pakistan, makes a surprise appearance.

In the movie, a teacher at the air force academy asks students to compare JF-17 with Mirage 2000 in class. A student answers that the JF-17 has three advantages including flexibility and safety and is complimented by the teacher.

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