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Author Topic: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects  (Read 26768 times)

Offline Meteorit

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Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« on: April 09, 2006, 09:31:01 am »
A thread for the Tupolev Tu-2000 aerospaceplane and also other VKS contenders.

The Tu-2000A (first two pictures) was to be a 70-90 tonnes demonstrator of the actual SSTO spacecraft.

The third pic shows a model that was displayed at the 1992 Mosaeroshow. I'm still not certain whether it's meant to represent the Tu-2000A or Tu-2000.

The side view resembles lower quality drawings published within the Oryol/FESTIP program around 1994.

Although official funding for the project stopped in 1992, Tupolev OKB seems to be continuing work at slow pace, and a new model and video were exhibited at the Expo 2005 in Japan.

It is interesting to note that the latest version features air intakes for the turbojet engines above the fuselage, as opposed to the 'true' turboramjet installation shown in the side view.

Does anyone have any ideas what the things that look like cavities on the bottom of the curved rear fuselage on the second drawing are meant to represent?

Some relevant links:
http://www.astronautix.com/craft/tu2000.htm
http://www.testpilot.ru/russia/tupolev/2000/2000.htm (in Russian)
« Last Edit: January 01, 2007, 06:45:52 am by overscan »

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #1 on: April 09, 2006, 09:43:01 am »
And as a bonus, my own rendering of Tu-2000A...

Usually 3D models are made from top, bottom, front, plus preferably additional cross-sectional drawings. However, all I had was the second drawing above... fortunately the shape of the Tu-2000A is fairly simple.
Unfortunately I'm currently somewhat stuck due to the aforementioned 'cavities'. Thus far I haven't been able to decide what should I put there on my model.  :(

Edit: removed old and inaccurate 3D model image. I'm working on a better one (see my avatar pic) and will post pictures to the Models sub-forum when ready.
« Last Edit: December 24, 2009, 12:21:31 pm by Meteorit »

Offline Orionblamblam

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #2 on: April 09, 2006, 03:43:25 pm »
A two-view
Aerospace Projects Review


And so the endless circle of life comes to an end, meaningless and grim. Why did they live, and why did they die? No reason. Two hundred million years of evolution snuffed out, for in the end Nature is horrific and teaches us nothing

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #3 on: April 10, 2006, 02:05:53 am »
Something I'd really like to have would be a front view drawing of the Tu-2000. Making a 3D model without one would involve too much guesswork to get an accurate fuselage shape.

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #4 on: April 15, 2006, 12:25:13 pm »
Tupolev/TzIAM Tu-2000 VKS booklet
« Last Edit: April 15, 2006, 12:34:50 pm by flateric »
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Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #5 on: April 15, 2006, 01:31:06 pm »
Snapshots and link to original promo video from Tupolev's OKB exposition at EXPO 2005
http://www.expo2005.ru/files/video/1TU2000.mp4
« Last Edit: April 15, 2006, 01:39:14 pm by flateric »
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Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #6 on: May 08, 2006, 09:12:31 am »
A new Tu-2000A drawing, from http://paralay.narod.ru/rusgiper.html.

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #7 on: September 16, 2006, 06:01:35 pm »
Model of the latest iteration.
« Last Edit: September 17, 2006, 08:57:55 am by flateric »
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Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #8 on: September 17, 2006, 10:45:34 am »
Hmm...to my eyes this looks very much the same as the model from 1992 Mosaeroshow above.

Offline SOC

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #9 on: September 17, 2006, 07:15:44 pm »
Was this related to the AJAKS/AYAKS program?

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #10 on: September 17, 2006, 10:01:53 pm »
No.
"There are many disbelievers in
stealth, more than a few of them truly technically ignorant and proud of it." Sherm Mullin, Skunk Works

Offline Archibald

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #11 on: September 19, 2006, 03:34:10 am »
Was this related to the AJAKS/AYAKS program?

Good article about ajax in air&cosmos, January 2001 (have to find the exact numero of the magazine, and a scan)
Conservatoire de l'Air et de l'Espace d'Aquitaine - Bordeaux - Mérignac / Dassault aviation museum
http://www.caea.info/en/plan.php

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #12 on: January 01, 2007, 06:35:42 am »
As this thread is for all VKS contenders, there's some info and pics of NPO Energiya proposal at http://www.buran.ru/htm/raks.htm.

Company designation: GK-1??
Wingspan: 23 (32?) m
Length: 67 m
Height: 18 m
Fuselage Width: 8.2 m
Wing Area: 480 m2
Engines: Six variable cycle turboramjets and liquid-propellant rocket engines
Flight deck volume: 24 m3
Cargo hold volume: 620 m3
Propellants:
Liquid hydrogen: 1,200 m3
Liquid Oxygen: 160 m3
Kerosene (RG-1): 80 m3

Now we're only missing the Yakovlev entry...

Offline PaulMM (Overscan)

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #13 on: January 01, 2007, 06:46:41 am »
Bit of a HOTOLski thing going on there :)
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Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #14 on: November 11, 2007, 01:49:25 pm »
Original Tupolev's drawings of Tu-2000A demonstrator.
« Last Edit: September 13, 2013, 01:28:22 pm by flateric »
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Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #15 on: November 12, 2007, 01:17:52 pm »
Thanks a bunch flateric. The drawing clearly shows a version of the Tu-2000A demonstrator. If only I had had this three-view two years ago... (see my post #2).

There seem to be some differences from the images in my first post, for example the wings look more trapezoidal. Also, it looks like the 'cavities' I was wondering about are turbojet exhausts - do others agree with this interpretation of the three-view?

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #16 on: November 12, 2007, 02:01:48 pm »
Interesting that NASP contractors team has prove to DoD and NASA that DuPont idea of 60-70 tonnes aerospace plane is implausible - note this demonstrator weight...moving the same way, one step back...
"There are many disbelievers in
stealth, more than a few of them truly technically ignorant and proud of it." Sherm Mullin, Skunk Works

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #17 on: October 13, 2008, 02:55:22 pm »
Various full-scale test articles, built by ANTK Tupolev during Tu-2000 program golden age.
Note LACE test equipment.
"There are many disbelievers in
stealth, more than a few of them truly technically ignorant and proud of it." Sherm Mullin, Skunk Works

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #18 on: October 13, 2008, 02:57:21 pm »
ANTK Tupolev LH2 ground refueling/test complex built in Gromov's LII for Tu-155 was, in future, intended for Tu-2000 program as well.
« Last Edit: October 13, 2008, 03:05:52 pm by flateric »
"There are many disbelievers in
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Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #19 on: October 13, 2008, 03:11:27 pm »
Tu-2000 under 'Oryol-2-1' brand as of 1998
"There are many disbelievers in
stealth, more than a few of them truly technically ignorant and proud of it." Sherm Mullin, Skunk Works

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #20 on: October 14, 2008, 04:14:02 am »
Thank you so much (once again) flateric! Funny how just a few days ago I resumed work on my Tu-2000A 3D model that I started almost a year ago based on the three-view you posted.

Almost all sources on the Tu-2000 program state that "a nickel-alloy wing torque box, some fuselage elements, liquid hydrogen tanks and fuel pipes made of unique composite material" were built before 1992, of which I was somewhat sceptical. But now we have pictorial proof. Can you give us the source? Also, if possible, for the three-view, now that we're at it?

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #21 on: October 14, 2008, 04:18:55 am »
Source

Russian aerospace plane TU-2000
Pukhov, Aleksandr L., Aviation Scientific and Technical Establishment, Moscow, Russia
AIAA-1993-5055
AIAA and DGLR, International Aerospace Planes and Hypersonics Technologies Conference, 5th, Munich, Germany, Nov 30-Dec 3, 1993

No 3-view in this short 3-page article...I think you should take Oryol/FESTIP drawings posted earlier, as a basis for 3D model...
"There are many disbelievers in
stealth, more than a few of them truly technically ignorant and proud of it." Sherm Mullin, Skunk Works

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #22 on: October 14, 2008, 04:25:17 am »
Sorry, I meant the Tu-2000A three-view in reply #14 (http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,220.msg23538.html#msg23538).

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #23 on: October 14, 2008, 04:34:28 am »
To my sorrow, I have nothing more than that (thanks God for having these at least!)
BTW, new Tu-2000 model pics from Alex Panchenko's site
« Last Edit: October 14, 2008, 04:46:17 am by flateric »
"There are many disbelievers in
stealth, more than a few of them truly technically ignorant and proud of it." Sherm Mullin, Skunk Works

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #24 on: October 14, 2008, 05:10:14 am »
Okay, thanks anyway. It seems the drawing comes from a book, though.
And, don't get me wrong, but those pics are some years old already. Still worth posting. :)

Offline Trident

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #25 on: October 15, 2008, 02:56:37 pm »
Amazing stuff flateric, thanks!

Offline Triton

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #26 on: August 19, 2009, 12:57:16 pm »
Museum-quality model of the Tupolev Tu-2000 at the USSR-Russian Aviation and Space Collectibles web site. Images of the model have been previously posted by flateric over multiple posts.

Quote
Little over 14 inches lenght (35 cm), exact scale 1/200 custom made for museums display model of Tupolev`s TU-2000 transport spaceplane. Availability and price check by e-mail or call. Details on TU-2000: In reaction to US X-30 project, government decrees of 27 January and 19 July 1986 ordered development of a Soviet equivalent. The Ministry of Defence issued technical specifications on 1 September for an MVKS, a single-stage reusable aerospaceplane system. The MKVS was to provide effective and economic delivery to near-earth orbit; develop the technology for effective transatmospheric flight; provide super high-speed intercontinental transport, and fulfil military objectives in and from space. It is known that the Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Energia design bureaux submitted designs. Tupolev seems to have received the development go-ahead. The Tu-2000A was to be an experimental design to test the many advanced technologies required. It would have been 55 to 60 m long, have a 14 m wingspan, and a takeoff mass of 70 to 90 tonnes. It would have only been capable of Mach 6. Before work was stopped in 1992, some development work was completed: a wing torque box of nickel alloy had been built, as well as fuselage elements, cryogenic fuel tanks, and composite fuel lines. The Tu-2000A would have used a variable cycle turboramjet engine using methane or hydrogen fuel. The Tu-2000A was to have been followed by two production designs, as Tupolev felt no single design could meet all of the military requirements. The Tu-2000B would have been a 10,000 km range bomber with a crew of two. 350 tonnes at takeoff, 200 tonnes empty, it would have been 100 m long, with a wing of 40.7 m span and 1250 square metres area. Six liquid hydrogen powered engines would take the bomber to Mach 6 cruise speed at 30,000 m altitude. The Tu-2000 space launcher would have weighted 260 tonnes at lift-off and be capable of Mach 25 (orbital velocity). An 8 to 10 tonne payload would have been delivered to a 200 km orbit. As with the X-30, airbreathing flight to orbit seemed questionable. The 8 turboramjets would have to be supplemented by a scramjet or a rocket engine in order to achieve orbit. Liftoff Thrust: 90,000 kgf. Liftoff Thrust: 900.00 kN. Total Mass: 90,000 kg. Core Diameter: 13.00 m. Total Length: 72.00 m.
http://www.ussr-airspace.com/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=24_53&products_id=2248
« Last Edit: August 19, 2009, 03:26:30 pm by Triton »

Offline borovik

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #27 on: December 24, 2009, 09:47:18 am »
 In the latest issue of "Aviation and Cosmonautics" by a group of authors: V. Solozobov, A.Slobodchikov, M. Kazakov and V. Rigmant initiated a historical review of work Tupolev's Design Bureau in the development of hypersonic aircraft. Some projects in the open press published the first time.
This article describes the following projects:
1) An experimental unmanned gliding aerospaceplane "130" (TU-130) on DP programm.
             additional info: http://www.testpilot.ru/russia/tupolev/130/130.htm
2) Project of a manned rocket plane "136" (TU-136) on "Star" programm.
             additional info: http://www.sergib.agava.ru/russia/tupolev/136/136.htm
3) Project of a hypersonic aircraft - "139" / 1(equivalent of American experimental aircraft X15),
    the start was made with the Tu-95K.
    - "139" / 2 (project heavy strategic supersonic aircraft carrier / one of the derivative bomber  Tu-135K /)
   Later in 1964 under the designation Tu-139, DBR-2, "Yastreb-2" were the work of recon UAV that is " 139 / 3.
4) The end of the sixties started work on one-step aerospace plane =Воздушно-космическим   самолетам (ВКС) / (VKS) with a horizontal launch and landing and a nuclear rocket engine.
5) Project Single-space plane ОДНОСТУПЕНЧАТОГО ОРБИТАЛЬНОГО САМОЛЕТА (ООС)(SSTO) in the program for aerospace systems= авиационно-космическим системам (AKS), start with the super-heavy aircraft carrier.


Offline borovik

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #28 on: December 24, 2009, 09:50:15 am »
post-2

Offline XP67_Moonbat

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #29 on: December 24, 2009, 12:14:06 pm »
Wow! The AKS reminds me of the proposed XB-70/Dyna-Soar combo.

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Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #30 on: December 24, 2009, 12:28:54 pm »
Thanks for posting those, borovik. Now if one could get hold of this issue... Also you said "initiated a historical review", does this mean there will be a second part?

Another image of the OOS was posted by flateric here: http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,28.msg1125.html#msg1125. Perhaps it could be moved to this thread?

And Triton, the description you posted has been directly lifted from http://www.astronautix.com/craft/tu2000.htm.

Offline Triton

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #31 on: August 01, 2010, 02:38:03 pm »

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #32 on: August 01, 2010, 03:11:11 pm »
That's not Tu-2000, its a TsAGI Mach 5 passenger aircraft model presented at the 1989 Paris Air Show. There should be a color image of the model along with additional information somewhere on this forum, but guess if I can find it now  :(

http://www.secretprojects.co.uk/forum/index.php/topic,181.msg2192.html#msg2192

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #33 on: August 02, 2010, 03:27:15 am »

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #34 on: December 23, 2010, 06:15:09 am »
Here's an image of the real Tupolev hypersonic passenger airplane study. From "Aviation and Cosmonautics" 1/2010. Unfortunately there doesn't seem to be more information available.

Offline Meteorit

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #35 on: December 23, 2010, 06:33:54 am »
Most accounts of the Soviet 1980s VKS program state that

Quote
It is known that the Tupolev, Yakovlev, and Energia design bureaus submitted designs. No details of the Yakovlev design have become available to date.

It seems that this information has been copied everywhere from Encyclopedia Astronautica (http://www.astronautix.com/craft/yakvmvks.htm), which in turn gives the Piotr Butowski article "Black Reds" in Air Forces Monthly X-Planes Special, February 1998, p. 35 as the original source. What I find interesting that no Russian sources seem to mention a Yakovlev proposal, either independently or when discussing the Tu-2000 or the NPO Energia VKS. Actually I don't remember seeing mentions of any Yakovlev hypersonic work in general. Does anyone have any comments on this?

It's also interesting to note that much of the information on late Soviet "secret projects" such as the Mikoyan 301, 701 and Tu-360 seems to originate from that same Piotr Butowski article.

Offline OM

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #36 on: December 23, 2010, 05:03:31 pm »
Here's an image of the real Tupolev hypersonic passenger airplane study. From "Aviation and Cosmonautics" 1/2010. Unfortunately there doesn't seem to be more information available.


...The Orion III rises once again, it seems.

Offline Matej

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #37 on: October 15, 2011, 12:33:50 pm »
Various full-scale test articles, built by ANTK Tupolev during Tu-2000 program golden age.
Note LACE test equipment.

One more photo. Aviation and Astronautics 2009-12 / V. Solozobov, A. Slobodchikov, Kazakov, V. Rigmant - Tupolev hypersonic

Bizarre aviation expert.

Offline Forscher

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #38 on: October 15, 2011, 06:12:58 pm »
Tu-2000A

Crew: 2
Length (m): 55-60
Wing span (m): 14
Wing area (m sq): 160
Swept wing leading edge: 70 deg       
Empty weight (kg)   40,000
Take-off weight (kg):
 normal    70,000
 maximum    90,000
Landing weight (kg): 192,000   
Thrust (kg/f): 90,000       
Fuel tank (kg): 35000-50000       
 liquid hydrogen: 30,000       
 liquid oxygen:      5,000
Engines: 4
Maximum flight speed est (Mach): 6.5
Flight altitude m:   30


Tu-2000B

Crew: 2
Length (m): 100
Wing span (m):40.7
Wing area (m sq): 1250
Swept wing leading edge: 70 deg       
Empty weight (kg)   200,000
Take-off weight (kg):
 normal    280,000
 maximum    350,000
Weight PH into orbit (orbital altitude of 200 km): 6000-10000       
Engines: 6
Maximum flight speed est (Mach): 6
Flight altitude mi:   30
Range (mi): 9,000-10,000

(Source: http://www.sergib.agava.ru/russia/tupolev/2000/2000_1.htm)

The VKS accepted the requirement for an tail-less aerodynamic configuration consisting of four turbojet engines including the main booster being located under the rear fuselage. Another prototype consisted of a liquid-propellant engine for manoeuvring in space and placed between the turbojet engines. The design resulted in a delta wing with a relatively small area and low aspect ratio overall. The bulk of the lift was to be created by the fuselage by compression lift. As such, this aerodynamic configuration would have made it efficient for high-speed hypersonic travel but would have complicated low-speed operations and landing. Controls of the Tu-2000A/B was to be made by small elevons on the wing and a simple rudder on the tail fin. The base engine was to house an adjustable oblique-cut combustion chamber and with multiple-fuel supply systems.

The fuselage-bow of the Tu-2000 was house the cockpit with a seating for two and with the remainder housing fuel tanks containing liquid hydrogen. The nose-piece contained a detachable cab/lid  which was to house a detachable parachute for escape from the cockpit.  The cockpit itself was to contain a separate electronic-equipment compartment to which the nose landing gear also retracted. For the supply of the liquid propellant oxidizer, there was to be an oxygen tank rear fuselage and this single tank system was to be used by all engines. It was thought that such an aircraft would be able to deliver a payload of 6-10 tonnes into orbits of 200-400 km.

Forscher


(images removed as they just duplicate previously posted in this thread; Tu-2000 was never intended to be 'hypersonic long-range heavy bomber')
« Last Edit: October 16, 2011, 07:37:54 am by flateric »

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #39 on: October 27, 2011, 04:05:23 pm »
an official Tupolev's artist impression of Tu-2000 back from early 90s
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stealth, more than a few of them truly technically ignorant and proud of it." Sherm Mullin, Skunk Works

Offline Matej

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Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #41 on: November 26, 2011, 02:18:36 pm »
Looks close to Tupolev '130' '136' and '137' 'Star' (Dyna Soarski) test article, but you know - all these T test benches looks damn the same
« Last Edit: November 26, 2011, 02:20:40 pm by flateric »
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Offline Matej

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #42 on: November 27, 2011, 02:00:45 am »
You are right. Also description "reusable aerospace vehicle" is not much help.

Bizarre aviation expert.

Offline hesham

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #43 on: December 06, 2012, 04:14:02 am »
Hi,


Here is the Tupolev Tu-2000 VKS projects,but what is that strange version
in picture 3,4 & 5 ?.


http://alternathistory.org.ua/tupolev-giperzvukovye-programma-sozdaniya-odnostupenchatogo-bkc-tu-2000

Offline archipeppe

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #44 on: December 06, 2012, 05:43:53 am »
Hi,


Here is the Tupolev Tu-2000 VKS projects,but what is that strange version
in picture 3,4 & 5 ?.


http://alternathistory.org.ua/tupolev-giperzvukovye-programma-sozdaniya-odnostupenchatogo-bkc-tu-2000


I don't know what version is it, but for sure is equipped with three different engines:


1) Liquid rocket engines
2) Air breathing jet engines (which retractable air intakes sporting from top of the spacecraft)
3) One single retractable scramjet engine (which sporting from the bottom of the spacecraft)


Instead to have the long time dreamed by the Americans three-cycle engine, Russians decided to divide the problem in three different "segments".

Offline athpilot

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #45 on: November 15, 2014, 07:46:39 am »
Here is another pic of the TU-674.

Offline flateric

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #46 on: November 15, 2014, 09:29:21 am »
Where did you get this "Tu-674" index from?
"There are many disbelievers in
stealth, more than a few of them truly technically ignorant and proud of it." Sherm Mullin, Skunk Works

Offline Skyblazer

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #47 on: November 15, 2014, 10:33:07 am »
Where did you get this "Tu-674" index from?

It's written on the side of the nose in the image, while the rear says "Apogei" (Apogee). It's a strange out-of-sequence designation indeed.

Offline XP67_Moonbat

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #48 on: March 06, 2015, 08:21:14 pm »
Article on the Tu-136 "Zvezda" and various Soviet/Russian spaceplanes:

http://scramcannon.blogspot.com/2014/10/sovietrussian-spaceplane-concepts.html

In God we trust, all others we monitor. :-p

Offline blackkite

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #49 on: July 13, 2017, 07:52:57 am »
Hi!
http://www.airbase.ru/sb/russia/tupolev/2000/

Model TU-2000
The answer to the developing United States transatmosfernogo X-30 (NASP) have resolutions of the Government of the USSR dated 27 January and July 19, 1986 on the establishment of equivalent. on September 1, the Ministry of Defence issued a technical specification for odnostupencheskij reusable aerospace plane (IMCC). IMCC was to provide efficient and economical delivery of near-Earth orbit; to ensure high-speed transatmosfernuju intercontinental transport and the decision of the military tasks both in the atmosphere and in outer space. OKB Tupolev, presented Yakovlev and the NGO "energy" projects received the endorsement of the TU-2000.

Tu-2000a was supposed to become a pilot, to test new technologies. When a take-off weight 70-90 t he had developing b speed up to m = 6 at an altitude of 30 km. Before work was stopped in 1992, were manufactured: caisson wings of nickel alloy fuselage elements, the cryogenic fuel tanks and composite fuel lines. Tu-2000 was to use turboprjamotochnye variable cycle engines that use methane or liquid hydrogen.

The second phase was supposed to create variations of space bomber TU-2000b and IMCC or Hypersonic passenger aircraft. Tu-2000b was designed as a single bomber 10.000 km range and takeoff weight 350 tons. Six engines powered by liquid hydrogen were to ensure speed of m = 6 at an altitude of 30 km.

Tu-2000 Variant IMCC would have a starting weight of 260 tons, altitude over 60 km and speed of up to 15 m = m = 25 (orbital velocity). 8-10 tons of payload can be displayed on a 200 km orbit. 8 turboprjamotochnyh engines supplemented by Hypersonic Jet air-jet engine (SCRAMJET) and ROCKET ENGINES. For the implementation of the project requires the creation of wide RAMJET and the technology of production and storage aboard LA pereohlazhdennogo (shugoobraznogo) of hydrogen.
Design
The plane made a "tailless aircraft" with Delta-winged. Engines installed in no gondola (HRE) and the rear fuselage (TURBOJET and ROCKET ENGINES).
The layout of the TU-2000 was shown at the exhibition "Mosaeroshow ' 92-' Sukhoi on the stand. A. N. Tupolev. To date, all the activities on the project almost frozen due to lack of government funding. 
« Last Edit: July 13, 2017, 07:59:28 am by blackkite »

Offline blackkite

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« Last Edit: July 13, 2017, 08:06:57 am by blackkite »

Offline blackkite

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #51 on: July 13, 2017, 08:08:58 am »
What is this?
Top is Tu-2000A-2?
Bottom is Tu-2000b?
« Last Edit: July 13, 2017, 08:16:30 am by blackkite »

Offline blackkite

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Re: Tupolev Tu-2000 & other VKS projects
« Reply #52 on: Yesterday at 04:51:53 am »
Hi!
http://alternathistory.com/tupolev-giperzvukovye-vozdushno-kosmicheskie-samolety?mini=calendar%2F2017-05
"In 1968-1971, A.n. Tupolev DESIGN BUREAU in the study had several technical proposals for VCS(space aitcraft) with horizontal launch and landing. Take-off weight of the aircraft, according to proposed projects reached 300 and tons more. As the powerplant, it was suggested that the ROCKET fuel elements using YARD, as a working body-the hydrogen. Considered variants of multi-stage withdrawal of payloads with VCS, in orbit around the Earth on interplanetary orbits using ionic and plasma mid-flight engines.

At that time the focus of OKB concentrated on PCA-1 and multi-modal thee elyh combat aircraft, and because the deployment of large-scale and costly research works on single-stage VCS was neither the means nor the necessary free scientific and technical human resources. In addition to the first successes in the American space shuttle program, "the military showed no particular interest in projects of domestic VCS, betting in defence space programmes on traditional rocket-space systems, so all these original OKB proposals did not come from the embryonic State.

To illustrate the works of that period, we can cite materials on the project VCS with a nuclear rocket engine (YARD).

Started by VKS with YARD began in OKB, together with a number of enterprises and organizations of industry in 1966 as the main powerplant was gazofaznyj nuclear rocket engine, which was supposed to have the following main features affecting the layout of the VCS:

-working body with low specific gravity-liquid hydrogen;
 -high specific impulse;
 -large thrust (up to 600 CU);
 -tight restrictions on lateral strain;
 -inadmissibility of deep throttling YARD;
 -radioactivity of missile Jet;
 -presence on board high power nuclear reactor, which simultaneously with useful work on heat propellant was the strongest source of radiation."
« Last Edit: Yesterday at 05:10:28 am by blackkite »