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Author Topic: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar  (Read 8898 times)

Offline PaulMM (Overscan)

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Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
« Reply #15 on: April 24, 2007, 10:59:39 am »
Well, that was really useful, as my document is dry technical stuff like frequencies, PRFs and the like, while your comments actually make sense. Thanks!

Paul.
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Offline PaulMM (Overscan)

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Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
« Reply #16 on: April 24, 2007, 12:21:48 pm »
Points of interest

  • Report written after writer spent a month at Westinghouse for familiarisation prior to setting up facilities at Ferranti.
  • AN/AWG-10 greatly improved capabilities over previous systems
  • Target detection by pulse radar, or pulse doppler. Chirp/evaluation monopulse detection techniques.
  • In pulse doppler mode, targets are tracked in velocity, and range to target determined by auxiliary circuits. Mode used to discriminate target from clutter on the basis of velocity, improving downlook capability. Also very high average power (1KW) which increases range.
  • Normal pulse radar modes are present for short ranges but peak power is limited by the use of a klystron amplifier essential to pulse doppler operation. Pulse expansion and compression techniques (chirp) are used to achieve higher duty ratio and high effective power short pulses.
  • Elevation monopulse used for terrain clearance mode, which gives steering indications to avoid terrain obstacles in low level flight.
  • Monopulse also used in air to ground ranging mode.
  • In pulse doppler mode the antenna will update velocity by nodding to pick up ground returns, to improve navigational accuracy
  • Low altitude operation used for weather mapping and mapping from low altitudes using pencil beam
  • Beam spoiler used for better map presentation at high altitudes.
  • Two displays, for pilot and navigator. Lights used for mode & informational presentation, plus direct view greyscale radar displays.
  • 3 computers located behind RIO, to provide missiles with target data
  • CW transmitter for Sparrow illumination
  • Extensive Built In Test facilities

Thats just the first page.
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Offline PaulMM (Overscan)

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Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
« Reply #17 on: April 24, 2007, 01:30:35 pm »
  • Uses solid state circuits to save space.
  • Packaged in LRUs for flight line replacement with few or no harmonisation adjustment required.(really??? - Overscan)
  • Most units in the nose behind the radome, in a structure with slides forward for easy access.
  • Indicator and optical sight in pilots cockpit. All controlling units in the radar operators cockpit. Three computers located aft of the operator's cockpit, above fuel cells.
  • Antenna AS1906 contains waveguide feed to a hybrid T which splits the transmitter energy equally between the two halves of a dual waveguide horn. The horn provides an elevation monopulse radiation pattern which is sharply focussed by a 32" paraboloid reflector. For reception, input to two channels are taken from the sun and difference arms of the hybrid T. The difference arm of the T is connected to a waveguide switch to permit selection of the difference signal or the input from an auxilliary waveguide horn located at the rime of the reflector. The selected signal is appiled to the receiever auxilliary channel. Signals from the sum arm of the T are duplexed part of the transmitter waveguide to the main channel receiver. Low power waveguide (not carrying transmitter energy) is half height to save space and weight.
  • Transmitter and microwave components are located on the right side of the radar assembly mounted in the nose of the aircraft. Power supply and transmitter pulse amplifier are housed in a pressure vessel, which has an air to liquid heat exchanger in its walls. Liquid coolant is pumped through the walls to cool the air, which is then used to cool the several units.
  • Transmitter Pulse Amplifier is commonly called the Pulser and is one of the units located in the pressure vessel. This  LRU applies high voltage to the pulse transmitter power klystron during transmit interval and removes high voltages during receive intervals as determined by pulses produced in a timer antenna unit.
  • Radio Frequency Oscillator is an LRU mounted beneath the after part of the transmitter pressure vessel. It provides the system with very stable pulse transmitter and first mixer (local oscillator) frequencies. Since it also generates a CW transmiter frequency in another unit, this unit is the source of all microwave frequency used in the system except the parametric amplifier pump signal.
« Last Edit: April 24, 2007, 01:48:45 pm by overscan »
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Offline SgtWookie

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Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
« Reply #18 on: April 24, 2007, 08:54:59 pm »
OK, his comments need some "commenting up".  I'll have to attack that later on, as it's 11:50 PM here in Florida, and I have a rather busy day tomorrow.

Yes, Paul - I try to make comments in layman's terms, as many folks who wish to have a basic understanding of the system just wouldn't get it if I went overboard into dry technical jargoneze - and that would defeat the entire purpose of my post!  The material you're reading is more targeted towards someone whom already has a rather technical background.

OK, I really have to hit the sack!  Goodnight!

Offline SgtWookie

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Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
« Reply #19 on: April 25, 2007, 06:14:03 am »
A little more on "chirp" mode:
When I first explained it above, I said that the 0.65 uSec pulse hit the delay line and "rang" it like a bell.  That's not precisely what happened.

A bell, when struck, usually produces the same tone from when first struck until the oscillations/vibrations cease.

The delay line, when hit with the pulse, "rings" with a range of frequencies, starting quite high and rapidly decreasing, sort of like running your finger down a piano keyboard, or up a guitar's frets.  This frequency shift was mixed in with the radar's Fo (Frequency Of the oscillator, or the Klystron frequency) and sent out towards the target.

When the reflected energy came back, the same frequency shift was still riding on the Fo, and was sent back through the same delay line.  However, the higher frequencies were delayed more than the lower frequencies.  That's why the compression scheme worked.

Average power:
The main KPA was rated at 1,525 Watts.  I don't know how they came up with a 1KW average power rating, when the duty cycle was somewhat less than 50% even in PD mode.  The most it could possibly put out in PD mode would be closer to 750 Watts.  Perhaps they gave the CW illuminator KPA's average power by mistake.

Offline SgtWookie

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Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
« Reply #20 on: April 26, 2007, 05:29:50 am »
    Report written after writer spent a month at Westinghouse for familiarisation prior to setting up facilities at Ferranti.[/li][/list]
    One month isn't a lot of time to spend FAMming a system of this complexity.  I lived with that system for over four years, plus over a year in training. However, that author wrote his comments immediately after his FAM period; and I last touched one in March of 1980, or roughly 27 years ago.
    Quote
    AN/AWG-10 greatly improved capabilities over previous systems
    Writer obviously knew nothing of the YF12A.  ;)  Actually, he was probably referring to the F-4B's radar.  And yes, the F-4J's radar was a great deal more sophisticated than the F-4B's radar.
    Quote
    Target detection by pulse radar, or pulse doppler. Chirp/evaluation monopulse detection techniques.

    The evaluation monopulse is the "short pulse" 10nm mode I spoke of previously, 0.65 uSEC pulse.
    Quote
    In pulse doppler mode, targets are tracked in velocity, and range to target determined by auxiliary circuits. Mode used to discriminate target from clutter on the basis of velocity, improving downlook capability. Also very high average power (1KW) which increases range.
    First portion, basically what I'd said.  The ground clutter notch is what improved the downlook capability, but any target with the same velocity as groundspeed would fall into that notch and be invisible to the radar.  The F14 Tomcat got around that with digital signal processing.
    Quote
    Normal pulse radar modes are present for short ranges but peak power is limited by the use of a klystron amplifier essential to pulse doppler operation. Pulse expansion and compression techniques (chirp) are used to achieve higher duty ratio and high effective power short pulses
    Peak power is ALWAYS limited!  And no, a Klystron Power Amplifier (KPA) isn't essential to PD operation; the Tomcat did quite nicely with a 10kw TWT [Travelling Wave Tube], thanyouverymuch.  Actually, I think he's working on the KPA vs Magnetron angle - and no, a Magnetron wouldn't work for a PD radar.  Chirp pulse expansion/compression technique already explained.)
    Quote
    Elevation monopulse used for terrain clearance mode, which gives steering indications to avoid terrain obstacles in low level flight.
    Terrain clearance mode = smoking hole in the ground, display "X"ed out in later versions.
    Quote
    Monopulse also used in air to ground ranging mode.
    Yep!.
    Quote
    In pulse doppler mode the antenna will update velocity by nodding to pick up ground returns, to improve navigational accuracy
    This is a new one on me.  The radar had inputs from various navigational instruments, including ground speed; the ground speed input was used for creating the ground clutter notch
    Quote
    Low altitude operation used for weather mapping and mapping from low altitudes using pencil beam
    I don't remember this mode.
    Quote
    Beam spoiler used for better map presentation at high altitudes.
    This is the PPI/Map mode I remember.  Beam spoiler would pop out about an inch to 1 1/2 inches.  Resulting beam would be narrow, but "tall" - rather like a straw broom turned sideways.
    Quote
    Two displays, for pilot and navigator. Lights used for mode & informational presentation, plus direct view greyscale radar displays.
    I have no clue what these "direct view greyscale radar displays" are that he's talking about.  Whatever they were, neither the 1472 nor 1527 mods had them.  The displays had an interesting feature; a black-anodized aluminum ring with a tab on it that had a polarized film lens mounted in it; when rotated, the display would change from it's normal green glow to a red glow, to reduce the possibility of blinding the aircrew at night.
    Quote
    3 computers located behind RIO, to provide missiles with target data
    LRU's 15, 16, and 17.  These analog computers contained a slew of servos and resolvers.  In the 1572 mod, these analog computers were eliminated and replaced by LRU 15 and 16 which were all digital.  Two interestingly-named signals provided to the missiles were "HEAD AIM", telling the missile where to aim the seeker head, and "ENGLISH BIAS", or how far to offset the seeker head from the head aim signal.  When the missile came off the rack, it would rotate approximately 45 degrees.  The combination of the HEAD AIM and ENGLISH BIAS signals would result in the seeker head pointing at the target after the rotation.
    Quote
    CW transmitter for Sparrow illumination
    Yep - and if the radar broke lock before the missile detonated, the missile would "go stupid", or impact the ground without detonating.
    Quote
    Extensive Built In Test facilities
    Annoying Built-In Test Facilities ;)
    « Last Edit: April 27, 2007, 07:18:56 am by SgtWookie »

    Offline SgtWookie

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    Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
    « Reply #21 on: April 26, 2007, 05:50:32 am »
    Uses solid state circuits to save space.
    HAH!  As I said before, their idea of "solid-state circuits" was to cluster a bunch of discrete components like resistors, capacitors and diodes, and epoxy them all into a rectangular cube (or whatever shape would fit the space left on the board) - the spacing and placement of the leads coming out of these cubes was anything but consistent - absolutely nothing like the DIP's, SIP's and SM devices that have been around for many years now.
    Quote
    Packaged in LRUs for flight line replacement with few or no harmonisation adjustment required.  (really??? - Overscan)
    This is by and large a true assertion, believe it or not.  The big pain in the keister would be if you had to change the frequency of the radar, which I'd basically written up a few years ago, in one of the early replies to this thread - if one replaced "4A3A7" with "4A3A4".  For the most part, the adjustments for the aircraft's channel was easily available without removing components/covers, except in the cases of the LRU 2A8 (Receiver), main KPA and CW Illum KPA.
    Quote
    Most units in the nose behind the radome, in a structure with slides forward for easy access.
    Except for the Coolanol-25 pump - that thing was a PITA to get out.  It was located under the lower package extension rail, which you'd have to disconnect and slide forwards under the package.  Then you'd have to drop the 5 and 6 equipment pallets, and actually climb into the nose of the aircraft.  This was not fun at all for a guy who's 6'3" tall.
    Quote
    Indicator (scope) and optical sight (gunsight) in pilots cockpit. All controlling units in the radar operators cockpit. Three computers located aft of the operator's cockpit, above fuel cells.
    The gunsight was mounted in the LRU-9 (Pilot's scope), on the front of it using four Allen-head screws.  Backlighted indicators displayed ranges and modes.  The gunsight itself was a heads-up glass plate, mounted in a frame that could be folded flat against the top of the scope, or stood up for use.  It's angle was adjusted using a graduated dial on the right side, that was marked in degrees.  The gunsight pattern was white light, projected downwards by a bulb mounted on top of the gunsight, reflected off a mirror in the bottom of the sight and up onto the glass plate, then reflected back to the pilot.  Intensity of the gunsight pattern was adjustable using a knob on the front of the gunsight.  There was a shutter made of rubberized canvas that could be slid across the projector opening, in case too much sunlight was entering the scope making it difficult to see.
    Weren't the computers mentioned before?  I think the guy is hung up on the computers. ;)
    Quote
    Antenna AS1906 contains waveguide feed to a hybrid T which splits the transmitter energy equally between the two halves of a dual waveguide horn. The horn provides an elevation monopulse radiation pattern which is sharply focussed by a 32" paraboloid reflector. For reception, input to two channels are taken from the sum and difference arms of the hybrid T. The difference arm of the T is connected to a waveguide switch to permit selection of the difference signal or the input from an auxilliary waveguide horn located at the rim of the reflector.
    The aux waveguide horn is for the CW illuminator KPA - PERIOD!
    The main feedhorn was indeed fed from the hybrid T.
    Quote
    The selected signal is appiled to the receiever auxilliary channel. Signals from the sum arm of the T are duplexed part of the transmitter waveguide to the main channel receiver. Low power waveguide (not carrying transmitter energy) is half height to save space and weight.
    There was a good bit of plumbing using semirigid coax and SMA connectors for the low-power stuff.  The only waveguide switch that I can remember was on the lower starboard side of the antenna, LRU 1, to switch the transmitter between antenna or dummy load.
    Quote
    Transmitter and microwave components are located on the right side of the radar assembly mounted in the nose of the aircraft. Power supply and transmitter pulse amplifier are housed in a pressure vessel (the hat), which has an air to liquid heat exchanger in its walls. Liquid coolant is pumped through the walls to cool the air, which is then used to cool the several units.
    yep - the HVPS's would get pretty doggone warm.  The 400hz 3-phase fans would really scream with the top of the hat off.
    Quote
    Transmitter Pulse Amplifier is commonly called the Pulser and is one of the units located in the pressure vessel. This  LRU applies high voltage to the pulse transmitter power klystron during transmit interval and removes high voltages during receive intervals as determined by pulses produced in a timer antenna unit.
    We never called it the Pulser.  More like "wannabe bitchin' ashtray ;)"
    Quote
    Radio Frequency Oscillator is an LRU mounted beneath the after part of the transmitter pressure vessel. It provides the system with very stable pulse transmitter and first mixer (local oscillator) frequencies. Since it also generates a CW transmitter frequency in another unit, this unit is the source of all microwave frequency used in the system except the parametric amplifier pump signal.
    We didn't have to mess with the RFO much - it was the most reliable part of the 1472-mod radar.  I think I replaced a grand total of ONE of these in four years.  I did have to replace an LRU-3 fuse a couple of times.
    « Last Edit: September 27, 2009, 04:40:03 pm by SgtWookie »

    Offline PaulMM (Overscan)

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    Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
    « Reply #22 on: April 26, 2007, 10:57:25 am »
    Tided up your replies to make them clearer. Will post more tonight :)
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    Offline PaulMM (Overscan)

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    Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
    « Reply #23 on: April 26, 2007, 12:02:53 pm »
    Receiver Components are mounted on a pallet at the left forward portion of the nose package. Permits unit to be lowered for access when the system is on the intermediate level bench and when the nose package is extended.

    A portion of system interconection cables is located within the pallet so LRUS can be easily removed by disconnecting from the cabling.

    Intermediate Frequency Amplifier assembly contains nine subassemblies which perform i.f. amplifier functions in both pulse and pulse doppler receivers, in addition to the pulse expansion & compression for chirp operation.

    Doppler Spectrum Analyser is the centre unit on the receiver pallet. It contains circuits to separate the signals on the dppler receiver on the basis of frequency, wich relates directly to target velocity relative to the interceptor. Of the 14 assemblies, 10 make up the bank of filters and the associated amplifiers. The remaining units scan the filters and process the resultant video.

    Target Data Tracker is the top unit on the receiver pallet. This contains assemblies performing functions in the doppler receiver tracking loops and the several associated local oscillators.

    Synchroniser subassemblies are mounted on the centre pallet and consist of a chassis with interconnection cabling between connectors to permit easy access. The synchroniser consists of a range terrain clearance tracker and a timer antenna servo. This LRU operates in the pulse and monopulse modes to provide range computations to target, and performs certain video and a.g.c processing in thesemodes.The timer electrical signals for antenna positioning and generates the missile auxiliary pseudo and simulated doppler signals.

    Control Components comprise the scan pattern generator, the top unit on the control pallet, which generates signals to control antenna scanning in any mode or conditions except target tracking and manual control.

    Klystron Power Amplifier receives 35mW of RF power from the radar frequency oscillator over a frequency range from 9.6 to 9.9 gigacycles and develops an output of 2 kW. The KPA is gated on and off by the pulser.

    The pulse compression ("Chirp") unit generates a wide pulse containing a linear FM carrier signal. It also supplies a narrow pulse to establish a time zero and compensate for the inherent compression delay of the system. This compression unit also compresses the wide received pulses into narrow pulses in order to increase the range resolution of the radar system. The total effect is that the detection rang is dependent on the high average power of the transmitted envelope, but the target resolution is dependent on the width of the compressed pulse.

    Low noise amplification of the received microwave signals is provided in both the main and auxiliary channels. This is accomplished by the use of a microwave frequency parametric amplifier, pump klystron, and the necessary associated microwave components. The main characteristics are:

    Gain 15-19 dB
    Bandwidth 300 megacycles minimum
    Noise figure 4.3dB max
    "They can't see our arses for dust."
     
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    Offline PaulMM (Overscan)

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    Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
    « Reply #24 on: April 26, 2007, 12:31:34 pm »
    The Doppler system consists of IF stages, mixers, filters, and data processing circuits in various configurations to provide useful velocity, range and angle track information. In addition, the PD receiver contributes the necessary inputs to other systems to aid in navigational fire control. The PD system is capable of operating in either a manual control submode or in one of three automatic submodes.

    The BIT programme controls all built in test functions of the radar. It may be operated manually or automatically. A read out window provides written instructions to the operator as required to complete a particular test and indicates the LRU to which a fault has been isolated. All faults are visually indicated by degraded & no-go lights. The BIT fitted with a suitably programmed tape actuates 28v d.c. commands to the radar set BIT relays and measures voltage outputs where required. It als provides visual read-outs to the radar operator in order to verify that the radar system is operational or, if ot, to isolate faults.

    Electrical Equipment Rack is the central structure of the nose package of the radar. Included are the pallet structures on which units are mounted, the liquid to air heat exchanger in the walls of the transmitterhousing and the interconnectng cable harness. Cooling air and liquid coolant are conveyed through the rack to the points of use. The rack and the components mounted on it may be extended from the nose of the aircraft on to a piece of ground equipment for easier access.

    Command indicator unit is located in the forward cockpit beneath the windscreen. An optical sight is provided as part of the indicator to project a reticle at infinity so that the aircraft can be aimed at a target (e.g, ground attack). The indicator included a storage tube with associated circuits mounted either side of the  tube.

    The radar Indicator is located in the after cockpi for use by the radar operator. This uit lacks the optical sight but has the same assemblies as the command indicator but arranged in a different mechanical manner.

    The indicator control is located on the left side of the aft cockpit. Functionally this unit generates the various symbols displayed on the indicators and time shares them to produce the composite video signals tothe deflection amplifiers in the indicators.

    The radar set control unit is located in the aft cockpit. The radar operator used the radar set control to select the modes, scans, and conditions of operation of the system. Also the receiver gain controls are located in this unit.

    The antenna control unit is located in the aft cockpit in a position convenient to the radar operator. The primary function in this unit is the radar control stick, mounted in a ball and socket support, and coupled so that lateral and fore and aft movemens of the stick change the settings of the two variable resistors. These positions represent settings of azimuth and range or veocity when the system is under manual control. The action switch is a spring loaded three position push switch. When pressed to the first indent, called half action (HA), the antenna and tracking loops are placed under operator control. The second indent (Full Action, FA) position commands the system to attempt lockon to a target selected by the radar operator. There is a further thumb-wheel control which sets in the manual elevation commands.
    "They can't see our arses for dust."
     
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    Offline SgtWookie

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    Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
    « Reply #25 on: April 26, 2007, 01:07:20 pm »
    Receiver Components are mounted on a pallet at the left forward portion of the nose package.
    Well, this is not entirely correct.  The receiver, as I knew it, was LRU 2A8, which was mounted underneath "the hat" on the starboard side, and below the KPA's.  In order to remove the receiver, you'd have to disconnect a couple of waveguides on the starboard side forward and aft, several coax cables on the bottom, and four Philips-head screws that were threaded into the bottom of the hat, and were a PITA to get to.
    Quote
    Permits unit to be lowered for access when the system is on the intermediate level bench and when the nose package is extended.
    OK, a good bit of the processing was performed in LRU's 4 and 5 (already mentioned above) - but we didn't call those the receiver.  

    Quote
    A portion of system interconection cables is located within the pallet so LRUs can be easily removed by disconnecting from the cabling.
    Yep.  The connectors were variously-sized twist-off mil-spec, but we seldom removed the 4A1, 4A3 or 5A1 as an entire unit.  The 4A2, 5A2 and 5A3 were generally removed as an entire LRU though.

    Quote
    Intermediate Frequency Amplifier assembly contains nine subassemblies which perform i.f. amplifier functions in both pulse and pulse doppler receivers, in addition to the pulse expansion & compression for chirp operation.
    Now he's talking about the different boards, like the 4A3A4 was a part of that.

    Quote
    Doppler Spectrum Analyzer is the center unit on the receiver pallet. It contains circuits to separate the signals on the doppler receiver on the basis of frequency, which relates directly to target velocity relative to the interceptor. Of the 14 assemblies, 10 make up the bank of filters and the associated amplifiers. The remaining units scan the filters and process the resultant video.
    Seems to me that there were 290 crystal filters in ovens inside of LRU-4A2, each tuned to a slightly different frequency.  Each filter represented a "slot" in the frequency spectrum that is displayed on the screen.  The higher the frequency above Fo, the higher it's painted on the screen.  That's why PD mode wasn't an intuitive display - people are used to seeing things in terms of distance and vector from straight-ahead - which is what short pulse, chirp and MAP modes displayed.

    Quote
    Target Data Tracker is the top unit on the receiver pallet. This contains assemblies performing functions in the doppler receiver tracking loops and the several associated local oscillators.
    Yeah, and if the Zener diodes in the 4A1A7 got fried, it would get "stuck" in 60ms PRF switching and wouldn't lock on.

    Quote
    Synchronizer subassemblies are mounted on the center pallet and consist of a chassis with interconnection cabling between connectors to permit easy access. The synchronizer consists of a range terrain clearance tracker and a timer antenna servo. This LRU operates in the pulse and monopulse modes to provide range computations to target, and performs certain video and a.g.c processing in these modes. The timer electrical signals for antenna positioning and generates the missile auxiliary pseudo and simulated doppler signals.
    5A1 through 5A3.

    Quote
    Control Components comprise the scan pattern generator, the top unit on the control pallet, which generates signals to control antenna scanning in any mode or conditions except target tracking and manual control.
    6A1.

    Quote
    Klystron Power Amplifier receives 35mW of RF power from the radar frequency oscillator over a frequency range from 9.6 to 9.9 gigacycles and develops an output of 2 kW. The KPA is gated on and off by the pulser.
    I guess I'll be typing 1,525 watts until my fingers fall off.  ;)

    Quote
    The pulse compression ("Chirp") unit generates a wide pulse containing a linear FM carrier signal. It also supplies a narrow pulse to establish a time zero and compensate for the inherent compression delay of the system. This compression unit also compresses the wide received pulses into narrow pulses in order to increase the range resolution of the radar system. The total effect is that the detection range is dependent on the high average power of the transmitted envelope, but the target resolution is dependent on the width of the compressed pulse.
    Well, he got some of it right.  Both short pulse and chirp were triggered by a 0.65 uSec pulse; however in Chirp mode, the 0.65 uSec pulse was run through the delay line (basically just a coil that was grounded at one end) resulting in the transmitter firing for about 65 uSec.  The received pulse was run back through that same exact delay line for pulse compression.  It wasn't perfect; the compressed pulse was 0.8 uSec wide - but it was a heck of a lot stronger than the return from short pulse would've been.  Best resolution was somewhere around 150-200 feet - but when you're lobbing a missile at someone, that's close enough ;)

    Quote
    Low noise amplification of the received microwave signals is provided in both the main and auxiliary channels. This is accomplished by the use of a microwave frequency parametric amplifier, pump klystron, and the necessary associated microwave components.
    All in the 2A8.
    Quote
    The main characteristics are:

    Gain 15-19 dB
    Bandwidth 300 megacycles minimum
    Noise figure 4.3dB max
    I just had to change some Kings' English to American English.  Sorry old chaps - I wish you Brits would learn how to spell ;)

    Offline SgtWookie

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    Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
    « Reply #26 on: April 26, 2007, 01:13:14 pm »
    Oh, I suppose you want me to comment all THAT crap too, eh? ;)

    Well, mebbe later.  I have to actually get something useful done first ;)

    Offline PaulMM (Overscan)

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    Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
    « Reply #27 on: April 26, 2007, 10:32:45 pm »
    I'm going to skip ahead to the tech specs section next. Theres pages of this stuff :)
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    Offline SgtWookie

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    Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
    « Reply #28 on: April 27, 2007, 07:13:56 am »
    The Doppler system consists of IF stages, mixers, filters, and data processing circuits in various configurations to provide useful velocity, range and angle track information. In addition, the PD receiver contributes the necessary inputs to other systems to aid in navigational fire control. The PD system is capable of operating in either a manual control submode or in one of three automatic submodes.
    Is the coffee ready yet?

    Quote
    The BIT program controls all built in test functions of the radar.
    Well, Duh!
    Quote
    It may be operated manually or automatically.
    Yep.
    Quote
    A read out window provides written instructions to the operator as required to complete a particular test and indicates the LRU to which a fault has been isolated. All faults are visually indicated by degraded & no-go lights. The BIT fitted with a suitably programmed tape actuates 28v d.c. commands to the radar set BIT relays and measures voltage outputs where required. It als provides visual read-outs to the radar operator in order to verify that the radar system is operational or, if not, to isolate faults.
    The "programmed tape" was actually a long strip of black & white film like what was used in movie cameras.  I think it was 35mm film?  After a fair period of use, the film would get rather worn, and this would cause the areas which programmed the BIT relay tree to wear thin, and allow too much light to leak through the tape, tripping relays that shouldn't have been tripped for a particular test.  The IMA (Intermediate Maintenance Activity) radar techs would have to open up the box, pull out the film, and repair the scratches.  Sometimes they used black magic markers, and I even saw one tech using a product called "EM-NU", which was used for touching up metal chevrons' flat black finish.

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    Electrical Equipment Rack is the central structure of the nose package of the radar. Included are the pallet structures on which units are mounted, the liquid to air heat exchanger in the walls of the transmitter housing and the interconnectng cable harness. Cooling air and liquid coolant are conveyed through the rack to the points of use. The rack and the components mounted on it may be extended from the nose of the aircraft on to a piece of ground equipment for easier access.
    The Coolanol-25 was fed to the package via the umbilical catenary.  Cooling air was fed via a collapsible metal tube, perhaps 1 1/4" diameter, located near the bottom aft portion of the package.  Thinking about this reminded me of the "kidney" - it was a brown kidney-shaped fiberglass plenum assembly that was back against the firewall; it re-routed the cooling air that was coming forward from either the cooling air access panel in the nose wheelwell (port side) or the a/c system.

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    Command indicator unit is located in the forward cockpit beneath the windscreen. An optical sight is provided as part of the indicator to project a reticle at infinity so that the aircraft can be aimed at a target (e.g, ground attack). The indicator included a storage tube with associated circuits mounted either side of the  tube.
    We always called the optical sight a "gunsight" - in retrospect, this was a ridiculous name for it, as neither the F-4J nor the F-4S had guns!  Yes, a MK-IV gun pod could be fitted on the centerline tank mount, BUT - the Phantom's GE-J79 engines were thirsty beasties gulping up all the fuel that could be fed to them - in full A/B on internal stores it would run out of fuel in 18 minutes - and during ACM, the first thing the pilot would do is punch off (jettison) external stores, which would include the gun pod.  :-\  The idea of firing missiles at a standoff range of several miles was quite attractive, but when the ROE's dictated positive visual ID, that advantage went away - so the aircrews were stuck in dogfights with no guns; and basically inside the effective range of the Sparrow missiles.  Not a happy situation for our guys.

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    The Radar Indicator is located in the after cockpit for use by the radar operator. (RIO) This unit lacks the optical sight but has the same assemblies as the command indicator but arranged in a different mechanical manner.
    The Pilot's scope, LRU-9, was in a fixed mount, secured by two safety-wired bolts, one on either side.  The pilot needed to ensure that the safety wire was present, particularly on carrier launches; as if the bolts were missing, the pilot's scope would come crashing back into his face.  The RIO's scope (LRU-11) was in a retractable mount that had at least three positions that I remember; fully retracted (down and forward), 1/2 up (for short RIO's) and full up.  The mount had S-shaped channels for the scope guides, so as it was pulled up vertically, it inclined rearward.  It was necessary for the scope to retract forward in a vertical position, as otherwise during ejection the RIO's legs would be torn off.  The RIO's joystick (LRU-12) was mounted on the partition, above and to the right (starboard) of the scope, and it would also retract upon ejection, or manual selection.

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    The indicator control is located on the left side of the aft cockpit. Functionally this unit generates the various symbols displayed on the indicators and time shares them to produce the composite video signals to the deflection amplifiers in the indicators.
    This is LRU-10, the ICU, which I'd mentioned before.  A black box, perhaps two feet long, 10" tall by 10" deep.  The front (RIO's side) cover was removeable by twisting a large number of captured screws 90 to expose the control boards.  Nearly all of the onscreen symbols and their positions could be "tweaked".  As a matter of fact, we had one RIO who liked to custom-tweak his displays. ::)  The 2nd time he did that, we took his screwdriver away and threatened to break his fingers if he did it again. ;)  The LRU-10 was held in by four bolts; two very easily accessible right below the canopy rail, and two more underneath that were an absolute PITA to get out.  There were several of the typical MIL-spec connectors on the bottom of the unit, and one unusual connector that was made by Hughes - it had 23 RG-58 coaxial cable connections in it, and was capable of 25 coax connections.  If the coaxes needed repair, woe be you.  This was not a fun task.

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    The radar set control unit is located in the aft cockpit. The radar operator used the radar set control to select the modes, scans, and conditions of operation of the system. Also the receiver gain controls are located in this unit.
    LRU-13 or LRU-14?  I don't remember - we didn't replace many of them.  They were mounted on the partition, to the upper left of the scope (port side).  It was in a mount hinged at the top, with a release lever on the bottom - it would retract a whole 1 1/2" or so, to get out of the way during ejections.

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    The antenna control unit is located in the aft cockpit in a position convenient to the radar operator. The primary function in this unit is the radar control stick, mounted in a ball and socket support, and coupled so that lateral and fore and aft movemens of the stick change the settings of the two variable resistors. These positions represent settings of azimuth and range or veocity when the system is under manual control. The action switch is a spring loaded three position push switch. When pressed to the first indent, called half action (HA), the antenna and tracking loops are placed under operator control. The second indent (Full Action, FA) position commands the system to attempt lockon to a target selected by the radar operator. There is a further thumb-wheel control which sets in the manual elevation commands.
    In retrospect, the way the RIO's joystick was set up was kind of goofy.  Having the antennas' AZ slaved to the port/starboard slewing of the stick made perfect sense, but up/down being controlled by the thumbwheel must've been hell for the RIO's, particularly during ACM.  Seems to me it would've made a lot more sense for elevation to have been controlled by forward/aft movement of the joystick, with sensitivity being controlled by the thumbwheel, and just use the radar's electronics to sweep out the range gate (or velocity for PD) to acquire a target.  It would take quite a few cranks on that thumbwheel to get the antenna against the upper or lower stops.

    Offline SgtWookie

    • CLEARANCE: Restricted
    • Posts: 16
    Re: AWG-10 WCS and APG-59 Radar
    « Reply #29 on: April 27, 2007, 07:50:48 am »
    I'm going to skip ahead to the tech specs section next. Theres pages of this stuff :)
    Oh, joy.  ::) ;)
    Valiant Air Command near Titusville, FL has a Navy F-4J Phantom in it's inventory - it's about a half-hour's drive from me.  They pulled off the antenna and put it inside the museum.  Perhaps I'll have to take my radar tech's tool pouch over there some day and go exploring ;)