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Ajax (Ayaks) hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Meteorit

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Development of the "Ajax" and "Neva" hypersonic flight vehicles with MHD (Magneto-Hydrodynamic) propulsion was initiated at the Leninets design bureau in late 1980s. There were apparently several configurations, some for hypersonic atmospheric flight, some for space launch. I have found some descriptions about the technical principles of the craft, but very little about the design lineage or reasons behind the project (ie. it seems to duplicate the Tu-2000 / 360 VKS effort).

More info:
http://www.astronautix.com/lvs/ajax.htm
http://www.testpilot.ru/russia/leninets/ajax/ajax.htm (in Russian)

The latest I remember about these projects was a co-operation agreement with China (see http://www.royfc.com/news/apr/2301apr02.html).
Any updates or additional info would be appreciated.
 

flateric

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

I bet I had (somewhere) old Military Parade magazine from the beginning of 90s with some color drawings from Leninets, but can't find in in my archives for several years...

In the end of 90s, AJAX has attracted much of interest from Paul Czysz (Professor Emeritus of Aerospace Engineering at Saint Louis University, McDonnell Douglas guy and - sic! - the former Chief Scientist for the National Aerospace Place (NASP), now the CEO of his hypersonic research company, Hypertech Concepts, LLC)

One of the last mentions of AJAX I've seen here is a paper from 2001 http://www.npsekk.spb.ru/publications/pub01/pub01-28.htm

You can also look there (don't be afraid of site name) http://www.americanantigravity.com/authors/74/Prof.-Paul-Czysz
 

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flateric

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

You also may look this paper
http://www.juliengeffray.fr/mhd/pdf/Electro-magnetic%20interactions%20in%20a%20hypersonic%20propulsion%20system.pdf
 

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sferrin

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Back in the 80s (at least in the US) MHD propulsion was suppose to be the next big thing for everything from aircraft to submarines. Seems to have fallen out of favor.
 

flateric

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

...or move deeply into the black...
 

Meteorit

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Thank you flateric.

You can also look there (don't be afraid of site name) http://www.americanantigravity.com/authors/74/Prof.-Paul-Czysz

Been there, done that ;) I'll check the other links you posted.

One interesting thing is that some sites suggest that the Ajax project was a response to the US "Aurora" hypersonic spyplane. I wonder what was the original source of this claim (as it sounds somewhat suspicious for obvious reasons...)?
Would it be a case of point #5 in this post http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,2816.msg22664.html#msg22664 , albeit in smaller scale?
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

From Bastion Bombers Vol 1
 

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overscan (PaulMM)

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

More
 

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Meteorit

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Thank you very much, overscan. A few of those pics appear at the Testpilots site, but most I haven't seen elsewhere. Are you able to make out any details about the different designs, ie. are some of them smaller, lower speed demonstrators etc?
 

flateric

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

http://www.ga.com/news.php?subaction=showfull&id=1174510181&archive=&start_from=&ucat=&
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Mar 21, 2007

General Atomics Scores Power Production First

San Diego, CA, March 13, 2007. A team led by General Atomics (GA) successfully tested a new method for generating electrical power on board a hypersonic vehicle. A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator was operated to produce electrical power using the exhaust stream from a prototype hypersonic scramjet combustor simulating flight at Mach 8 conditions. This is the world's first successful demonstration of a hypersonic MHD generator. This will lead the way for future development of this technology as a viable means to provide multi-megawatt MHD auxiliary power systems for air-breathing hypersonic vehicles.

This work was a collaborative effort by prime contractor GA, LyTec LLC, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR), United Technologies Research Center (UTRC), and NASA. The United States Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) sponsored the research effort under the Hypersonic Vehicle Electric Power Systems (HVEPS) program managed at Wright Patterson's AFRL/Propulsion Directorate.

The scramjet-driven MHD power testing was completed December 12, 2006 at the UTRC Jet Burner Test Facility (JBTF) in Hartford, CT. The experiments encompassed two sequential series of multiple short-duration tests in the JBTF wherein an MHD generator test article was installed in-line and downstream of the scramjet test rig. In all experiments, MHD electric power was successfully demonstrated at varying magnetic field intensities and varying power levels. Preliminary assessments indicate that peak power production of 15 kW was achieved over the active portion of the MHD generator, which was well within the design range for the test article.

Gas turbine engines are currently used to mechanically drive rotating generators to produce electrical power for conventional aircraft systems. Hypersonic vehicles, however, use scramjet engines, which do not have rotating shafts to allow the use of dynamos. The HVEPS project posed the advanced concept of using an MHD generator coupled in-line to the scramjet exhaust to directly extract electric power from the induced electromotive force produced by the interaction of the exhaust plasma stream with a magnetic field. The HVEPS demonstration of this concept is a notable milestone that paves the way for further development of scramjet-driven MHD as an enabling technology for realization of a revolutionary flight-weight, high-electric-power system applicable to the next generation global-reach military aircraft.

The Air Force program manager for HVEPS, Mr. Rene Thibodeaux, stated, "The success of these tests moves hypersonic MHD technology from the realm of speculation to realistic possibilities. Electrical power can now be produced on-board an air-breathing hypersonic platform without carrying large amounts of liquid oxygen like the Space Shuttle requires"

General Atomics, founded in 1955, specializes in diversified research, development, and manufacturing in defense, energy, and other advanced technologies. Affiliated manufacturing and commercial service companies include General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc., which produces the Predator® family of unmanned aerial systems.

http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2006/11/21/210701/scramjet-could-generate-electricity.html
DATE:21/11/06
SOURCE:Flight International
Scramjet could generate electricity

A way of generating electricity to drive systems on a scramjet-powered aircraft will be tested this month. A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator, using the interaction of magnetic fields with the scramjet's electrically conducting exhaust flow, will be ground tested at Mach 8 for up to 12s in a bid to produce 20-50kW.

The tests are the culmination of the US Air Force Research Laboratory's five-year Hypersonic Vehicle Electric Power Systems (HVEPS) programme. Conventional gas turbines mechanically drive generators to produce electricity to power aircraft systems, but scramjets have no rotating parts, and the programme's goal is to obtain power for on-board systems using MHD technology.

The tests will be conducted at United Technologies Research Center's scramjet cell in Connecticut. The scramjet has been modified with an MHD generator located downstream of its combustor. The generator uses a liquid helium-cooled superconducting magnet.

"We hope to get more funding for the next stage to develop the scramjet and MHD together," says John Lineberry, president of HVEPS participating engineering company Lytec.

General Atomics, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center are also partners in the HVEPS project.

The next stage would involve design of a scramjet and MHD system optimised to work together. The scramjet used for the tests and the MHD unit obtained from NASA Marshall were designed for other purposes.

The scramjet was tested at Mach 8 in March, achieving 80% combustor efficiency, and the MHD generator was delivered to the test cell in September.

http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2007/11/29/219922/nasa-studies-hypersonic-turbojet-using-mhd-energy-bypass.html
DATE:29/11/07
SOURCE:Flightglobal.com
NASA studies hypersonic turbojet using MHD energy bypass cycle
By Graham Warwick

A concept explored by the power generation industry 50 years ago is being dusted off by NASA as a possible way of enabling jet engines to operate to higher speeds, to power hypersonic vehicles and reusable spaceplanes.

The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) energy bypass engine would electromagnetically extract energy from air entering the inlet, slowing the flow and allowing the turbine engine to operate to a higher Mach number.

The electricity generated could be used to power aircraft systems or to electromagnetically accelerate the engine's exhaust flow, increasing thrust. One concept developed in Russia, called Ajaxa, was outlined in a paper in 2001 by its authors Claudio Bruno at the University of Rome and Paul Czysz at St Louise University, Missouri.

NASA has begun studying MHD energy bypass engine concepts under its revitalised hypersonics research programme, aimed at developing technology for a two-stage space access vehicle. The MHD energy bypass cycle could make it easier to design a combined-cycle propulsion system by allowing a turbine to accelerate the vehicle to hypersonic speed where a scramjet would take over.

"The idea is to extend the operating range of turbomachinery to higher Mach numbers," says Isaiah Blankson, a senior scientist at NASA Glenn Research Center. "We would put a device ahead of the engine to ionise the flow, extract the energy then put it back in the combustor."

By slowing the flow entering the inlet, the operating range of existing turbine engines could be extended to M7, from today's maximum of around M3. Extracting 30-40% of the total energy of the flow would reduce its speed by a half to three-quarters, he says, allowing the turbine engine to operate at M2.8.

The MHD energy bypass cycle was investigated, but not implemented, by the power generation industry in the USA and elsewhere in the 1950s and 1960s as a way of increasing electricity output at peak times. At that time, ionisation was achieved by seeding the flow with cesium. Later electron beams were proposed.

NASA's idea is to exploit recent advances in high-voltage pulse power systems to increase ionization efficiency. "We need a very efficient way of ionizing the flow field. If we can increase ionisation efficiency by 40% we can be very competitive with classic over-and-under turbine-based combined-cycle engines."

Over the next two years, NASA Glenn plans computational and experimental work aimed at sizing an MHD energy bypass engine capable of M7 to see if it is a feasible way of powering the air-breathing first stage of a reusable spaceplane.

http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2000/12/19/123989/powering-into-the-future.html
DATE:19/12/00
SOURCE:Flight International
Powering into the future

Just as the development of aviation has been powered by advances in engine technology, spaceflight needs breakthroughs in propulsion systems if safe, efficient and routine space travel is to become anything other than a science fiction dream

As the newly appointed captain of the starship Enterprise, actor Patrick Stewart was keen to grasp the fundamental principles behind its famous warp drive. But the producers of the science fiction epic Star Trek, having explained the hypothetical concept, admitted no-one had any real idea how to make a starship go faster than the speed of light. Stewart replied: "Nonsense, all you have to do is say 'engage'."

"Star Trek is great as an inspirational tool, but at the same time it can be a handicap," says Marc Millis, head of the Breakthrough Propulsion Physics group at NASA's Glenn Research Center (GRC) in Cleveland, Ohio. Millis, who admits to having a model Star Trek shuttlecraft in his office, as well as an Enterprise technical manual at hand for inspiration, says science fiction can be a double-edged sword. "Sci-fi like Star Trek provides a visible icon, but it also raises expectations that these things are easily achievable, as well as narrowing people's focus on how to solve the problem."

As 2001 dawns, the problem of advancing space travel is as dependent on improvements in propulsion technology as air travel was throughout the 20th century. Propulsion continues to be the limiting factor in all aspects of spaceflight, be it access to Earth orbit, trips to the moon or other planets in the Solar System, or the far-off dream of deep space exploration and interstellar travel.

While aviation received a major boost with the development of the jet engine, spaceflight has yet to progress much beyond the rocket. Although today's rocket motors are more efficient than the pioneering engines of the 1930s, a breakthrough is needed if the cost of space access is to be reduced dramatically.

The state-of-the-art for the advanced propulsion concepts now under study is proportional to the distances for which they are designed. Therefore, propulsion techniques for leaving the Earth's atmosphere and for travel within the Solar System are better understood, or at least further along, than those being considered for interstellar travel.

Technologies being studied in the USA and elsewhere cover the full range from advanced chemical-based rockets, through nuclear propulsion to a wide variety of electromagnetic concepts. Beyond these, tentative research is beginning into futuristic fusion and antimatter propulsion concepts, gravity modification and even faster-than-light travel.

[...]

Electromagnetic focus

Studies of electromagnetic propulsion concepts, meanwhile, continue to focus on magnetic levitation (maglev)-assisted, RBCC-powered launch vehicles. In a scene reminiscent of the sci-fi classic When World's Collide, the vehicle would hurtle along a maglev track on a sled until launching at a speed of around 650km/h. Such a ground-assisted launch could reduce vehicle size by 20% for the same payload, NASA estimates. Small test tracks have been built at MSFC and LLNL, and NASA plans a demonstration track at Kennedy Space Center following continued research.

Russian research into magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), aimed at a hypersonic aircraft concept called Ajax, has stimulated US studies of similar electromagnetic propulsion concepts at NASA's Ames Research Center and AFRL.

The MHD concept is based on the idea that high-velocity gases flowing through a strong magnetic field will be diverted in a direction perpendicular to the field. Electrons and negative ions are diverted in one direction, positive ions in the opposite direction. Electrodes placed to collect these charged particles would generate electricity while decreasing fluid velocity. This 'MHD generator' and a flow ioniser in the inlet would slow incoming gases to ideal ramjet conditions, while the electrical power generated would be sent to an 'MHD accelerator' in the exhaust to increase thrust. The concept would also be used to reduce drag and create a virtual inlet to double airflow into the ramjet.

[...]
 

flateric

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Oh, finally found it via some complicated ways. Posting full article, as I suspect it's impossible to find this 1994 backissue of the Military Parade.
 

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Meteorit

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Thank you very much again, flateric. The article has exactly what I was searching for: technical specifications associated with the various designs.
 

flateric

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Have watched recent Strike Force TV weekly show oh hypersonics.

99,9% of crap (if you don't know, there were no one successful launch of X-43A - story accomplished by X-2 remains footage laying on desert sand). 'After successful launch of Kh-90 work on it was abandoned by Gorbachev' From the open sources it's known well that first (some say of two) launch of Kh-90 ended with 'cool fireworks'.

Vladimir Geogrievich Freistadt, author of AJAX concept.

Another examples of Prozac-caused CGI ('Ajax will look like cigar at the take-off and flying saucer in the flight. [Two minutes later] 'Ajax will look like fireball')
Kh-90 in Raduga museum.
 

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A

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

so what is the link between gela and neva?
 

Orionblamblam

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

flateric said:
Vladimir Geogrievich Freistadt, author of AJAX concept.

A cultural note: I've noticed that a lot of Russian/Eastern European books, articles and websites like to publish portrait photos of engineers and managers and such. This is not nearly as popular in the US, I believe. Subscribers to APR will have found a complete lack of people-photos. Cuz I just don't care.

Second note: damn, those Russian engineers and designers sure as hell look like an unhappy lot.
 
A

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

from what i gather, Strike force is one of those shows where you hate the commentary and the CGI stuff , but continue watching in case they show a never seen before clip, howsoever brief.

The unfortunate fate of every secret projects buff.
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Interesting funding comparison...and sight that friends are watchin' closely...and what the hell Mr.Adamovich doing there? Need to check up our plutonium supplies...
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

flateric said:
99,9% of crap (if you don't know, there were no one successful launch of X-43A - story accomplished by X-2 remains footage laying on desert sand).

What does the X-43's launch have to do with the X-2?


KJ_Lesnick
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

KJ_Lesnick said:
What does the X-43's launch have to do with the X-2?
KJ_Lesnick

That's the question I wanted to ask authors of documentary. If you suggest that these things have nothing in common, you will be right.
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

flateric said:
Posting full article, as I suspect it's impossible to find this 1994 backissue of the Military Parade.

I found this bit particularly entertaining:

"Multi-Purpose Hypersonic Aircraft (meteorological and astrophysical observations, geologic
prospecting, ecological monitoring, restoration of the Earth's ozone layer, assignments of the
Defense Ministry)"

A grand total of *one* of those possible uses makes sense for a hypersonic aircraft.
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

*restoration of the Earth's ozone layer* was a popular cover-up for grabbing western funds for Myasichev's M-17 Mystic flight program in early 90s.
 

hesham

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Hi,

http://www.americanantigravity.com/documents/Russian-AJAX-Hypersonic-Analysis.pdf
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2wsDSRKIEiw
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Ajax is a laughingstock in the industry, and it's not for nothing that we have been seeing all these awesome claims for twenty years with no flight hardware forthcoming. Moller's got a better chance of replacing the common automobile than this pile of drivel has of achieving sustained hypersonic flight.

I'm trying to remember, but I think this was the proposal that suggested that things would work great "supposing a ratio of specific heats of 4". That's completely outside the land of sense and is the sort of thing that results in boisterous laughter in a bar full of engineers.
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

...or move deeply into the black...

If any such program does exist it would be very very very deep to survive the scrutiny of congressional air force budget hackers. Congress is not currently interested in hypersonics.
 

flateric

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

100+ AJAX-related AIAA papers for the last two years...hmmm... A question why concept still causes such interest from the eggheads from AFRL to SkunkWorks, from General Atomics to numerous Japanese research centers?
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

flateric said:
100+ AJAX-related AIAA papers for the last two years...hmmm... A question why concept still causes such interest from the eggheads from AFRL to SkunkWorks, from General Atomics to numerous Japanese research centers?

Cuz It's Cool. Look how many nuclear rocket papers get published, and nobody has built one of them in forty years.
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

flateric said:
100+ AJAX-related AIAA papers for the last two years...hmmm... A question why concept still causes such interest from the eggheads from AFRL to SkunkWorks, from General Atomics to numerous Japanese research centers?
MHD technology still has potential use in hypersonic vehicles, whether it's for propulsive efficiency, electric accessory power or general flow control (although the need to seed the flow with potassium or some other nastiness is... problematic). Ajax is a little further out there. I mean, to continue the former example, helicopters and Moller's aircar wanking operate on exactly the same physical principles. One is eminently practical and useful in many situations and one is vaporware at best.
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Orionblamblam said:
flateric said:
100+ AJAX-related AIAA papers for the last two years...hmmm... A question why concept still causes such interest from the eggheads from AFRL to SkunkWorks, from General Atomics to numerous Japanese research centers?

Cuz It's Cool. Look how many nuclear rocket papers get published, and nobody has built one of them in forty years.

Timberwind is a lot younger than that
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

quellish said:
Orionblamblam said:
flateric said:
100+ AJAX-related AIAA papers for the last two years...hmmm... A question why concept still causes such interest from the eggheads from AFRL to SkunkWorks, from General Atomics to numerous Japanese research centers?

Cuz It's Cool. Look how many nuclear rocket papers get published, and nobody has built one of them in forty years.

Timberwind is a lot younger than that

Call me back when someone has actually *built* one.
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Propulsion and Power Generation Capabilities of a Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) Fusion System for Future Military Aerospace Vehicles (POSTPRINT)


support of a USAF advanced military aerospace vehicle concept study (Froning, Czysz, 2006). This vehicle is an aerospace plane that combines clean “aneutronic” dense plasma focus (DPF) fusion power and propulsion technology, with advanced “waverider”-like airframe configurations utilizing MHD airbreathing propulsion and power technology within a reusable single-stage-to-orbit vehicle.

http://www.dtic.mil/get-tr-doc/pdf?AD=ADA446973&Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf


(Ref:Froning, H.D., Czysz, P., “Advanced Technology and Breakthrough Physics for 2025 and 2050 Military Aerospace Vehicles,” to be presented at Space Technology and Applications International Forum (STAIF – 2006), 2006.)
 

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

From the PDF:

to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid
weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, shielding/cloaking devices and gravity or time-distorting devices.

You've got to be kidding.....
 

antigravite

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

sublight is back said:
From the PDF:

to evaluate excess power generation for communication systems, pulsed-train plasmoid
weapons, ultrahigh-power lasers, shielding/cloaking devices and gravity or time-distorting devices.

You've got to be kidding.....


The abstract reads: "This paper presents only the views and recommendations of the authors themselves and are not necessarily those of the Air Force"
A.
 

Desert Dawn

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Theoretical physics on space propulsion:

http://www.integrityresearchinstitute.org/Froning-quantumvacuum.pdf

David Froning, he teaches at the University of Adelaide, dept. of Engineering:

http://mecheng.adelaide.edu.au/aaa/affiliates/flow-and-noise/members/harrland/

If you've got time to spend, you will find out that a lot of the advanced space propulsion theories and research revolve around modification of gravity (and its effects on time (space) continuum).
 

antigravite

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Desert Dawn said:
Theoretical physics on space propulsion:

http://www.integrityresearchinstitute.org/Froning-quantumvacuum.pdf

David Froning, he teaches at the University of Adelaide, dept. of Engineering:

http://mecheng.adelaide.edu.au/aaa/affiliates/flow-and-noise/members/harrland/

If you've got time to spend, you will find out that a lot of the advanced space propulsion theories and research revolve around modification of gravity (and its effects on time (space) continuum).


But this has nothing to do with Ajax (nor this thread)! That the paper's author came to investigate other advanced propulsion subjects is fairly normal - don't you think, so? If you are an experience, trained engineer familliar with out-of-the-box subjects, there's nothing you won't study. Maybe another thread should be started to handle beamed energy propulsion, of which laser propulsion (in its many variants) is a subset. And another thread related to advanced field propulsion, including vacuum engineering, opening up a zoo of real science, breakthrough-related research, fringe physics, nuts-with-no-bolts speculations, saucer conspiracy, alien tech, and supernoisy misinformation. I've gone into that extensively and pulled off. It's a mess.

A.
 

Desert Dawn

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

I think you've misunderstood a couple things, it's not a mess, it`s called research. Like i said, if you have the time to spare, you can learn to separate the true research and scientists from the nutcases and dreamers that rotate around such concepts. Someone posted a technical paper with the name of Mr. Froning on it and said 'you must be kidding?' because he saw one phrase in that paper that sounded too much like sci-fi for his own personal level of knowledge on advanced physics theories (and i must stress i am no specialist on the subject, i just happen to read about it from time to time, from a pure curiosity point of view, and i try to learn more). So i simply pointed out that the guy is very relevant and is teaching hypersonic propulsion to students at the University of Adelaide. I think no one here would want to compare Mr. Froning to a pseudo-scientist here or worse. He is doing the same job as professor Paul Czysz did for years. Professor Czysz also co-authored with him, so that's telling me something here.

In a few hundred years, our own current physics theories will look just as cuckoo as the ones they had prior to Galilleo where they thought the Sun was rotating around the Earth. Anyway, back to Ajax.
 

antigravite

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

Mr London 24/7 said:
Plasma Aerodynamics Since The End Of The Cold War (FSU Thesis, C.Mills, 2012) for it's interesting Chapter (5) on AJAX.

Hi. While this document is interesting in many aspects for those already having insights of the suject, the author did not do his homework -- whatever his current position. So many key open information of central interest for a better contextual understanding, are not even mentionned, it seems very intriguing at best. Expanding on that would soak up too much time.
A.
 

Mr London 24/7

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Re: Ajax hypersonic vehicles with MHD propulsion

If you're saying you have corrections on Ajax to add to the topic I don't see anyone particularily pushed for time...
 

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