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Designation Systems / Re: Koolhoven F.K. Designations
« Last post by hesham on Yesterday at 05:10:41 pm »
Thanks Hesham, those Ontwerpen have been added  :)

Thank you my dear Apophenia,

and also you can add;

- Trainer aircraft Project before F.K.51
- Sporting aircraft Project of 1930s
- Large flying boat Project of 1932
- Torpedo bomber Project,powered by two engines,1937
- Twin engined transport flying boat Project of 1932
- Transport flying boat Project of 1932 also
- Recce flying boat Project of 1930s,powered by three engines
- Twin engined sporting and light transport aircraft Project of 1934
Designation Systems / Re: Koolhoven F.K. Designations
« Last post by Apophenia on Yesterday at 11:51:22 am »
Thanks Hesham, those Ontwerpen have been added  :)
Continuing the exploration of 'self-published on Amazon' technothrillers

R.E. McDermott, Deadly Coast, 2012

United States

USS Carney (DDG-64)
Arleigh Burke Class Destroyer
Real ship, details as in service.

USS Bunker Hill (CG-82)
Ticonderoga Class Cruiser
Real ship, details as in service.


Admiral Vinogradov
Udaloy (Pr.1155) Class Destroyer
Real ship, details as in service.


MT Marie Floyd
Armed Merchant Cruiser (Privateer)
Converted Oil Tanker
Modifications include the conversion of one cargo tank into a cell for captured pirates and the addition of a concealed control position, from which all ship functions can be handled in a former aft ballast tank.
Armament: Small arms & rocket propelled grenades
MT Pacific Endurance
Armed Merchant Cruiser (Privateer)
Converted Oil Tanker
Modifications/armament identical to MT Marie Floyd

Note: Both ships are owned by Phoenix Shipping Ltd. and are operating under Letters of Marque and Reprisal (E.g. Privateers) issued by the Liberian Government under newly passed legislation. The combat portion of the crew is made up of mercenaries, either American (ex-USMC) or Russian (ex-Spetznaz). The mode of operation is to sail slowly in regions pirates are present inviting attack. When the pirates board, they are lured into the superstructure, ambushed and captured. Armament is a mixture of American & Russian weapons including M-4 Carbines, Dragunov sniper rifles &  Kalashnikov's (The last is not specified in novel but likely.) along with unspecified types of rocket propelled grenades.


Somali Pirates

Kyung Yang No. 173
Armed Trawler
Armament: Small arms & rocket propelled grenades
Note: Captured from her Korean (Republic of) crew and used as a mothership for the smaller vessels the pirates use to attack freighters.

Plot summary: As Somali piracy reaches crisis proportions, one ship owner resorts to a desperate scheme only to find that the attacks cover something much more dangerous.

Note: This is actually a better book than the James Rollins novel I covered two posts back, the authors plot is simple, straightforward and enlivened with a gleeful cynicism, just how the heroes get their hands on Liberian Letters of Marque and Reprisal made me laugh, that does not get in the way of providing a good set of thrills. The authors afterward is also a good example of how these things should be written, with a clear explanation of the history that inspired him and how he altered that history in the service of his plotline.
Designation Systems / Re: Koolhoven F.K. Designations
« Last post by Apophenia on June 19, 2018, 04:09:54 pm »
Koolhoven F.K. Aircraft Designations

Koolhoven F.K.1 -- 1911 Heidevogel (Heatherbird)
 - F.K.1: Improved Farman-type biplane, aka 'Holland'
 -- Controversial designation, possibly not assigned

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.1 -- 1914 Sissit biplane* scout
 - F.K.1: Small single-seat, single-bay scout, x 1
 - F.K.1: 1 x 50 hp Gnome rotary tractor,** span (??) m
 -- Controversial designation, possibly desig. A.W.1
 -- * F.K.1 originally conceived of as monoplane scout
 -- ** F.K.1 originally designed to have 80hp engine
 -- F.K.1 mod. w/ fixed tailplane and enlarged ailerons
 -- F.K.1 named Sissit but aka 'Queen Anne'***
 -- *** Suggesting that the design was overweight?

British Deperdussin F.K.2 -- 1912 2-seat trainer
 - F.K.2: 'Anglicised' Deperdussin TT monoplanes
 - F.K.2: 1 x 60 hp or 100 hp engine,* span 10.50 m
 -- * Both Anzani radials and Gnome rotaries fitted
 -- Controversial designation, possibly not assigned

British Deperdussin F.K.2 -- 1912 single-seat trainer
 - F.K.2: 'Anglicised' Deperdussin Type A monoplane
 - F.K.2: 1 x 35 hp Anzani Y-3 engine, span 8.50 m*
 -- Ground trainer** aka 'School Type' or 'Taxi-Type'
 -- * Span for standard Deperdussin A was 8.76 m
 -- ** Albeit capable of short hops/delivery flights
 -- Controversial desig., from 1926 Koolhoven list

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.2 -- 1915 2-seat recce biplane
 - F.K.2: Tandem-seat, 2-bay biplane, x 2 (7 ordered)*
 - F.K.2: (Orig.) 1 x 70 hp Renault, span 12.22 m
 - F.K.2: (Mod.) 1 x 90 hp Renault air-cooled V-8
 -- * Contract No.94/A/103 (5328-5334) became F.K.3s
 -- Controversial desig. but no record of an 'A.W.2'

British Deperdussin F.K.3 -- 1912 2-seat scout/trainer
 - F.K.3: 'Anglicised' Deperdussin Monocoque monoplane
 - F.K.3: 1 x 70 hp Gnome rotary engine, span 10.50 m
 -- aka "70 hp Gnome" by Frits Koolhoven himself

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.3 -- 1915 2-seat recce biplane
 - F.K.3: Tandem-seat, 2-bay biplane, improved F.K.2*
 - F.K.3: 1 x 90 hp RAF 1a V-8 engine, span 12.22 m
 -- B.E.2c repl. but inferior, most used as trainers
 -- * Modernized structure, aka 'Little Ack', x 343
 -- aka "100 hp RAF two-seater scout" by Koolhoven
 -- 3v:

British Deperdussin F.K.4 -- [Project] 1911 scout/trainer
 - F.K.4: 'Anglicised' Deperdussin Monocoque monoplane
 - F.K.4: 1 x 100 hp Gnome rotary engine, span 10.50 m
 -- Controv. desig., aka "100 hp Gnome Déperdussin 1911"

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.4 -- 1915 2-seat airship gondola
 - F.K.4: 1 x 100 hp Green inline 4-cyl, span n/a, x ~20
 -- F.K.3 fuselage re-used as SS.40-49 airship gondola*
 -- * SS.27 airship also used an F.K.3-based gondola**
 -- ** It's unclear whether these were designated F.K.4

British Deperdussin F.K.5 -- 1912 2-seat scout/trainer
 - F.K.5: 'Anglicised' Deperdussin Monocoque monoplane
 - F.K.5: 1 x 100 hp Gnome rotary engine, span 10.50 m
 -- Controv. desig., aka "100 hp Gnome Déperdussin 1912"

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.5 -- 1915 3-seat escort fighter
 - F.K.5: Single-engined unequal triplane heavy fighter
 - F.K.5: 1 x 250 hp R-R Eagle V-12, span (??) m, x 1
 -- Twin gun nacelles mounted on wider-span middle wing

British Deperdussin F.K.6 -- 1912 2-seat floatplane
 - F.K.6: Tractor monoplane floatplane for Admiralty
 - F.K.6: 1 x 100 hp Anzani 10-cyl. radial, span 14.00 m
 -- 'Seagull', orig. simply 'Hydro Monoplane'
 -- NB: Attrib. to Lt. JC Porte, RN with Koolhoven
 -- Controversial desig. from Koolhoven's 1926 list

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.6 -- 1915 3-seat escort fighter
 - F.K.6: Single-engined unequal triplane heavy fighter
 - F.K.6: 1 x 250 hp R-R Eagle V-12, span 18.89 m, x 1*
 -- Gun nacelles mounted further outboard on middle wing
 -- * No.7838, 7841 and 3684-3685 (for RNAS) cancelled
 -- 3v:
 -- 3v:

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.7 -- 1916 2-seat recce biplane
 - F.K.7: 1 x 160 hp Beardmore inline, span 13.26 m, x 1
 - F.K.7: Intended replacement for the F.K.3 and B.E.2c
 -- F.K.7 production plans transferred to improved F.K.8*
 -- * A411 built, order for A729 to A777 was cancelled

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.8 -- 1916 2-seat recce biplane
 - F.K.8: Prod'n vers. of F.K.7 scout/light bomber*
 - F.K.8: 1 x 160 hp Beardmore inline, span 13.26 m
 -- * Rebrande to match Royal Aircraft Factory R.E.8?
 -- aka 'Big Ack' (vs F.K.3 'Little Ack), x 1,650

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.9: [Project] 1916 2-seater
 - F.K.9: aka "180 hp Lorraine two-seater, 1916"*
 -- * According to retroactive 1926 Koolhoven list
 -- Unclear whether related to Clerget F.K.9 design

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.9 -- 1916 quadruplane fighter
 - F.K.9: 2-seat fighter, private venture to Spec.No.2c
 - F.K.9: 1 x 110 hp Clerget rotary, span 8.46 m, x 1
 - F.K.9: [Project] "180 hp Lorraine two-seater, 1916"
 -- Central Flying School trials dictated modifications*
 -- * New wings, cowling, an increased u/c track, etc.
 -- Further revised F.K.9 ordered into prod. as F.K.10

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.10 - 1916 quadruplane fighter
 - F.K.10: Improved development of F.K.9 airframe
 - F.K.10: 1 x 130 hp Clerget rotary, span 8.61 m
 -- 8 built,* prod. order issued but later cancelled
 -- * Including 2 by Phoenix Dynamo Manufacturing Co.
 -- * In-prod. Sopwith 1 1/2 Strutter found superior

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.11 - [Project] 1916 multiplane
 - F.K.11: Fifteen-wing design, planned engine unknown*
 -- F.K.11 was to employ the fuselage from the F.K.10
 -- * Probably the 130 hp Clerget 9B as per F.K.10

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.12 - 1917 (no firm details)
 - F.K.12: Poss. FK.8 w/ mod cooling, u/c, exhausts
 -- Koolhoven confused F.K.12 w/ F.K.6 in 1926 list

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.13 - 1917 biplane recce-fighter
 - F.K.13: Higher-powered F.K.8 derivative, x 1 (N513)*
 - F.K.13: 1 x 200 hp Sunbeam Maori, span (??) m
 -- aka Fleet Fighter Reconnaissance Biplane, not accepted
 -- * Note: this serial falls between final 3 x F.K.10s

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.14 - [Project] unbuilt fighter
 - F.K.14: No details, identified by Koolhoven as A.W.

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.15 - [Project] airship gondola
 - F.K.15: Gondola design for 1912 Beta II airship

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.16 - [Project] airship gondola
 - F.K.16: Gondola design for 1912 North Sea airship*
 -- * F.K.16 gondola based on the fuselage of F.K.3

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.17 - [Project] airship gondola
 - F.K.16: Gondola design for 1912 North Sea airship*
 -- * F.K.16 gondola based on the fuselage of F.K.3**
 -- ** Koolhoven himself may have had no involvement

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.18 - [Project] flying boat
 - F.K.18: "2-engine flying boat" according to FK*
 -- * But also called F.K.22 precursor by Koolhoven
 -- JM Bruce repeated fighter claim in Flight letter

Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.19 - [Project] unbuild aircraft
 - F.K.19: No details, identified by Frits Koolhoven*
 -- * Or Armstrong-Whitworth light air-cooled engine**
 -- ** If so, unlikely to have Koolhoven involvement

BAT F.K.20 - [Project] 1917 shipboard biplane fighter
 - F.K.20: Single-seat, single-engined naval biplane
 -- Claimed derived from A.W. F.K.18 fighter concept
 -- lists "FK20, BAT-jager ... shipplane"
 -- F.K.20 seems to lead to both F.K.21 and F.K.22

BAT F.K.21 - 1917 2-bay biplane fighter trainer
 - F.K.21: Single-seat* trainer (no other details)
 -- * lists "FK21, BAT éénpersoonsjager"
 -- * 'BAT single-seat fighter', fuselage as F.K.20

BAT F.K.22 - 1918 single-seat biplane fighter, x 3
 - F.K.22: Unstaggered 2-bays, monocoque fuselage
 - F.K.22: (As planned) 1 x 120 hp ABC Mosquito
 - F.K.22: 1st/3rd prototype, 170 hp ABC Wasp I radial
 - F.K.22: 2nd prototype, Gnome Monosoupape rotary*
 -- * 2nd airframe later fitted w/ 110 hp Le Rhone 9J
 -- aka BAT Bantam II (see F.K.23 Bantam I)**
 -- ** JM Bruce lists F.K.22 Bat or Gnôme-Bat

BAT F.K.23 - 1918 single-seat biplane fighter, x 3
 - F.K.23: 1 x 170 hp ABC Wasp I radial, span 7.62 m
 -- F.K.23 was a refined development of the F.K.22
 -- aka BAT Bantam I (BAT Bantam II was F.K.22, above)
 - F.K.23A: Dutch NVI version,* 1 x 200 hp ABC Wasp II
 -- * Based on a surplus F.K.23 airframe bought from BAT
 - F.K.23(??): F.K.23 refitted w/ AS Lynx IV in Neth.**
 -- ** Another of the 12 F.K.23 airframe bought from BAT
 -- 3v:

BAT F.K.24 - 1919 tandem 2-seat biplane trainer, x 1*
 - F.K.24: 2-bay biplane, wide-track u/c, simple construction
 - F.K.24: 1 x 170 hp ABC Wasp I radial, span 8.10 m
 -- * 6 planned, only one built, orders cancelled Nov 1918
 -- aka BAT Baboon, interchangable wing panels, elevators

BAT F.K.25 - 1918 single-seat biplane fighter, x 3
 - F.K.25: 1 x 320 hp ABC Dragonfly radial, span 7.72 m
 -- Prototype crashed killed test pilot Lt. Peter Legh*
 -- * Legh followed Koolhoven from Armstrong-Whitworth
 -- Devel. terminated due to unreliability of Dragonfly
 -- aka BAT Basilisk
 -- 3v:

BAT F.K.26 - 1919 single-engine biplane 4-pax airliner
 - F.K.26: 1 x 350 hp R-R Eagle VIII V-12, span 14.03 m
 - F.K.26: 4 pax in fwd cabin, 1 x pilot in rear cockpit
 -- aka Commercial Mk.I, 4 x built before BAT closed
 -- 3v:

BAT F.K.27 - 1918 2-seat* biplane sporting a/c, x 1
 - F.K.27: 1 x 200 hp ABC Wasp II radial, span 7.90 m
 -- * Staggered side-by-side seating, aerobatic/racer

BAT F.K.28 - 1920 high-wing single-seat ultralight
 - F.K.28: 1 x 40 hp ABC Gnat HO2, span 4.57 m
 -- aka BAT Crow, twin-booms w/ underslung pod

NVI F.K.29 - 1923 light passenger* biplane, x 1
 - F.K.29: 1 x 100 hp Bristol Lucifer, span 10.00 m
 -- * 1 + 2, F.K.29 was a refined BAT F.K.26 design

Koolhoven* F.K.30 - 1927 high-wing 2-seat light a/c
 - F.K.30: Tandem-seat pod-and-boom pusher (pedestal)
 - F.K.30: 1 x 50 hp Siemens radial, span 10.50 m
 -- aka Toerist, sometimes also as Week-end
 -- * Design for NVI, built by Luchttuigenfabriek Koolhoven
 -- 3v:
 - F.K.30F: [Project] Light flying boat derivative**
 -- ** The meaning of the 'F' suffix is unclear

NVI F.K.31 - 1923 2-seat parasol recce-fighter, x 17
 - F.K.31: 1 x 420 hp Bristol Jupiter IV, span 13.70 m
 - F.K.31: LVA,* 1 x 400 hp Bristol Jupiter radial
 -- * Perform. too low, 4 passed to LA/KNIL in NEI
 -- LA/KNIL a/c had modified horizontal tailplanes
 - De Monge M.101 C2 : French license-built, x 1**
 -- ** 20 x M.101 A2 ordered for Poland, cancelled
 -- 1 x 420 hp Gnome-Rhône 9Ac (licensed Jupiter)
 - F.K.31: 8 x Finland, 450 hp Bristol Jupiter IV
 -- 3v:

NVI F.K.32 - 1925 tandem 2-seat biplane trainer
 - F.K.32: 1 x 130 hp Clerget 9B,* span 7.10 m, x 1
 -- * Offered with Bristol Lucifer in place of rotary
 -- aka Koolhoven F.K.32, no F.K.32 orders placed

NVI F.K.33 - 1925 3-engined high-wing 10-pax airliner
 - F.K.33: 3 x 230 hp AS Puma,* span 17.80 m, x 1
 -- * 2 x tractor engines, 1 x pusher above wing
 - F.K.33: 1 x prototype operated by KLM 1925-26
 -- 3v:

NVI F.K.34 - 1925 parasol 3-seat recce-fighter seaplane
 - F.K.34: Private venture twin-float naval recce a/c
 - F.K.34: 1 x 520 hp Hispano-Suiza 12G, span 13.00 m
 -- Series of accidents involving floats, no MLD order
 -- 3v:

Koolhoven F.K.35 - 1926 2-seat variable config. a/c
 - F.K.35: Assembled as monoplane/biplane/floatplane*
 -- * Sole unflown F.K.35 built as low-wing monoplane
 - F.K.35: 1 x 600 hp Bristol Pegasus VI, span 10.50 m
 -- aka (erroneously) as the NVI F.K.35, never flown
 -- lists tweepersoons jager/verkenner

Koolhoven F.K.36 - [Project] 1926 enlarged F.K.35
 - F.K.36: Assembled as monoplane/biplane/floatplane*
 -- * As per F.K.35 but with slightly larger airframe
 -- * Twin-float seaplane F.K.36 display model built
 -- Other sources say F.K.36 as float vers. F.K.35**
 -- ** According to Wesselink/Postma, 1981, pg.59

Koolhoven F.K.37 - [Project] 1927 trimotor airliner
 - F.K.37: High-wing monoplane similar to NVI F.K.33
 - F.K.37: 3-engined* pax aircraft intended for KLM
 -- * Arranged as per F.K.33 but all tractor radials

Koolhoven F.K.38 - [Project] 1927 fighter study
 - F.K.38: Single-engined, related to F.K.39 (below)
 - F.K.38: No other details

Koolhoven F.K.39 - 1927 2-seat fighter studies
 - F.K.39: [Project] Various design studies*
 -- Display model shows parasol with radial**
 -- * Prob. Pegasus but may be Jaguar
 -- ** See Wesselink/Postma, 1981, pg.52

Koolhoven F.K.40 - 1928 high-wing light transport
 - F.K.40: 1 x 230 hp G-R Titan,* span 14.50 m
 -- PH-AES, sole F.K.40, served Republican Spain
 -- * Offered with alt. 300 hp P&W Wasp Junior
 -- 3v:
 - F.K.40-2m: [Project] 2 x wing-mounted engines*
 -- Inline inverted 4-cyl., prob. DH [/i]Gipsy Major[/i]s
 -- aka Ontwerp 1094

Koolhoven F.K.41 - 1928 3/4-seat cabin monoplane, x 6
 - F.K.41: High-wing strut-braced, fixed main u/c
 - F.K.41: 1 x radial or air-cooled 4-cyl, span 10.50 m
 - F.K.41 prototype: 1 x 75 hp Siemens Sh.13A radial
 -- c/n 4101, reg, H-NAER/PH-AER, aka Sportcoupé
 - F.K.41a : (Hypothetical desig., no evidence)
 - F.K.41b: 1 x 120 hp DH Gipsy III, eg c/n 4105 PH-AGQ
 - F.K.41c : (??) 1 x online mention,* 105 hp
 -- * 1932 League of Nations Air Commission document, pg.220
 - F.K.41d : (Hypotetical desig., no evidence)
 - F.K.41e : Orig. desig. for the F.K.42, c/n 4201
 - F.K.41/I : Koolhoven desig. for Dessoutter Mk.I
 -- aka F.K.41 Mk.I, 1 x 105 hp Cirrus Hermes
 - F.K.41/II: Koolhoven desig. for Dessoutter Mk.II
 -- Same as F.K.41 Mk.II, 1 x 130 hp DH Gipsy

Koolhoven F.K.42 - 1929 2-seat training monoplane
 - F.K.41e: c/n 4104, orig. desig/serial of F.K.42
 -- F.K.41e/'42 was new fuselage with F.K.41 wings
 - F.K.42 : Tandem seat parasol trainer, x 1 PH-AGO
 - F.K.42: 1 x 110 hp Cirrus-Hermes,* span 10.50 m
 -- * Some sources list 230 hp Gnome-Rhône Titan**
 -- ** Presumably in a confusion with the F.K.40

Koolhoven F.K.43 - 1931 high-wing cabin monoplane
 - BFK.43: Baxter-built 1st prototype, PH-AF
 - F.K.43: 1 + 3 pax light cabin air taxi,* x 12
 - F.K.43: 1 x 130 hp DH Gipsy Major, span 11.00 m
 -- * 9 x KLM use, usually listed as x 6  [1]
 - 'Fokhoven': Post-war prod'n by Fokker, x 8
 - 'Fokhoven': 1 x 165 hp AS Genet Major IA** 7-cyl
 -- Ordered by Frits Diepen Vliegtuigen NV
 -- ** As per Fokker S.IX trainer, aka AS Civet I
 - 3v:

Koolhoven F.K.44 - 1931 sports monoplane, x 2*
 - F.K.44: 115 hp Cirrus-Hermes IIB, span 11.00 m
 - F.K.44: High-winged lightplane, PH-AJM
 -- Special order a/c,* aka 'Koolmees' (Tomtit)
 -- * c/n 4401 never completed, order cancelled
 -- * c/n 4402 for Jacob Mees (hence 'Koolmees') [2]

Koolhoven F.K.45 - 1932 single-seat sports biplane*
 - F.K.45: Single-bay biplane, c/n 4501, F-AMXT**
 - F.K.45: 1 x 115 hp Cirrus-Hermes IIB, span 7.00 m
 -- * Commis. by French test-pilot, René Paulhan
 -- ** Temporary registration Z-1(PH), then PH-AIF

Koolhoven F.K.46 - 1933 2-seat tandem biplane trainer
 - F.K.46: 1 x 130 hp DH Gipsy Major, span 8.00 m, x 12
 - F.K.46 Cabriolet: Fitted with removable canopy
 - F.K.46L: Lightweight version, 1 x prototype only*
 - F.K.46L: 1 x 95 hp Walter Minor 4-cyl, span 8.00 m
 -- * PH-ALA c/n 4609, destroyed Schiphol 10 May 1940
 - F.K.46S: 'School' vers., aka 'De Koe' (The Cow)

Koolhoven F.K.47 - 1933 2-seat tandem sports biplane
 - F.K.47: 1 x 130 hp DH Gipsy Major, span 8.00 m
 -- Improved F.K.46, 1 x prototype only (PH-EJR)*
 -- * Crashed at Bonn, July 1933, later repaired

Koolhoven F.K.48 - 1934 high-wing 6-passenger feederliner
 - F.K.48: Mixed constr. (wood wing, steel-tube fuselage)
 - F.K.48: 2 x 130 hp DH Gipsy Majors, span 15.20 m, x 1
 -- KLM Rotterdam-Eindhoven route, air taxi, crew trainer
 -- PH-AJX 'Ajax' KLM Rotterdam-Eindhoven route 'til 1936
 -- Thereafter, flew short routes, & as air taxi/trainer
 -- 3v:

Koolhoven F.K.49 - 1935 high-wing twin-engine photo a/c*
 - F.K.49: 2 x 130 hp DH Gipsy Majors, span 16.00 m, x 1
 -- 'Foto verkenner' (photo-recce) intended for LVA**
 -- ** '950' only, other 2 x LVA a/c, never completed
 -- Onboard darkroom, opt'l 2-stretcher medevac or 4 pax
 -- 3v:
 - F.K.49A: 3 variants with wider/longer nose, 5 pax
 -- Turkish Air Force, 2 x 305 hp Ranger V-770B-4
 -- Finland (Merivartiolaitos),* 2 x 285 hp Hirth 508C
 -- * Finnish Coast Guard, ordered two float/wheel gear
 -- Finnish F.K.49A flown as LVA 1001 before delivery
 - F.K.49R: Romania vers., 2 x 240 hp Argus As 10 C3
 -- 2 incomplete F.K.49R destr'd Waalhaven, 10 May 1940

Koolhoven F.K.50 - 1935 high-wing 8-passenger feederliner
 - F.K.50: 2 x 400 hp P&W Wasp Junior T1Bs, span 18.00 m
 - F.K.50: Mixed constr. (wood wing, steel-tube fuselage)
 - F.K.50 : 1st & 2nd a/c, 2 + 8, single fin & rudder
 -- c/n 5001/HB-AMI, c/n 5002/HB-AMO, 355 hp Wasp Junior
 -- 3v:
 - F.K.50A: 3rd a/c, twin fins/rudders, smaller cowlings
 - F.K.50B: [Project] Turret military variant, not built
 - F.K.50B: Lgr. radials, retr. u/c, nose/dorsal turrets
 -- F.K.50B intended for Spain, too late for civil war
 -- 3v:

Koolhoven F.K.51 - 1935 2-seat advanced training biplane
 - F.K.51: 1 x 350-450 hp radial engine, span 9.00 m
 - F.K.51: LVA trainer, 1 x 350 hp AS Cheetah IX radial
 -- 25 x LVA 2-seat advanced trainer version (E-1 to E-25)*
 -- 29 x LVA verkennerversie (recce vers., 400 to 428)
 -- 15 x MLD, E-1 to E-15, 1936-1937 (+ 2 x repl. a/c 1938
 -- 45 x LA/KNIL (of 60 ordered) K-1 to K-45/K-101 to K-145
 -- * Some sources give 44 x total MvD delivers as of 10 May
 -- Pg 251
 - F.K.51: Spanish vers., 1 x 400 hp AS Jaguar 14-cyl
 - F.K.51bis: 1 x 450 hp Wright Whirlwind R-975-E-3
 -- Total F.K.51/F.K.51bis exports to Rep. Spain x 28

Koolhoven F.K.52 - 1937 2-seat recce-fighter* biplane
 - F.K.52: Canopy, fixed main u/c, Fokker C.V repl't*
 -- * Offered as tweepersoons-eenmotorig gevechtsvliegtuig
 -- * Or a generic '2-seat, single-engined combat aircraft'
 - F.K.52: 1 x 830 hp Bristol Mercury VIII, span 9.80m
 - F.K.52 prototype: 1 x 645 hp Bristol Mercury VIS
 -- PH-AMZ) crashed during 1937 LVA Soesterber demo.**
 -- ** Lower wing snapped off, design strengthened
 - F.K.52: PH-ASW, 'ASX, 'ASY, 'ASZ, ' PH-ATA unsold
 -- 1939: Spanish Republic offered to buy all 5 a/c
 -- End 1939: LVA places orders for 36 x F.K.52s***
 -- ***To replace C.X (which would then repl. C.Vs)
 -- Post May 1940: German occupiers scrap 2 x F.K.52s
 -- 1940: Count von Rosen donates 2 x F.K.52 to Finns
 -- PH-ASW and PH ASX to Ilmavaimot as KO-129 & '130
 -- In Finnish service, FK.52 dubbed 'Kolhoveneiksi'
 -- 3v:

Koolhoven F.K.53 - 1936 2-seat lt. cabin monoplane
 - F.K.53: Low gull wings, side-by-side-seating
 - F.K.53: 1 x 62 hp* Walter Mikron, span 10.50 m
 -- * Contemporary sources list power at 50 hp
 -- aka Junior, designed by ir. J. van Hattum
 -- F.K.53: 1936 c/n 5301, reg PH-ALH/PH-ALN/PH-FKJ
 -- F.K.53: 1938 c/n 5302 registration PH-ATG

Koolhoven F.K.54 - 1938 3-seat cabin monoplane, x 1
 - F.K.54: High-wing, rearward-retracting main u/c
 - F.K.54: 1 x 130 hp DH Gipsy Major II, span 11.00 m
 - PH-APR commissioned by C.E. van 't Groenewoud

Koolhoven F.K.55 - 1938 single-seat fighter a/c, x 1
 - F.K.55: 1 x 720 hp Lorraine Pétrel, span 9.60 m
 - F.K.55: Shoulder-wing, mid-engined, mixed constr.*
 - F.K.55: Extension shaft from engine to contra-props
 -- * Steel-tube fwd fuselage, wood aft, wooden wings
 - F.K.55: 1936 mockup, Paris Salon de l'Aéronautique
 - F.K.55: 1938 prototype w/ temporary fixed main u/c
 - F.K.55: [Project] Prod. vers, Lorraine Sterna V-12
 - F.K.55: [Project] Low-winged derivative of F.K.55**
 -- ** Such a variant is reported, can anyone confirm?

Koolhoven F.K.56 - 1938 advanced combat trainer,* x 11
 - F.K.56: 1 x 350-400 hp radial engine, span 11.50 m
 -- * Or overgangsvliegtuigen (transitional trainer)
 - F.K.56: 1st prototype, 1 x 400 hp Wright R-975E-3
 - F.K.56: 1st prototype, c/n 5601, civil reg. PH-ASB
 -- Gull wing, mod. F.K.51 fuselage, J. Weyer design
 - F.K.56: 1939 2nd prototype, 1 x 350 hp AS Cheetah
 - F.K.56: 2nd prototype, c/n 5602, civil reg. PH-ATE
 -- Straight wing, retr. u/c, E. Schatzki re-design
 -- PH-ATE destroyed by German bombing 10 May 1940
 - F.K.56: 1939 pre-prod'n vers., for LVA, c/n 5603
 -- 5603 w/o in crash, leading to stiffening of wings
 - F.K.56: Prod'n, 420 hp Wright Whirlwind R-975E-3
 - F.K.56: Export vers. for Yugoslavia and Belgium
 -- c/n 5613 for Yugo. + 2 near completion, May 1940
 -- Belgian order for x 20 received 12 February 1940
 - F.K.56 LVB: [Project] Improved F.K.56 for L.V.B**
 - F.K.56 LVB: 1940, used  F.K.58 tail, canopy, etc.
 -- Curtiss-type main u/c, 2 x wing 7,9s, 1 x flex.
 -- ** LVB = LuchtVaartBedrijf (Aviation Co)
 -- Prob. last 4 F.K.56 orders transf. to F.K.56 LVB

Koolhoven F.K.57 - 1938 twin-engined feederliner, x 1
 - F.K.57: Twin-tail, low-wing, spatted main u/c, 1+3
 - F.K.57: 2 x 205 hp DH Gipsy Six II, span 13.20 m
 -- c/n 4301 PH-KOK commis. by JEF de Kok (hence reg.)
 -- Sole F.K.57 was destroyed at Ypenburg, 10 May 1940
 - F.K.57: [Project] Military vers. with retract. u/c*
 -- * Offered to the LVA as multi-engine pilot trainer

Koolhoven F.K.58 - 1938 single-engined fighter*
 - F.K.58: Single-seater, low-wing, retr. u/c
 -- F.K.58 aka Koolhoven Ontwerp 1166
 - F.K.58: 1 x 1,080 hp radial, span 10.97 m
 - F.K.58 : 1 x Hispano-Suiza 14Aa-10, x 7
 - F.K.58 : 1st prototype c/n 5801 PH-ATO
 -- W/O after 12 Jan 1939 accident, Ghent, BE
 - F.K.58A: 1 x Gnome-Rhône 14N-16,** x 14
 -- * Ordered by French Ministère des Colonies
 -- ** 10 x sub-contracted to SABCA in Belgium
 - F.K.58B: [Project] LVA, Bristol Taurus III
 - F.K.58B: 36 ordered 22 July 1939, none delivered [3]
 -- Taurus export ban, Mercury proposed [4]
 - Ontwerp (??): F.K.58 with German DB 600 IV-12
 - Ontwerp (??): More powerful radial [5]

Koolhoven F.K.59 - Designation re-used at least 3 times
 (NB: Projects below may not be listed chronologically)
 - F.K.59 (1) [Project] Open 2-seat sports plane*
 -- * "Sportsplane" mentioned by Wesselink, 2012
 - F.K.59 (2): [Project] Twin-engine floatplane
 -- Mid-winged, twin-float MLD torpedo-bomber
 -- 1937 design, full-scale mock-up completed
 - F.K.59 (3): [Project] Modernized vers. F.K.52
 - F.K.59 (3): LVA 2-seat recce-fighter biplane
 - F.K.59 (3): 1 x 840 hp Mercury XV, span 9.80m
 -- 36 x F.K.59 ordered for LVA on 21 November 1939**
 -- ** Mercury XVs deliv'd but constr. not begun

Koolhoven F.K.60 - [Project] (??) no details
 - F.K.60: (??) Reported as a Koolhoven project
 - F.K.60: "mentioned shortly befory May 1940"
 -- What-If: Koolhoven-Desoutter FK-60 (dizzyfugu)
 -- What-If: Hercules-powered F.K.58, (Hood,WesWorld)


[1] Full KLM F.K.43 fleet names were: Bromvlieg, Citroenvlinder, Dar, Juffertje, Krekel, Libel, Luis, Nonvlinder, and Olietor. During WW2, four KLM F.K.43s were impressed for the LVA as 960, 963, 965 and 966.

[2] A well-known sports flyer of the day, Rotterdam banker Jacob Mees directed a number of new investors to NV Koolhoven Vliegtuigen.

[3] Many sources claim a Dutch order for 40 x F.K.58Bs. If true, the 'extra' 4 x fighters were not covered by the MvD's 22 July 1939 order.

[4] Proposed alternative Mercury VIII engines would have come from ML stocks. Option presented to Minister of Defence AHQ Dijxhoorn who rejected the Mercury-powered F.K.58B in favour of more powerful US fighters. Dijxhoorn ordered 24 x Curtiss-Wright CW-21Bs in April 1940.

[5] The DB 600 and "more powerful radial" engines for F.K.58 developments is mentioned in Blue Skies, Orange Wings by Noppen, pg 200. So too is the suggestion of alternative Mercury VIII engines for F.K.58Bs but this is confirmed in

Known Frits Koolhoven Ontwerpen Numbers (and gaps)

BAT (Design No.?) - [Project] Flying boat
 -- BAT flying boat design concept (no details)*
 -- * But see Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.18 discussion

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1029 - [Project] ~192? pusher fighter
 -- Mid-wing, twin-boomed pusher fighter designed for export*
 - Ontwerp 1029: 1 x (??) hp radial,** span (??) m
 -- * Ontwerp 1029 was offered to Sweden and Norway
 -- ** Single-row engine, presumably a Bristol Jupiter

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1030 - Ontwerp 1088 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1087 - [Project] 193? 2-seat biplane
 - Ontwerp 1087: Biplane trainer leads to F.K.46

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1088 - Ontwerp 1093 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1094 - [Project] 193? light cabin transport
 - Ontwerp 1094: aka F.K.40-2m, twin-engined* F.K.40 deriv.
 -- * Wing-mounted engines, appear to be DH Gispy-Majors

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1095 - Ontwerp 1098 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1099 - [Project] 193? twin-engined bomber
 - Ontwerp 1099: 2 x inline engines, low-wing, twin-tails*
 -- Nose turret, dorsal gun position, ventral 'dustbin' position
 -- * Small, near-circular and larger, ellipical fins proposed

Koolhoven Ontwerp (??) - [Project] 1935 flying boat for MLD
 - Ontwerp (??): Pylon-mounted wing, 3-engined, 'stummeln'*
 -- * Dornier Wal-style stummeln sponsons specified by MLD
 -- Artist concept marked '189', nose & dorsal turret armament

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1101 - [Project] 193? single-seat biplane
 - Ontwerp 1101: Biplane fighter with retractable main u/c
 -- 1 x (??) hp Lorraine 12H Pétrel, radiator as per Ontwerp 1117

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1102 - Ontwerp 1104 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1105 - [Project] 1936 3-seat recce-fighter
 - Ontwerp 1105: 1 x radial or inline engine,* span (??) m
 --  720 hp Wright Cyclone F-52 or (??) hp V-12 (Kestrel?)
 -- Low-wing scout/light bomber (verkenner/licht bommenwerper)
 -- Ontwerp 1105 poss. rival to 1936 Fokker 'Gesloten verkenner'

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1106 - Ontwerp 1112 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1113 - [Project] 193? lt. cabin a/c
 - Ontwerp 1113: Leads to 1936 F.K.53 2-seat monoplane

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1114 - Ontwerp 1116 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1117 - [Project] ~1936 2-seat fighter/recce a/c
 - Ontwerp 1117: 1 x (??) hp R-R Kestrel V-12,* span (??) m
 -- Strut-braced parasol wing, encl. cockpit, cantilever u/c
 -- * Air intake for coolant radiator situated above engine
 -- * Engine type may be Lorraine 12H Pétrel

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1118 - Ontwerp 1123 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1124 - [Project] 193? airliner
 - Ontwerp 1124: Twin-engined sesquiplane

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1125 - [Project] 193? light feederliner
 - Ontwerp 1125: 2 x (??) hp air-cooled inlines, span (??) m
 -- Semi-cantilever high-wing, fixed main u/c, single tailplane
 -- Perhaps an early take on the F.K.49 retaining F.K.48 features

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1125 - Ontwerp 1141 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1142 - [Project] 193? twin-engine bomber
 - Ontwerp 1142A: Mid-wing fixed main u/c,* medium bomber
 - Ontwerp 1142A: 2 x (??) hp radial engines, span (??) m
 - Ontwerp 1142B: Twin-float medium bomber/torpedo bomber
 -- Ontwerp 1142B was offered to Norway (as M.F.11 repl.?)
 -- * Arrangement suggests connection with F.K.50 series

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1143 - Ontwerp 1150 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1151 - [Project] ~1937 civilian flying boat
 - Ontwerp 1151: 2 x 290 hp Menasco C6S-4s,* span 16.00m
 - Ontwerp 1151: Small amphibian flying boat, 2 crew + 4 pax
 -- * C6S-4 Super Buccaneer, 290 hp (for T/O), sust. 260 hp
 -- Mixed const. (wooden wings,** alum. fuselage), 'Stummeln'
 -- ** Folding wings seem to have been an option

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1152 - Ontwerp 1153 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1154 - [Project] 1937 fighter-bomber
 - Ontwerp 1154: Monoplane (gevechtsvliegtuig?)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1155 - Ontwerp 1163 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp (??) - [Project] 1938 Oceaanvliegboot
 - Ontwerp (??): 100 ton, 180 pax, all-metal flying Boat
 - Ontwerp (??): twin props, grouped engines,* span 70.00 m
 -- Research begun 1936, design 1938, rejected by KLM's A. Plesman
 -- * From 2 x pairs tandem inlines up to 10 x 'raw oil' engines

Koolhoven Ontwerp (??) - [Project] 1938 civilian flying boat
 - Ontwerp (??) - 2 x (??) hp radial engines, span (??) m
 -- Engines on pylon-mounted wings, 'stummeln' sponsons

Koolhoven Ontwerp (??) - [Project] 1938 2-seat recce-fighter
 -Ontwerp (??): Mid-wing monoplane, cruciform tail, bomb bay
 -- ir. Van der Eyk design, "modernised F.K.52"*
 -- * Monoplane concept actually more of an F.K.52 repl't
 -- * "modernised F.K.52" may be conf'n with F.K.59 biplane

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1164 - [Project] 1938-1939 jachtkruiser
 - Ontwerp 1164: 2 x (??) hp engines, span (??) m
 - Ontwerp 1164: 4-seat jachtkruiser based upon F.K.50B

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1165 - [Project] (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1166 - [Project] single-engined fighter
 - Ontwerp 1166: 1 x 1,000 hp radial engine, span ?? m
 - Ontwerp 1166: Single-seat French colonial fighter a/c
 -- Ontwerp 1166 built as F.K.58, 1st flew 17 July 1938

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1167 - [Project] 1938-1939 jachtkruiser
 - Ontwerp 1164: 2 x (??) hp engines, span (??) m
 - Ontwerp 1164: 4-seat jachtkruiser based upon F.K.50B

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1168 - Ontwerp 1170 (??)

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1171 - 1938 3-seat twin-float recce seaplane*
 - Ontwerp 1171: 1 x (??) hp radial engine,** span (??) m
 -- Low-wing monoplane, broad semi-cantilevered float struts
 -- * To same 1938 MLD contest as the equally-unbuilt Fokker T.10W
 -- * Based on exhaust outlet, engine is prob. Wright Cyclone

Koolhoven Ontwerp 1172 - 1939 twin-engine transport monoplane

Koolhoven Ontwerp 11(??) ...
Designation Systems / Re: Koolhoven F.K. Designations
« Last post by Apophenia on June 19, 2018, 04:06:52 pm »
Koolhoven Aircraft Designations

Prior to his arrival in Britain in late 1913, Frederik Koolhoven designed several aircraft. The first was a Farman-type biplane named Heidevogel (Heatherbird) which Koolhoven usually referred to as 'Holland'. On arrival in France, he worked with Louis Béchéreau on the radical Deperdussin Monocoque. Later in 1912, he designed the British Deperdussin Seagull. Those aircraft all received names but were any of them ever assign 'F.K.' numerical designations?

It is widely agreed that the 'F.K.' designations began with Koolhoven's arrival at Armstrong-Whitworth. However, there is an argument to be made that the 'F.K.' designations may have begun earlier ... and then numbers were reassigned during Koolhoven's Armstrong-Whitworth period. Several sources, including Dirk Top's Frits Koolhoven en zijn vliegtuigproduktie, list the 1911 Heidevogel as the first F.K.1. (Those following this line usually assign A.W.1 to the 1914 Sissit).

Amongst others, [1] lists the 'FK2' as a British Deperdussin 2-seat trainer. [2] There are also references to the F.K.3 being a British Deperdussin "70 hp Gnome", the F.K.4 being a "100 hp Gnome Déperdussin 1911", and F.K.5 being a "100 hp Gnome Déperdussin 1912". I have including all of these in my list rather than attempting to determine which is the real designation - I lean towards the possibility that earlier 'F.K.' designations were 'recycled'.

There are other problems with that retrospective list compiled by Frits Koolhoven in 1926 ... upon which most attempts at Koolhoven designation listings are based. For example, Koolhoven designated the British Deperdussin Seagull as the F.K.6 while the Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.6 escort fighter, he called the 'F.K.12'. Since that confusion, nobody has been quite sure what the real F.K.12 project actual was.

Being arbitrary, I have listed the F.K.12-F.K.19 as 'Armstrong-Whitworth' projects. But should they have been listed as 'Koolhoven' projects instead? Perhaps. Does anyone have compelling evidence either way?

From F.K.20 onwards, attributions become a little simpler. F.K.20 to F.K.28 all fall under the British Aerial Transport marque. The F.K.29 to F.K.34 belong under NV Nationale Vliegtuig Industrie (NVI) ... with the exception of the F.K.30 (which was not built under after NVI had failed). I have listed the F.K.30 as a  'Koolhoven'. Beginning with the F.K.35, I have listed designs as 'Koolhoven' products. The unbroken Koolhoven 'F.K. list runs unquestioningly to the F.K.59 (under which there were three distinct projects). There are cryptic mentions of an F.K.60 project dating from 1940 ... but, frustratingly, with no details whatever.

At the end of the 'F.K.' listings, I have added some of the known Koolhoven Ontwerpen and their numbers where known (many thanks to lark for his generous aid here!). The gaps in this second list hint at the volume of missing Ontwerp numbers. Records for many of these unbuilt projects will have been lost with the Koolhoven records when the Luftwaffe bombed Wallhaven on 10 May 1940. But mention of some of these 'missing' Koolhoven Ontwerpen must have survived. Anyone have anything more?

[1] It is notable that this list omits both the Sissit and Armstrong-Whitworth F.K.2 (as an F.K.3 precursor). That would be enough to discount the British Deperdussin 2-seater claim had not Koohoven himself applied the F.K.2 designation to both his "3-cylinder Déperdussin" and the "Queen Anne" (or Sissit)!

[2] This would be the 'Anglicised' Deperdussin TT fitted with 60 hp or 100 hp Anzani radials as well as 70 hp and 100 hp Gnome rotary engines. These 2-seaters were used by the British Deperdussin Flying Schools at Hendon and Brooklands as well as being submitted for the British Military Trials of August 1912 (the prize being won by the 100 hp Gnome-powered British Deperdussin 2-seater).
Designation Systems / Koolhoven F.K. Designations
« Last post by Apophenia on June 19, 2018, 04:05:48 pm »
The biography of Sytze Frederik Willem 'Frits' Koolhoven has been well-covered online. The Dutch aviation pioneer is probably best-known today for his designs for Armstrong-Whitworth in Britain during WW1. An imaginative designer (albeit with a few idée fixe), once back in the Netherlands, Koolhoven had no manner of luck in choosing employers. Finally he struck out on his own. His firm survived [1] but, as it's usually phrased, he remained forever in the shadow of Anthony Fokker.

Frits Koolhoven developed a reputation for strongly-held opinions on aircraft design and construction techniques. One example is the firm bias he would develop against low-set monoplane wings. That led to some odd configurations - like the low-set gull wings of both the 1936 F.K.53 cabin monoplane and the 1938 F.K.56 combat trainer prototype. [2]

While Fokker was unable - financially and technologically - to make the leap to stressed-skinned aluminum construction, Frits Koolhoven remained thoroughly wed to traditional 'mixed' construction - even falling out in later years with ML officials by insisting that wooden-framed tailplanes were stronger than the officially-preferred steel-tube structures. Koolhoven once jokingly referred to aluminum as "geëlektrificeerde modder" or 'electrified mud'.

Nevertheless, Koolhoven's odd approaches could result in brilliance. The unorthodox, mid-engined F.K.55 fighter probably owed a great deal to the advanced concepts of its French engine-maker, Lorraine. But it was Frits Koolhoven who arranged to send a highly-detailed mockup to the Salon de l'Aéronautique in Paris in 1936. For years, many were convinced that this convincing mockup was the prototype F.K.55. Great theatre ... even if the real F.K.55 prototype may have disappointed.

Koolhoven's sometimes quirky attitudes made it difficult for him to get along with officialdom. The relatively small size of NV Vliegtuigenfabriek Koolhoven's Waalhaven facility also made it difficult for the firm to meet those military orders it did receive. Still, the Ministrie van Defensie responded to Koolhoven's offer of lower prices than his competitors. Make what you will out of Koolhoven's failure to deliver a single F.K.58B fighter or to even begin work on the F.K.59 recce-fighters (despite Bristol having delivered their engines).

In some Koolhoven histories, the company is described as surviving its founder ... including efforts in aviation. These are said to include the building of two gliders. Actually, the T.10 and/or T.20 gliders in question [3] were built by NV Machinefabriek v/h Van Driel en Van Ommeren which happened to be on the site of the former Koolhoven factory. There is also online mentions of Koolhoven having negotiated a license for the production of SIPA S.200 Minijets. [4] That deal is also properly attributed to Van Driel en Van Ommeren not to Koolhoven.

Below is a summary of Frits  Koolhoven's work life and aviation associations:

1910 - Koolhoven attends Hanriot flying school near Rheims, France
 - Koolhoven obtained pilot's licence, number 290, on 08 November 1910
 -- NB: Koolhoven bought (rather than built) a Hanriot monoplane

1910 - Koolhoven ties to convince his employer* to build aircraft
 - * This was car- and engine-maker, Minerva Motors SA of Antwerp
 -- Failure, Koolhoven leaves for Maatschappij voor Luchtvaart

1910 - Director of Operations, Maatschappij voor Luchtvaart
 - Maatschappij voor Luchtvaart = Society for Aviation
 -- Management firm for flight schools at Ede and Soesterberg
 -- Maatschappij voor Luchtvaart became bankrupt in 1911

1911 - Koolhoven constructed improved Farman-type, 'Heidevogel'
 - aka 'Holland', improved Farman biplane, built at Soesterberg

1912, early - Designer, Société Provisoire des Aéroplanes Deperdussin
 - With Louis Béchéreau, devised Deperdussin Monocoque racer

1912 - Designs 2-seat Deperdussin TT monoplane with Béchéreau

1912, Summer - Works Manager, British Deperdussin Company Ltd.
 - Devised TT derivatives for flying school and military use

1912-1913 - Designed 'Seagull' hydro-monoplane seaplane
 - 'Seagull' recce floatplane designed for Admiralty contest
 -- There is some debate over extent of Koolhoven's involvement*
 -- Some accounts suggest Koolhoven assisted Lt. JC Porte, RN

1913 - Works Manager/chief designer, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft
 - Properly, the Sir W. G. Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft Company

1917 - Chief designer, British Aerial Transport Company Ltd (BAT)

1919 - Koolhoven and Dutch lt-vl L. Coblijn form airline, COBOR*
 - * NV Handel Maatschappij COBOR with an F.K.26 leased from BAT
 -- Flew 18 Sept.-late Oct. 1919, resumed op'ns March-April 1920

1920, April - BAT failing, Koolhoven returned to the Netherlands

1920 - Automotive designer,* Trompenburg aka Spijker (or Spyker)
 - * Koolhoven was involved in the design of the Spijker C-4
 - * Or did Spyker also hope to remain in the aviation business?

1922-1926 - Chief Designer, NV Nationale Vliegtuig Industrie (NVI)
 - Nationale Vliegtuig Industrie = National Aircraft Industry

1926, Early* - Quit NVI and began Koolhoven Vliegtuigen Rijswijk
 - Technical office situated in an attic in suburban Rijswijk
 - Koolhoven Vliegtuigen Rijswijk = Koolhoven Airplanes, Rijswijk
 -- * Some sources say January 1926, others February 1926
 -- * Some sources also day Koolhoven didn't quit, was dismissed

1926 - NVI failing, Koolhoven leased NVI hangar at Waalhaven
 - Hangar-based business is called Luchttuigenfabriek Koolhoven
 - Luchttuigenfabriek Koolhoven = Koolhoven Aircraft Factory

1926 - Koolhoven's design office and constr. facility joined
 - Conjoined firm established as NV Vliegtuigenfabriek Koolhoven
 - NV Vliegtuigenfabriek Koolhoven = Koolhoven Airplanes Factory Co.

1927 - NVI finally declares bankruptcy (some sources say ca. 1930)

1933-1934 - New investors via Rotterdam banker Jacob Mees, P.Rzn
 - Aug. 1934, NV Koolhoven Vliegtuigen Capital f 500,000
 -- Banker/sport flyer Mees later became president-commissaris*
 -- * Chairman of Supervisory Board of Vliegtuigenfabriek Koolhoven

1938, March - Fokker designer Erich Schatzki hired by Koolhoven

1940, 10 May - Koolhoven factory detroyed by Luftwaffe bombing

1946, 01 July - Koolhoven dies of a stroke/cerebral haemorrhage


A few Koolhoven aircraft references:

Frits Koolhoven en zijn vliegtuigproduktie, Dik Top (in coöperation with Jan den Das), Repro-Holland, Alphen aan den Rijn, 1996 (Trans. 'Frits Koolhoven and his aircraft production')

Koolhoven - Nederlandse vliegtuigbouwer in de schaduw van Fokker, Theo Wesselink and Thijs Postma, Unieboek, 1981 (Trans. 'Koolhoven - Dutch Aircraft Builder in the Shadow of Fokker')

De jonge jaren van de luchtmacht: Het luchtwapen in het Nederlandse leger 1913-1939, [Lt Gen] Dirk Starink, Uitgeverij Boom, 2013 (Trans. 'The Early Years of the Air Force: Air Weapon of the Dutch army 1913-1939')

De vliegtuigen van Frits Koolhoven - Luchtvaartarchief Herman Dekker -

The aircraft designer Frederik (Frits) Koolhoven: A gifted and prolific designer -


[1] Indeed, the firm survived Koolhoven himself. NV Koolhoven Vliegtuigen eventually folded in 1953 or 1956 (depending upon source).

[2] Newly-arrived engineer Erich Schatzki got around Koolhoven's eccentric bias. In redesigning the F.K.56 and designing his F.K.58 fighter, Schatzki positioned the low-set wings just above the bottom of the fuselages.

[3] The first Akerboom-Schmidt T.10 (PH-202) was built in Amsterdam. The second (PH-205) was built by Nijs & van Driel. There is ongoing confusion over the total numbers built. (See: Twee, of Drie, of Vier? De Akerboom-Schmidt T-10 en T-20 and Sailplane & Glider, Oct 1953, Vol XXI, No 10, pg. 6.)

Sailplane pilot Jan K Hoekstra is often mentioned in connection with the T.10 but what if any involvement he had in the construction of these gliders is unknown. What is known is that the NV Machinefabriek Van Driel & Van Ommeren built the forward fuselage of the 2-seat T.20. It was intended that this be mated with existing wings, rear fuselage, and tailplane from a T.10. Whether this was ever done is unclear (but unlikely).

[4] See:
France surely got its share of U.S NATO aircrafts, the F-100s remained in service until 1978 in Djibouti (so loooong after 1966 NATO withdrawal !) and were appreciated as they could aerial refueling at a time when only the Mirage IV could do that (Jaguar and Mirage F1 could aerial refueling, no French Mirage III or Mirage V ever could).
Also Honest Johns, replaced later by Plutons tactical missiles that were quite similar in design.
And of course the C-135FR. Still in service nowadays  :o 

De Gaulle reasonning was that, if the tankers were grounded, the Mirage IV could still fly a one-way trip to Moscow - although in a straight line crossing the entire air defence network of the Warsaw Pact. That was the gamble ! The tankers gave the Mirage IVs far more flexibility, through Murmansk or the Mediterranean. Also, before buying the tankers, Vautours and... Mirage IV were considered, as was a Caravelle tanker.

As you said, CdG didn't really wanted any compromise over the Force de Frappe, it was to be full-blown indepdant otherwise it didn't made any sense. There is that excruciating scenario where Soviet armored spearheads reach the Rhine after breaking through NATO, and then France face an invasion for the fourth time in a century, and there is no other option than to nuke the bridgehead...
Designation Systems / Re: Société Provençale de Constructions Aéronautiques
« Last post by hesham on June 19, 2018, 08:27:09 am »
Hi all,

I discovered that,Mr. Louis Paulhan and Mr. Marcel Pillard had anther series,and I will
try to track it;

MR-1   was a racer seaplane with float Project,powered by Farman engine
H-2     was a four engined transatlantic flying boat Project of 1928,called Neptune
T-3     was a twin-engined, twin-float low-wing monoplane torpedo bomber seaplane,well known Type-20
H-4     was a four engined transatlantic monoplane seaplane Project of 1931
E-5     was a three engined parasol monoplane,recce and bomber seaplane,well known Type-10
E-6     was a three engined cantilever high wing monoplane Project of 1932,recce floatplane
E-7     was a twin engined transport seaplane,a military derivative of Hermes,or Type-60
H-8     was a three engined transatlantic flying boat Project of 1934
Actual sequence of events:
3/60, CDG approved Mirage IV production, his A-Bomb underway;
30/3/60: UK/US Atomic collaboration MoU - became Skybolt; subsequent UK AW drew (heavily) on US designs;
7/60 UK PM Macmillan discovers France: UK “wants to join the European concern, France (to join Anglos’ A-Team.) Can terms be arranged?” UK should “support (France) in their (sceptical) attitude (to) NATO, give them the Bomb, perhaps some V-bombers (and) support (a) confederation of Europe instead of a Federation.” (CDG: " l'Europe des Patries") “no question of providing either warheads (or) design (data).” JFK later would remind Mac “not all (UK AW) secrets were his to pass on.” “impossible (to) say what (data) elements (had) been obtained by (UK’s) own efforts(, what by US')” “closely enmeshed (blocking French access to) designs” 3/10/63 , SofS/For.Aff.D-Home, R.Lamb: The Macmillan Years,  J.Murray, 1995, P376. Avro was authorised to scheme W.130/Z.61 ASM for Mirage IV;
6/10/60: Approval, 9 Development Batch TSR.2 - a Canberra replacement with tactical AW;
10/8/61 UK Application to join EEC;
13/8/61 Berlin Wall Crisis;
28/11/61 France/UK MoU to be civil Concorde (though both Nations assumed military potential);
22/11/61 BAC/AMD Agreement to bid NBMR.3 as Mirage IIIV/P.39/Spey;
1965/66 BAC/AMD pimp Mirage IVS/Spey vice F-111K.

So efforts were made for an Anglo-French Independent AW Strike Force. Neither, as it transpired, was ever wholly-techno-solo: 10/62: “US agreed to sell a nuclear sub. (=PWR reactor) to France”, I.N.S, tools to build solid rocket motors, C-135F to enhance Mirage IVA. I.Clark, Nuclear Diplomacy & the Special Relationship,OUP,94,P.405. So why did not TSR.2/F-111K lapse for Super-Mirage IV and on?

There were personality issues between (any/all) UK Ministers and CDG...but sense and money could have overcome those: no-one enthused over LBJ and Vietnam but we all did business with him. I suggest it was simply that CDG was willing to spend for an apparently solo Force de Frappe, where UK preferred to assert Independence but to buy Interdependence. CDG could obscure that his reach was extended by Boeing; UK could hardly have attempted to hang UK/US AW on a Mirage (France operated US AW, 7/61-9/66, but in F-100D at Lahr/Bremgarten, Nike-Hercules SAM, Honest John SSM).

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